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Xorg(1)			    General Commands Manual		       Xorg(1)



NAME
       Xorg - X11R7 X server

SYNOPSIS
       Xorg [:display] [option ...]

DESCRIPTION
       Xorg  is a full featured X server that was originally designed for UNIX
       and UNIX-like operating systems running on Intel x86 hardware.  It  now
       runs on a wider range of hardware and OS platforms.

       This  work  was	derived	 by  the  X.Org	 Foundation  from  the XFree86
       Project's XFree86 4.4rc2 release.  The XFree86 release  was  originally
       derived from X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell which was contributed to X11R5 by
       Snitily Graphics Consulting Service.

PLATFORMS
       Xorg operates under a wide range	 of  operating	systems	 and  hardware
       platforms.   The	 Intel x86 (IA32) architecture is the most widely sup-
       ported hardware platform.   Other  hardware  platforms  include	Compaq
       Alpha, Intel IA64, AMD64, SPARC and PowerPC.  The most widely supported
       operating systems are the free/OpenSource  UNIX-like  systems  such  as
       Linux,  FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Solaris.  Commercial UNIX operat-
       ing systems such as UnixWare are also supported.	 Other supported oper-
       ating  systems  include	GNU  Hurd.   Mac  OS  X	 is supported with the
       Xquartz(1) X server.  Win32/Cygwin is  supported	 with  the  XWin(1)  X
       server.

NETWORK CONNECTIONS
       Xorg  supports  connections  made  using	 the  following reliable byte-
       streams:

       Local
	   On most platforms, the "Local" connection  type  is	a  UNIX-domain
	   socket.   On	 some System V platforms, the "local" connection types
	   also include STREAMS pipes, named pipes, and some other mechanisms.

       TCPIP
	   Xorg listens on port 6000+n, where n is the display	number.	  This
	   connection  type can be disabled with the -nolisten option (see the
	   Xserver(1) man page for details).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       For operating systems that support local connections  other  than  Unix
       Domain  sockets (SVR3 and SVR4), there is a compiled-in list specifying
       the order in which local connections should be  attempted.   This  list
       can  be	overridden by the XLOCAL environment variable described below.
       If the display name indicates a best-choice connection should  be  made
       (e.g.   :0.0),  each  connection	 mechanism is tried until a connection
       succeeds or no more mechanisms are available.  Note: for these OSs, the
       Unix  Domain  socket  connection	 is treated differently from the other
       local connection types.	To use it  the	connection  must  be  made  to
       unix:0.0.

       The  XLOCAL environment variable should contain a list of one more more
       of the following:

	       NAMED
	       PTS
	       SCO
	       ISC

       which represent SVR4 Named Streams pipe, Old-style  USL	Streams	 pipe,
       SCO  XSight  Streams pipe, and ISC Streams pipe, respectively.  You can
       select a single mechanism (e.g.	 XLOCAL=NAMED),	 or  an	 ordered  list
       (e.g.  XLOCAL="NAMED:PTS:SCO").	his variable overrides the compiled-in
       defaults.  For SVR4 it is recommended that NAMED be the	first  prefer-
       ence connection.	 The default setting is PTS:NAMED:ISC:SCO.

       To  globally  override the compiled-in defaults, you should define (and
       export if using sh or ksh) XLOCAL globally.  If you  use	 startx(1)  or
       xinit(1),  the  definition  should be at the top of your .xinitrc file.
       If  you	use  xdm(1),  the  definitions	should	be  early  on  in  the
       /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession script.

OPTIONS
       Xorg  supports several mechanisms for supplying/obtaining configuration
       and run-time parameters: command line options,  environment  variables,
       the  xorg.conf(5)  configuration	 files,	 auto-detection,  and fallback
       defaults.  When the same information is supplied in more than one  way,
       the  highest  precedence	 mechanism is used.  The list of mechanisms is
       ordered from highest precedence to lowest.  Note that not  all  parame-
       ters  can  be  supplied	via  all  methods.  The available command line
       options and environment variables (and  some  defaults)	are  described
       here and in the Xserver(1) manual page.	Most configuration file param-
       eters, with their defaults, are described in  the  xorg.conf(5)	manual
       page.	Driver	 and  module  specific	configuration  parameters  are
       described in the relevant driver or module manual page.

       In addition to the normal server options described  in  the  Xserver(1)
       manual page, Xorg accepts the following command line switches:

       vtXX    XX specifies the Virtual Terminal device number which Xorg will
	       use.  Without this option, Xorg will pick the  first  available
	       Virtual	Terminal that it can locate.  This option applies only
	       to platforms that have virtual terminal support, such as Linux,
	       BSD, OpenSolaris, SVR3, and SVR4.

       -allowMouseOpenFail
	       Allow  the server to start up even if the mouse device can't be
	       opened or  initialised.	 This  is  equivalent  to  the	Allow-
	       MouseOpenFail xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -allowNonLocalXvidtune
	       Make  the  VidMode extension available to remote clients.  This
	       allows the xvidtune client to connect from another host.	  This
	       is  equivalent  to  the AllowNonLocalXvidtune xorg.conf(5) file
	       option.	By default non-local connections are not allowed.

       -bgamma value
	       Set the blue gamma correction.  value must be between  0.1  and
	       10.   The  default  is 1.0.  Not all drivers support this.  See
	       also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -bpp n  No longer supported.  Use -depth to set the  color  depth,  and
	       use  -fbbpp  if	you  really need to force a non-default frame-
	       buffer (hardware) pixel format.

       -config file
	       Read the server configuration from file.	 This option will work
	       for any file when the server is run as root (i.e, with real-uid
	       0), or for files relative to a directory in the	config	search
	       path for all other users.

       -configdir directory
	       Read  the  server  configuration	 files	from  directory.  This
	       option will work for any directory when the server  is  run  as
	       root  (i.e,  with real-uid 0), or for directories relative to a
	       directory in the config directory search	 path  for  all	 other
	       users.

       -configure
	       When  this option is specified, the Xorg server loads all video
	       driver modules, probes for available hardware, and  writes  out
	       an  initial xorg.conf(5) file based on what was detected.  This
	       option currently has some problems on some  platforms,  but  in
	       most  cases  it	is  a  good way to bootstrap the configuration
	       process.	 This option is only available when the server is  run
	       as root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -crt /dev/ttyXX
	       SCO  only.   This is the same as the vt option, and is provided
	       for compatibility with the native SCO X server.

       -depth n
	       Sets the default color depth.  Legal values are 1,  4,  8,  15,
	       16, and 24.  Not all drivers support all values.

       -disableVidMode
	       Disable	the  parts of the VidMode extension (used by the xvid-
	       tune client) that can be used to change the video modes.	  This
	       is  equivalent to the DisableVidModeExtension xorg.conf(5) file
	       option.

       -fbbpp n
	       Sets the number of framebuffer bits per pixel.  You should only
	       set this if you're sure it's necessary; normally the server can
	       deduce the correct value from -depth above.  Useful if you want
	       to  run	a  depth  24  configuration  with a 24 bpp framebuffer
	       rather than the (possibly default) 32 bpp framebuffer (or  vice
	       versa).	 Legal	values	are 1, 8, 16, 24, 32.  Not all drivers
	       support all values.

       -flipPixels
	       Swap the default values for the black and white pixels.

       -gamma value
	       Set the gamma correction.  value must be between	 0.1  and  10.
	       The  default is 1.0.  This value is applied equally to the R, G
	       and B values.  Those values can be set independently  with  the
	       -rgamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.  Not all drivers support
	       this.

       -ggamma value
	       Set the green gamma correction.	value must be between 0.1  and
	       10.   The  default  is 1.0.  Not all drivers support this.  See
	       also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -bgamma options.

       -ignoreABI
	       The Xorg server checks the ABI revision levels of  each	module
	       that  it	 loads.	  It will normally refuse to load modules with
	       ABI revisions that  are	newer  than  the  server's.   This  is
	       because	such modules might use interfaces that the server does
	       not have.  When this option is specified, mismatches like  this
	       are  downgraded	from  fatal  errors  to warnings.  This option
	       should be used with care.

       -isolateDevice bus-id
	       Restrict device resets to the device  at	 bus-id.   The	bus-id
	       string	has   the   form   bustype:bus:device:function	(e.g.,
	       `PCI:1:0:0').  At present, only isolation  of  PCI  devices  is
	       supported;  i.e., this option is ignored if bustype is anything
	       other than `PCI'.

       -keeptty
	       Prevent the server from detaching its initial controlling  ter-
	       minal.	This  option is only useful when debugging the server.
	       Not all platforms support (or can use) this option.

       -keyboard keyboard-name
	       Use the xorg.conf(5) file InputDevice section called  keyboard-
	       name  as	 the  core  keyboard.  This option is ignored when the
	       Layout section specifies a core keyboard.  In  the  absence  of
	       both  a	Layout	section	 and  this  option, the first relevant
	       InputDevice section is used for the core keyboard.

       -layout layout-name
	       Use the xorg.conf(5) file Layout	 section  called  layout-name.
	       By default the first Layout section is used.

       -logfile filename
	       Use  the file called filename as the Xorg server log file.  The
	       default log file	 is  /var/log/Xorg.n.log  on  most  platforms,
	       where  n is the display number of the Xorg server.  The default
	       may be in a different directory on some platforms.  This option
	       is  only	 available  when  the server is run as root (i.e, with
	       real-uid 0).

       -logverbose [n]
	       Sets the verbosity level for information printed	 to  the  Xorg
	       server  log  file.   If the n value isn't supplied, each occur-
	       rence of this option increments the log file  verbosity	level.
	       When  the  n value is supplied, the log file verbosity level is
	       set to that value.  The default log file verbosity level is 3.

       -modulepath searchpath
	       Set the module search path  to  searchpath.   searchpath	 is  a
	       comma  separated	 list of directories to search for Xorg server
	       modules.	 This option is only available when the server is  run
	       as root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -nosilk Disable Silken Mouse support.

       -novtswitch
	       Disable	the automatic switching on X server reset and shutdown
	       to the VT that was active when the server started, if supported
	       by the OS.

       -pixmap24
	       Set  the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 24 bits
	       per pixel.  The default is usually 32 bits per pixel.  There is
	       normally	 little reason to use this option.  Some client appli-
	       cations don't like this pixmap format, even though it is a per-
	       fectly	legal  format.	 This  is  equivalent  to  the	Pixmap
	       xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -pixmap32
	       Set the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 32  bits
	       per pixel.  This is usually the default.	 This is equivalent to
	       the Pixmap xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -pointer pointer-name
	       Use the xorg.conf(5) file InputDevice section  called  pointer-
	       name as the core pointer.  This option is ignored when the Lay-
	       out section specifies a core pointer.  In the absence of both a
	       Layout  section and this option, the first relevant InputDevice
	       section is used for the core pointer.

       -quiet  Suppress most informational messages at startup.	 The verbosity
	       level is set to zero.

       -rgamma value
	       Set  the	 red  gamma correction.	 value must be between 0.1 and
	       10.  The default is 1.0.	 Not all drivers  support  this.   See
	       also the -gamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -sharevts
	       Share  virtual terminals with another X server, if supported by
	       the OS.

       -screen screen-name
	       Use the xorg.conf(5) file Screen	 section  called  screen-name.
	       By default the screens referenced by the default Layout section
	       are used, or the first Screen section when there are no	Layout
	       sections.

       -showconfig
	       This  is	 the  same as the -version option, and is included for
	       compatibility reasons.  It may be removed in a future  release,
	       so the -version option should be used instead.

       -showDefaultModulePath
	       Print out the default module path the server was compiled with.

       -showDefaultLibPath
	       Print out the path libraries should be installed to.

       -showopts
	       For each driver module installed, print out the list of options
	       and their argument types.

       -weight nnn
	       Set RGB weighting at 16 bpp.  The default is 565.  This applies
	       only to those drivers which support 16 bpp.

       -verbose [n]
	       Sets the verbosity level for information printed on stderr.  If
	       the n value isn't supplied,  each  occurrence  of  this	option
	       increments  the verbosity level.	 When the n value is supplied,
	       the verbosity level is set to that  value.   The	 default  ver-
	       bosity level is 0.

       -version
	       Print  out  the	server	version, patchlevel, release date, the
	       operating system/platform it  was  built	 on,  and  whether  it
	       includes module loader support.

KEYBOARD
       The  Xorg  server  is  normally configured to recognize various special
       combinations of key presses that instruct the server  to	 perform  some
       action, rather than just sending the key press event to a client appli-
       cation. These actions depend on the XKB keymap loaded by	 a  particular
       keyboard	 device	 and may or may not be available on a given configura-
       tion.

       The following key combinations are commonly part of the	default	 XKEY-
       BOARD keymap.

       Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
	       Immediately  kills  the server -- no questions asked. It can be
	       disabled by setting the DontZap xorg.conf(5) file option	 to  a
	       TRUE value.

	       It  should  be  noted  that  zapping is triggered by the Termi-
	       nate_Server action in the keyboard map. This action is not part
	       of  the	default keymaps but can be enabled with the XKB option
	       "terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp".

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Plus
	       Change video mode to next one specified	in  the	 configuration
	       file.  This can be disabled with the DontZoom xorg.conf(5) file
	       option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Minus
	       Change video mode to previous one specified in  the  configura-
	       tion file.  This can be disabled with the DontZoom xorg.conf(5)
	       file option.

       Ctrl+Alt+F1...F12
	       For systems with virtual terminal support, these keystroke com-
	       binations are used to switch to virtual terminals 1 through 12,
	       respectively.  This  can	 be  disabled  with  the  DontVTSwitch
	       xorg.conf(5) file option.

CONFIGURATION
       Xorg  typically uses a configuration file called xorg.conf and configu-
       ration files with the suffix .conf in a	directory  called  xorg.conf.d
       for  its	 initial  setup.   Refer  to  the xorg.conf(5) manual page for
       information about the format of this file.

       Xorg has a mechanism for automatically generating a built-in configura-
       tion  at	 run-time  when	 no  xorg.conf	file  or xorg.conf.d files are
       present.	 The current version of this automatic configuration mechanism
       works in two ways.

       The  first  is  via  enhancements that have made many components of the
       xorg.conf file optional.	 This  means  that  information	 that  can  be
       probed  or  reasonably deduced doesn't need to be specified explicitly,
       greatly reducing the amount of built-in configuration information  that
       needs to be generated at run-time.

       The  second is to have "safe" fallbacks for most configuration informa-
       tion.  This maximises the likelihood that the Xorg server will start up
       in  some	 usable configuration even when information about the specific
       hardware is not available.

       The automatic configuration support for Xorg is work in	progress.   It
       is  currently aimed at the most popular hardware and software platforms
       supported by Xorg.  Enhancements are planned for future releases.

FILES
       The Xorg server config files can be found  in  a	 range	of  locations.
       These  are  documented fully in the xorg.conf(5) manual page.  The most
       commonly used locations are shown here.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf	     Server configuration file.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf-4	     Server configuration file.

       /etc/xorg.conf		     Server configuration file.

       /usr/etc/xorg.conf	     Server configuration file.

       /usr/lib/X11/xorg.conf	     Server configuration file.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d	     Server configuration directory.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d-4	     Server configuration directory.

       /etc/xorg.conf.d		     Server configuration directory.

       /usr/etc/xorg.conf.d	     Server configuration directory.

       /usr/lib/X11/xorg.conf.d	     Server configuration directory.

       /var/log/Xorg.n.log	     Server log file for display n.

       /usr/bin/*		     Client binaries.

       /usr/include/*		     Header files.

       /usr/lib/*		     Libraries.

       /usr/share/fonts/X11/*	     Fonts.

       /usr/share/X11/XErrorDB	     Client error message database.

       /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/*   Client resource specifications.

       /usr/share/man/man?/*	     Manual pages.

       /etc/Xn.hosts		     Initial access control list  for  display
				     n.

SEE ALSO
       X(7),  Xserver(1),  xdm(1),  xinit(1), xorg.conf(5), xvidtune(1), xkey-
       board-config  (7),  apm(4),  ati(4),  chips(4),	cirrus(4),   cyrix(4),
       fbdev(4),  glide(4),  glint(4),	i128(4),  i740(4), imstt(4), intel(4),
       mga(4), neomagic(4), nsc(4), nv(4),  openchrome	(4),  r128(4),	rendi-
       tion(4),	 s3virge(4),  siliconmotion(4), sis(4), sunbw2(4), suncg14(4),
       suncg3(4), suncg6(4), sunffb(4), sunleo(4), suntcx(4), tdfx(4), tga(4),
       trident(4), tseng(4), v4l(4), vesa(4), vmware(4),
       Web site <http://www.x.org>.


AUTHORS
       Xorg  has  many contributors world wide.	 The names of most of them can
       be found in the documentation, ChangeLog files in the source tree,  and
       in the actual source code.

       Xorg was originally based on XFree86 4.4rc2.  That was originally based
       on X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell, which was contributed to the then  X  Con-
       sortium's X11R5 distribution by SGCS.

       Xorg is released by the X.Org Foundation.

       The project that became XFree86 was originally founded in 1992 by David
       Dawes, Glenn Lai, Jim Tsillas and David Wexelblat.

       XFree86 was later integrated in the then X Consortium's	X11R6  release
       by a group of dedicated XFree86 developers, including the following:

	   Stuart Anderson    anderson@metrolink.com
	   Doug Anson	      danson@lgc.com
	   Gertjan Akkerman   akkerman@dutiba.twi.tudelft.nl
	   Mike Bernson	      mike@mbsun.mlb.org
	   Robin Cutshaw      robin@XFree86.org
	   David Dawes	      dawes@XFree86.org
	   Marc Evans	      marc@XFree86.org
	   Pascal Haible      haible@izfm.uni-stuttgart.de
	   Matthieu Herrb     Matthieu.Herrb@laas.fr
	   Dirk Hohndel	      hohndel@XFree86.org
	   David Holland      davidh@use.com
	   Alan Hourihane     alanh@fairlite.demon.co.uk
	   Jeffrey Hsu	      hsu@soda.berkeley.edu
	   Glenn Lai	      glenn@cs.utexas.edu
	   Ted Lemon	      mellon@ncd.com
	   Rich Murphey	      rich@XFree86.org
	   Hans Nasten	      nasten@everyware.se
	   Mark Snitily	      mark@sgcs.com
	   Randy Terbush      randyt@cse.unl.edu
	   Jon Tombs	      tombs@XFree86.org
	   Kees Verstoep      versto@cs.vu.nl
	   Paul Vixie	      paul@vix.com
	   Mark Weaver	      Mark_Weaver@brown.edu
	   David Wexelblat    dwex@XFree86.org
	   Philip Wheatley    Philip.Wheatley@ColumbiaSC.NCR.COM
	   Thomas Wolfram     wolf@prz.tu-berlin.de
	   Orest Zborowski    orestz@eskimo.com

       Xorg  source  is	 available from the FTP server <ftp://ftp.x.org/>, and
       from the X.Org server <http://gitweb.freedesktop.org/>.	 Documentation
       and   other   information   can	be  found  from	 the  X.Org  web  site
       <http://www.x.org/>.


LEGAL
       Xorg is copyright software, provided under licenses that permit modifi-
       cation  and redistribution in source and binary form without fee.  Xorg
       is copyright by numerous	 authors  and  contributors  from  around  the
       world.	Licensing  information	can  be	 found	at <http://www.x.org>.
       Refer to the source code for specific copyright notices.

       XFree86(TM) is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc.

       X11(TM) and X Window System(TM) are trademarks of The Open Group.



X Version 11		      xorg-server 1.15.0		       Xorg(1)