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CDRDAO(1)		    General Commands Manual		     CDRDAO(1)

       cdrdao - writes audio CD-Rs in disc-at-once mode

       cdrdao	{show-toc|read-toc|read-cd|read-cddb|show-data|read-test|disk-
       info|msinfo|unlock|simulate|write|copy|blank}	 [--device     device]
       [--source-device	 device] [--driver driver-id] [--source-driver driver-
       id]   [--simulate]   [--speed   writing-speed]	[--blank-mode	 mode]
       [--datafile file] [--read-raw] [--read-subchan [--no-mode2-mixed] mode]
       [--tao-source] [--tao-source-adjust link-blocks]	 [--fast-toc]  [--buf-
       fers  buffer-count]  [--multi]  [--overburn] [--eject] [--swap] [--ses-
       sion] [--force] [--reload]  [--keepimage]  [--on-the-fly]  [--paranoia-
       mode  mode]  [--with-cddb] [--cddb-servers server-list] [--cddb-timeout
       timeout] [--cddb-directory  directory]  [--tmpdir  directory]  [--keep]
       [--save] [-n] [-v verbose-level] toc-file

       cdrdao  creates	audio and data CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode driven
       by a description file called toc-file.  In DAO mode it is  possible  to
       create  non standard track pre-gaps that have other lengths than 2 sec-
       onds and contain nonzero audio data. This  is  for  example  useful  to
       divide live recordings into tracks where 2 second gaps would be kind of

       Instead of a toc-file a cue file (used by a famous DOS/Windows  master-
       ing tool) may be used. See the CUE FILES section for more details.

       The first argument must be one of the following commands:

	      Print out a summary about what will be written to the CD-R.

	      Analyze each track of the inserted CD and create a toc-file that
	      can be used to make a more or less exact copy of the  CD.	  This
	      command  does not read out the audio or data tracks, use read-cd
	      for this purpose.

	      You can specify a filename for the data file via the  --datafile

	      Copies  all  tracks of the inserted CD to an image file and cre-
	      ates a corresponding toc-file.   The  name  of  the  image  file
	      defaults to "data.bin" if no --datafile option is given.

	      Tries  to	 retrieve title and artist data from a CDDB server for
	      the CD represented by the given toc-file. The retrieved data  is
	      added  as	 CD-TEXT data for language 0 to the toc-file. Existing
	      CD-TEXT data for language 0 will be overwritten.

	      Print out all samples that would be written to  the  CD-R.  Each
	      line  contains the sample number (starting at 0) and the decimal
	      sample value for the left and right channel. Useful to check  if
	      the byte order of audio files is correct.

	      Check  if	 all  data  can	 be read from the audio files that are
	      defined in the toc-file.	This will also check the communication
	      with the slave process that is responsible for writing the audio
	      data to the CD-recorder. Mainly used for testing.

	      Shows information about the inserted CD-R. If the	 CD-R  has  an
	      open  session  it will also print the start of the last and cur-
	      rent session which is used by mkisofs to create an image	for  a
	      second or higher session.

       msinfo Shows information required for creating multi session disks with
	      mkisofs. The output is meant for processing by scripts.

       unlock Tries to unlock the recorder device after a failed write or sim-
	      ulation  run.  If you cannot eject the CD after a cdrdao run try
	      this command.

       blank  Blanks a CD-RW. The CD-RW is minimally blanked by	 default.  Use
	      option  --blank-mode to select another blanking mode.  Sometimes
	      the blanking speed must be manually  reduced  for	 a  successful
	      blanking	operation. Use option --speed to select another blank-
	      ing speed.

	      Like  write  but	laser  stays  cold.  It	 is  a	shortcut   for

       write  Write the CD-R according to the specifications in the toc-file.

       copy   Performs	all  steps  to	copy  a	 CD. The device containing the
	      source CD must be specified with option --source-device and  the
	      recorder	device	with option --device.  If only a single device
	      is available the option --source-device must be omitted and cdr-
	      dao  will prompt to insert the CD-R after an image of the source
	      CD was created.

	      The image file with name "cddata<pid>.bin" will  be  created  in
	      the  current working directory if no --datafile option is given.
	      The created image will be removed after it has been written.

	      If option --on-the-fly is given no image file is created and the
	      data  will  be  directly piped from the reading device to the CD

       --device [prot:]bus,id,lun
	      Sets the SCSI address of the CD-recorder in form of a bus/id/lun
	      triple,  e.g. '0,2,0' for the logical unit 0 of SCSI device with
	      ID 2 on bus 0. ATAPI devices can be specified by using the  pre-
	      fix  'ATAPI:', e.g. 'ATAPI:0,0,0'. On some systems a device node
	      may be specified directly, e.g.  '/dev/sg0'  on  Linux  systems.
	      Linux  2.6 users may also try the newer ATAPI interface with the
	      'ATA:' prefix.

       --source-device [prot:]bus,id,lun
	      Like above but used for the copy command to specify  the	source

       --driver driver-id:option-flags
	      Force  usage  of	specified  driver instead of the automatically
	      determined driver. Available driver IDs:
	      cdd2600, plextor,	 plextor-scan,	generic-mmc,  generic-mmc-raw,
	      ricoh-mp6200,   yamaha-cdr10x,  teac-cdr55,  sony-cdu920,	 sony-
	      cdu948, taiyo-yuden, toshiba.
	      Specifying an illegal driver ID will give a  list	 of  available
	      drivers.	 Option	 flags	may  be used to modify the behavior of
	      some drivers. See README for details.

       --source-driver driver-id:option-flags
	      Like above  but  used  for  the  device  specified  with	option

       --speed value
	      Set the writing speed to value.  Default is the highest possible

       --blank-mode mode
	      Sets the blanking mode. Available modes are  full	 and  minimal.
	      Please  consider that the data of minimally blanked disks may be
	      easily recovered. Use the	 full  blanking	 mode  for  completely
	      erasing all data. The default blanking mode is minimal.

       --datafile file
	      Used  for	 read-toc,read-cd and copy.  Set the default data file
	      placed in the  toc-file  by  read-toc.Use-toindicateSTDIN.   For
	      commands	read-cd	 and copy it specifies the name of the created
	      image file.

	      Only used for commands read-cd and read-toc.  All	 data  sectors
	      will  be written as 2352 byte blocks including the sector header
	      and L-EC data to the image file. The track mode will be  set  to
	      MODE1_RAW or MODE2_RAW in the created toc-file.

       --read-subchan mode
	      Used by commands read-cd, read-toc and copy.  Specifies the type
	      of sub-channel data that is extracted from  the  source  CD  and
	      written  to  the	track  image  or copied to the destination CD.
	      Mode may be rw for reading  packed  R-W  sub-channel  data  (de-
	      interleaved  and error corrected) and rw_raw for reading raw R-W
	      sub-channel data (not de-interleaved, not error corrected,  L-EC
	      data included in the track image).  If this option is not speci-
	      fied no sub-channel data will be extracted.

	      Only used	 for  commands	read-cd	 and  read-toc.	  If  we  have
	      MODE2_FORM1  or MODE2_FORM2, don't extract it as MODE2_FORM_MIX.

	      This option indicates to the commands read-toc and read-cd  that
	      the  source  CD was written in TAO mode. It will be assumed that
	      the pre-gap length between all tracks (except between two	 audio
	      tracks)  is  the	standard  150  blocks  plus the number of link
	      blocks (usually 2). The number of link blocks can be  controlled
	      with option --tao-source-adjust.

	      Use  this option only if read-toc or read-cd give error messages
	      in the transition areas between two  tracks.  If	you  use  this
	      option  with pressed CDs or CDs written in DAO mode you will get
	      wrong results.

       --tao-source-adjust link-blocks
	      Specifies the number of link blocks for tracks  written  in  TAO
	      mode.  This  option has only an effect if option --tao-source is

	      Only used for command read-toc.  This option suppresses the pre-
	      gap  length  and index mark extraction which speeds up the read-
	      toc process. Standard 2 second pre-gaps (but no  silence!)  will
	      be  placed  into	the toc-file. The resulting CD will sound like
	      the source CD. Only the CD player's display will behave slightly
	      different in the transition area between two tracks.

	      This  option  might help, too, if read-toc fails with your drive

       --buffers buffer-count
	      Specifies the number of buffers that are allocated to avoid buf-
	      fer  under  runs.	  The  minimal	buffer	count  is fixed to 10,
	      default is 32 except on FreeBSD systems, on which default is 20.
	      Each  buffer  holds 1 second of audio data so that dividing buf-
	      fer-count by the writing speed gives the maximum time for	 which
	      reading of audio data may be stalled.

	      If this option is given the session will not be closed after the
	      audio data is successfully written. It  is  possible  to	append
	      another session on such disks, e.g. to create a CD-EXTRA.

	      By  default cdrdao will not allow to write more data on a medium
	      than specified by the current  medium.  This  option  allows  to
	      ignore this condition.

	      Eject the CD-R after writing or write simulation.

       --swap Swap  the	 byte  order  of  all samples that are send to the CD-

       --session session-nr
	      Used for read-toc and  read-cd  to  specify  the	session	 which
	      should be processed on multi session CDs.

	      Indicates	 that  the  tray  may be opened before writing without
	      prompting the user to reset the disk status after	 a  simulation

	      Forces the execution of an operation that otherwise would not be

       --paranoia-mode mode
	      Sets the correction mode for digital  audio  extraction.	0:  No
	      checking,	 data  is  copied  directly from the drive. 1: Perform
	      overlapped reading to avoid jitter. 2: Like  1  but  with	 addi-
	      tional  checks  of the read audio data. 3: Like 2 but with addi-
	      tional scratch detection and repair.

	      The extraction speed reduces from 0 to 3.

	      Default is the full paranoia mode (3).

	      If a CD is copied with command copy this option will cause  that
	      the created image is not removed after the copy process has fin-

	      Perform CD copy on the fly without creating an image file.

	      Enables the automatic fetching of CDDB data for use  as  CD-TEXT
	      data for commands copy, read-toc and read-cd.

       --cddb-servers server-list
	      Sets  space  or ',' separated list of CDDB servers used for com-
	      mand read-cddb or for commands where the --with-cddb  option  is
	      active.  A server entry may have the following forms:

	      Connect  to <server>, default cddbp port (888), use cddbp proto-

	      Connect to <server>, port <port>, use cddbp protocol.

	      Connect to <server>, default http port (80), use http  protocol,
	      url: <cgi-bin-path>.

	      Connect  to <server>, port <port>, use http protocol, url: <cgi-

	      Connect to <proxy-server>, default http port (80), use http pro-
	      tocol, url: http://<server>:<port>/<cgi-bin-path>.

	      Connect to <proxy-server>, port <proxy-port>, use http protocol,
	      url: http://<server>:<port>/<cgi-bin-path>.

	      The <cgi-bin-path> is usually "/~cddb/cddb.cgi".

	      All servers of the server list will be tried in the given	 order
	      until a successful connection can be established. For http proxy
	      servers the first successful connected http proxy server will be
	      used  independent	 of  the ability to connect to the target http

	      Example: freedb.freedb.org:/~cddb/cddb.cgi

       --cddb-timeout timeout
	      Sets the	timeout	 in  seconds  used  for	 connections  to  CDDB

       --cddb-directory directory
	      Specifies	 the  local CDDB database directory where fetched CDDB
	      records will be stored. If this option is not  given  a  fetched
	      CDDB record will not be stored locally.

       --tmpdir directory
	      Specifies	 the  directory in which to store temporary data files
	      created from decoding MP3 and  Ogg  Vorbis  files.  By  default,
	      "/tmp" is used.

       --keep Upon exit from cdrdao, do not delete temporary WAV files created
	      from MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files.

       --save Saves  some  of  the  current  options  to  the  settings	  file
	      "$HOME/.cdrdao"  and  exit.  See	section	 'SETTINGS'  for  more

       -n     Suppresses the 10 second pause before writing or simulating.

       -v verbose-level
	      Sets verbose level. Levels > 2 are debug levels which produce  a
	      lot of output.

       The toc-file describes what data is written to the CD-R and allows con-
       trol over track/index positions, pre-gaps and sub-channel  information.
       It is a simple text file, use your favorite text editor to create it.

       A toc-file contains an optional header and a sequence of track specifi-
       cations. Comments starting with '//' reaching until end of line can  be
       placed anywhere.

       CATALOG "ddddddddddddd"
	      Specifies the optional catalog number of the CD. The string must
	      contain exactly 13 digits.

       The following flags specify the type of session that will  be  created.
       It is used to create the correct CD-TOC format and to check the consis-
       tency of the track modes for the	 desired  session  type.  If  multiple
       flags are given the last one will take effect.

       CD_DA  The disc contains only audio tracks.

       CD_ROM The  disc contains just mode 1 tracks or mode 1 and audio tracks
	      (mixed mode CD).

	      The disc contains mode 2 form 1 or mode 2 form 2	tracks.	 Audio
	      tracks are allowed, too. This type must be used if multi session
	      disks are created (option --multi).

       CD_TEXT { ... }
	      Defines global CD-TEXT data like the album title	and  the  used
	      languages.   See the CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of the
	      CD-TEXT block contents.

   Track Specification
       TRACK <track-mode> [<sub-channel-mode>]
	      Starts a new track, the track number is incremented  by  1.  The
	      length  of  a track must be at least 4 seconds. The block length
	      of the input data depends on the <track-mode>: AUDIO: 2352 bytes
	      (588  samples), MODE1: 2048 bytes, MODE1_RAW: 2352 bytes, MODE2:
	      2336 bytes, MODE2_FORM1: 2048 bytes,  MODE2_FORM2:  2324	bytes,
	      MODE2_FORM_MIX:  2336 bytes including the sub-header, MODE2_RAW:
	      2352 bytes.  The <sub-channel-mode> is  optional.	 If  given  it
	      specifies	 the  type  of	sub-channel  data for each sector. RW:
	      packed R-W sub-channel data (96 bytes, L-EC data will be	gener-
	      ated if required), RW_RAW: raw R-W sub-channel data (interleaved
	      and L-EC data already calculated, 96 bytes). The block length is
	      increased by the sub-channel data length if a <sub-channel-mode>
	      is specified.  If the input data length is not a multiple of the
	      block length  it will be padded with zeros.

       The following flags may follow the track start statement. They are used
       to set sub-channel information for the  current	track.	Each  flag  is
       optional.  If  not given the following defaults are used: copy not per-
       mitted, no pre emphasis, two channel audio, no ISRC code.

       [ NO ] COPY
	      Sets or clears the copy permitted flag.

       [ NO ] PRE_EMPHASIS
	      Sets or clears the pre emphasis flag (only for audio tracks).

	      Indicates that track contains two channel audio data  (only  for
	      audio tracks).

	      Indicates	 that track contains four channel audio data (only for
	      audio tracks).

	      Sets ISRC code of track (only for audio tracks).
	      C: country code (upper case letters or digits)
	      O: owner code (upper case letters or digits)
	      Y: year (digits)
	      S: serial number (digits)

       An optional CD-TEXT block that defines the CD-TEXT data for this	 track
       may follow. See the CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of the CD-TEXT
       block contents.

       CD_TEXT { ... }

       At least one of the following statements must  appear  to  specify  the
       data  for  the  current	track.	Lengths	 and  start  positions	may be
       expressed in samples (1/44100 seconds) for audio tracks or in bytes for
       data  tracks. It is also possible to give the length in blocks with the
       MSF format 'MM:SS:FF' specifying minutes, seconds and frames (0 <= 'FF'
       < 75) . A frame equals one block.

       If  more	 than one statement is used the track will be composed by con-
       catenating the data in the specified order.

       SILENCE <length>
	      Adds zero audio data of specified length to  the	current	 audio
	      track.  Useful to create silent pre-gaps.

       ZERO <length>
	      Adds  zero  data	to data tracks. Must be used to define pre- or
	      post-gaps between tracks of different mode.

       [ FILE | AUDIOFILE ] "<filename>" <start> [ <length> ]
	      Adds the audio data of  specified	 file  to  the	current	 audio
	      track.  It is possible to select a portion of an audio file with
	      <start> and <length> which allows non destructive	 cutting.  The
	      first  sample of an audio file is addressed with <start> = 0. If
	      <length> is omitted or set to 0  all  audio  data	 from  <start>
	      until the end of file is used.

	      Audio files may have raw or WAVE format with 16 bits per sample,
	      44.1 kHz sampling rate, stereo. Raw files must have  the	layout
	      'MSBLeft LSBLeft MSBRight LSBRight ...' (big endian byte order).
	      WAVE files are expected to have little endian  byte  order.  The
	      option  --swap  reverses the expected byte order for all raw and
	      WAVE files. Only filenames with a ".wav" ending are  treated  as
	      WAVE  files,  all other names are assumed to be raw audio files.
	      Use tools like sox(1) to convert other file formats to supported

	      Specifying  a "-" as filename causes data to be read from STDIN.
	      Currently only raw files are supported from STDIN.

	      If you are unsure about the byte order of your audio  files  try
	      the  command  'show-data'. If the byte order is correct you will
	      see a sequence of increasing  or	decreasing  numbers  for  both
	      channels.	 Otherwise  numbers  are jumping between very high and
	      low values - high volume static.

       DATAFILE "<filename>" [ <length> ]
	      Adds data from given file to the current data track. If <length>
	      is omitted the actual file length will be used.

       FIFO "<fifo path>" <length>
	      Adds  data from specified FIFO path to the current audio or data
	      track.  <length> must specify the amount of data	that  will  be
	      read  from  the  FIFO.  The  value  is  always in terms of bytes
	      (scalar value) or in terms of the block length (MSF value).

       START [ MM:SS:FF ]
	      Defines the length of the pre-gap (position where index switches
	      from  0  to  1).	If  the MSF value is omitted the current track
	      length is used. If the current track length is not a multiple of
	      the  block  length the pre-gap length will be rounded up to next
	      block boundary.

	      If no START statement is given the track will not	 have  a  pre-

	      This  is	an  alternate way to specify a pre-gap with zero audio
	      data. It may appear before  the  first  SILENCE,	ZERO  or  FILE
	      statement.  Either  PREGAP  or  START can be used within a track
	      specification. It is equivalent to the sequence
	      for audio tracks or
	      for data tracks.

       Nothing prevents	 mixing	 'DATAFILE'/'ZERO'  and	 'AUDIOFILE'/'SILENCE'
       statements within the same track. The results, however, are undefined.

       The  end of a track specification may contain zero or more index incre-
       ment statements:

	      Increments the index number at given position within the	track.
	      The  first statement will increment from 1 to 2. The position is
	      relative to the real track start, not counting an existing  pre-

   CD-TEXT Blocks
       A  CD-TEXT  block  may  be  placed in the global section to define data
       valid for the whole CD and in each track specification of  a  toc-file.
       The  global  section  must  define a language map that is used to map a
       language-number to country codes. Up to 8 different  languages  can  be

       LANGUAGE_MAP { 0 : c1  1 : c2  ...  7 : c7 }
	      The  country code may be an integer value in the range 0..255 or
	      one of the following countries (the corresponding integer	 value
	      is placed in braces behind the token): EN(9, English)
	      It is just necessary to define a mapping for the used languages.

       If  no  mapping exists for a language-number the data for this language
       will be ignored.

       For each language a language block must exist that defines  the	actual
       data for a certain language.

       LANGUAGE	 language-number  { cd-text-item cd-text-data cd-text-item cd-
       text-data ... }
	      Defines the CD-TEXT items for given language-number  which  must
	      be defined in the language map.

       The  cd-text-data  may  be either a string enclosed by " or binary data
	    { 0, 10, 255, ... }
       where each integer number must be in the range 0..255.
       The cd-text-item may be one of the following:

       TITLE  String data: Title of CD or track.

	      String data.

	      String data.

	      String data.

	      String data.

	      String data. Message to the user.

	      String data: Should only appear in the global CD-TEXT block. The
	      format is usually: XY12345

       GENRE  Mixture of binary data (genre code) and string data. Should only
	      appear in the global CD-TEXT block. Useful entries will be  cre-
	      ated by gcdmaster.

	      Binary data: Optional table of contents 1. Should only appear in
	      the global CD-TEXT block.

	      Binary data: Optional table of contents 2. Should only appear in
	      the global CD-TEXT block.

	      String  data: This item should only appear in the global CD-TEXT
	      block. Was always an empty string	 on  the  CD-TEXT  CDs	I  had
	      access to.

       ISRC   String  data: ISRC code of track. The format is usually: CC-OOO-

	      Binary data: Contains summary about all CD-TEXT data and	should
	      only  appear in the global CD-TEXT block. The data will be auto-
	      matically (re)created when the CD-TEXT data is written.

	      If one of the CD-TEXT items TITLE, PERFORMER,  SONGWRITER,  COM-
	      POSER, ARRANGER, ISRC is defined for at least on track or in the
	      global section it must be defined for  all  tracks  and  in  the
	      global  section. If a DISC_ID item is defined in the global sec-
	      tion, an ISRC entry must be defined for each track.

       Simple track without  pre-gap  with  all	 audio	data  from  WAVE  file
	    FILE "data.wav" 0

       Standard track with two second pre-gap, ISRC code and CD-TEXT:
	    CD_TEXT {
		0 : EN

	      LANGUAGE 0 {
		TITLE "CD Title"
		PERFORMER "Performer"
		DISC_ID "XY12345"
		UPC_EAN ""

	    ISRC "DEXXX9800001"
	    CD_TEXT {
	      LANGUAGE 0 {
		TITLE "Track Title"
		PERFORMER "Performer"
		ISRC "DE-XXX-98-00001"
	    PREGAP 0:2:0
	    FILE "data.wav" 0

       Track  with  10	second	pre-gap	 containing  audio  data from raw file
	    FILE "data.cdr" 0
	    START 0:10:0

       Composed track with data from different files. Pre-gap data and	length
       is  taken  from	"pregapdata.wav".  The	first minute of "track.cdr" is
       omitted and two seconds silence are inserted at '2:0:0'. Index will  be
       incremented after 2 and 4 minutes past track start:
	    FILE "pregapdata.wav" 0
	    FILE "track.cdr" 1:0:0 1:0:0
	    SILENCE 0:2:0
	    FILE "track.cdr" 2:0:0
	    INDEX 2:0:0
	    INDEX 4:0:0

       Mixed  mode  CD	with a data track as first track followed by two audio
	    DATAFILE "data_1"
	    ZERO 00:02:00 // post-gap

	    SILENCE 00:02:00 // pre-gap
	    FILE "data_2.wav" 0

	    FILE "data_3.wav" 0

       Cue files may be used wherever a toc-file is expected. The  correspond-
       ing  bin	 file  is  not taken from the FILE statement of a cue file but
       constructed from the cue file name by replacing ".cue" by  ".bin".  The
       cue file must have exactly one FILE statement.

       Currently, following track modes are supported: MODE1/2048, MODE1/2352,
       MODE2/2336, MODE2/2352. The CATALOG, ISRC and  POSTGAP  statements  are
       parsed but not evaluated, yet.

       Some of the command line options can be stored as settings at following
       locations. The files will be read on startup of cdrdao in that order:

       1. /etc/cdrdao.conf

       2. /etc/defaults/cdrdao

       3. $HOME/.cdrdao

       Command line options will overwrite the loaded settings.	 The  settings
       file  contains  name  - value pairs separated by a colon. String values
       must be enclosed by ". The file is automatically written if the command
       line  option  --save is used but it is also possible to modify it manu-
       ally. Following values are defined:

	      Device used for operations simulate, write, copy,	 blank,	 disk-
	      info and unlock.	Corresponding option: --device

	      Driver  (including  driver  options) that is used for operations
	      simulate, write, copy, blank, disk-info and unlock.  Correspond-
	      ing option: --driver

	      Specifies writing speed. Corresponding option: --speed

	      Specifies fifo buffers used for recording. Corresponding option:

	      Device used for operations read-toc, read-cd and	copy.	Corre-
	      sponding option: --device or --source-device

	      Driver  (including driver options) used for operations read-toc,
	      read-cd and copy.	 Corresponding option: --driver	 or  --source-

	      Paranoia mode used for operations read-cd and copy.  Correspond-
	      ing option: --paranoia-mode

	      CDDB server list for read-cddb.  Corresponding  option:  --cddb-

	      CDDB  connection	timeout	 in seconds used by read-cddb.	Corre-
	      sponding option: --cddb-timeout

	      Local directory where fetched CDDB records will be stored,  used
	      by read-cddb.  Corresponding option: --cddb-directory

	      Directory where temporay WAV files will be created from decoding
	      MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files. Corresponding option: --tmpdir

       If the program is terminated during the write/simulation	 process  used
       IPC  resources  may not be released. Use ipcs(8) and ipcrm(8) to delete

       Andreas Mueller mueller@daneb.ping.de

       gcdmaster(1), cdrecord(1), cdda2wav(1), cdparanoia(1), sox(1), ipcs(8),

				  Oct 6, 2002			     CDRDAO(1)