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curl(1)				  Curl Manual			       curl(1)



NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,	 IMAP,
       IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  POP3,  POP3S,  RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS,
       SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command is designed to work  without
       user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file	trans-
       fer  resume,  Metalink,	and more. As you will see below, the number of
       features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces as in:

	 http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

	 ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt

	 ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)

	 ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
       to each other:

	 http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       You  can	 specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number
       or letter:

	 http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt

	 http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       When using [] or {} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
       you probably have to put the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
       shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
       treated special, like for example '&', '?' and '*'.

       Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
       and the interface name. Like in

	 http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL.  It  is  not
       trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
       is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and cannot be used between
       separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       the  amount  of	transferred  data,  transfer speeds and estimated time
       left, etc.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you	invoke
       curl  to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,
       it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output
       mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect the response output to a file, using shell  redirect  (>),  -o
       [file] or similar.

       It  is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit
       out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your
       friend.

OPTIONS
       Options	start  with  one or two dashes. Many of the options require an
       additional value next to them.

       The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d	for  example,  may  be
       used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
       is a recommended separator. The long  "double-dash"  form,  --data  for
       example, requires a space between it and its value.

       Short version options that don't need any additional values can be used
       immediately next to each other, like for example you  can  specify  all
       the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.

       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
       disabled with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option  name
       but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
       show the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options  was
       added  in  7.19.0.  Previously  most  options  were  toggled  on/off on
       repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
	      Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar  instead  of
	      the standard, more informational, meter.

       -:, --next
	      Tells curl to use a separate operation for the following URL and
	      associated  options.  This  allows  you  to  send	 several   URL
	      requests,	 each  with  their  own specific options, for example,
	      such as different user names or custom requests for each. (Added
	      in 7.36.0)

       -0, --http1.0
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
	      internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       --http1.1
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1. This is the  internal
	      default version. (Added in 7.33.0)

       --http2
	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue  its  requests using HTTP 2. This
	      requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to  support  it.
	      (Added in 7.33.0)

       --no-npn
	      Disable  the  NPN	 TLS  extension.  NPN is enabled by default if
	      libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports NPN. NPN  is
	      used  by a libcurl that supports HTTP 2 to negotiate HTTP 2 sup-
	      port with the server during https sessions.

	      (Added in 7.36.0)

       --no-alpn
	      Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled  by  default  if
	      libcurl  was  built with an SSL library that supports ALPN. ALPN
	      is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP 2 to  negotiate  HTTP  2
	      support with the server during https sessions.

	      (Added in 7.36.0)

       -1, --tlsv1
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.x when negotiating with a
	      remote TLS server.  You can use  options	--tlsv1.0,  --tlsv1.1,
	      and  --tlsv1.2 to control the TLS version more precisely (if the
	      SSL backend in use supports such a level of control).

       -2, --sslv2
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating  with  a
	      remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv2 sup-
	      port. SSLv2 is widely considered insecure.

       -3, --sslv3
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating  with  a
	      remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv3 sup-
	      port.

       -4, --ipv4
	      This option tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses	 only,
	      and not for example try IPv6.

       -6, --ipv6
	      This  option tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only,
	      and not for example try IPv4.

       -a, --append
	      (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append to the
	      target  file  instead  of	 overwriting  it.  If  the remote file
	      doesn't exist, it will be	 created.   Note  that	this  flag  is
	      ignored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A, --user-agent <agent string>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      Some  badly  done	 CGIs  fail  if	 this  field  isn't   set   to
	      "Mozilla/4.0".  To  encode  blanks  in  the string, surround the
	      string with single quote marks. This can also be	set  with  the
	      -H, --header option of course.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
	      This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
	      headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
	      This  is	used  instead  of  setting  a  specific authentication
	      method, which you can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
	      --negotiate.

	      Note  that  using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads
	      from stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and  then
	      the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when
	      uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie <name=data>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is  sup-
	      posedly  the data previously received from the server in a "Set-
	      Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format	"NAME1=VALUE1;
	      NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If  no  '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a file-
	      name to use to read previously stored cookie lines  from,	 which
	      should  be used in this session if they match. Using this method
	      also activates the "cookie parser" which will make  curl	record
	      incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in
	      combination with the -L, --location option. The file  format  of
	      the  file	 to  read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
	      the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

	      The file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as  input.  No
	      cookies  will  be written to the file. To store cookies, use the
	      -c, --cookie-jar option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -B, --use-ascii
	      (FTP/LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For  FTP,  this	 can  also  be
	      enforced	by  using an URL that ends with ";type=A". This option
	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to use	HTTP  Basic  authentication  with  the
	      remote  host.  This  is  the  default and this option is usually
	      pointless, unless you use it to override a previously set option
	      that  sets  a  different	authentication method (such as --ntlm,
	      --digest, or --negotiate).

	      Used together with -u, --user and -x, --proxy.

	      See also --proxy-basic.

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
	      (HTTP) Specify to which file you want curl to write all  cookies
	      after  a completed operation. Curl writes all cookies previously
	      read from a specified file as well as all cookies received  from
	      remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no data will be writ-
	      ten. The file will be written using  the	Netscape  cookie  file
	      format.  If  you	set  the  file name to a single dash, "-", the
	      cookies will be written to stdout.

	      This command line option will activate the  cookie  engine  that
	      makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
	      to use the -b, --cookie option.

	      If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl
	      operation	 won't	fail or even report an error clearly. Using -v
	      will get a warning displayed, but that is the only visible feed-
	      back you get about this possibly lethal situation.

	      If  this	option	is used several times, the last specified file
	      name will be used.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
	      skipped, counting from the beginning of the source  file	before
	      it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out	 where/how  to
	      resume  the  transfer. It then uses the given output/input files
	      to figure that out.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of  ciphers  must	 specify  valid ciphers. Read up on SSL cipher
	      list	    details	      on	   this		  URL:
	      http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

	      NSS  ciphers  are	 done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS. The
	      full list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at  this
	      URL:					    http://git.fedora-
	      hosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
	      curl  supports,  and  save  the  uncompressed document.  If this
	      option is used and the server  sends  an	unsupported  encoding,
	      curl will report an error.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds  that	you allow curl's connection to
	      take.  This only limits the connection phase, so	if  curl  con-
	      nects  within the given period it will continue - if not it will
	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values.

	      See also the -m, --max-time option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
	      When used in conjunction with the -o option,  curl  will	create
	      the  necessary  local directory hierarchy as needed. This option
	      creates the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else.  If
	      the  -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already
	      exist, no dir will be created.

	      To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
	      create-dirs.

       --crlf Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)

       --crlfile <file>
	      (HTTPS/FTPS)  Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate
	      Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that  are  to
	      be considered revoked.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

	      (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>
	      (HTTP)  Sends  the  specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
	      server, in the same way that a browser  does  when  a  user  has
	      filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
	      cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

	      -d,  --data  is  the  same  as --data-ascii. To post data purely
	      binary, you should instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-
	      encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

	      If  any of these options is used more than once on the same com-
	      mand line, the data pieces specified  will  be  merged  together
	      with  a  separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d name=daniel -d
	      skill=lousy'  would  generate  a	post  chunk  that  looks  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
	      file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl  to  read
	      the data from stdin. Multiple files can also be specified. Post-
	      ing data from a file named 'foobar'  would  thus	be  done  with
	      --data  @foobar.	When  --data  is told to read from a file like
	      that, carriage returns and newlines will be stripped out.

       -D, --dump-header <file>
	      Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

	      This option is handy to use when you want to store  the  headers
	      that  an	HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from the headers could
	      then be read in a	 second	 curl  invocation  by  using  the  -b,
	      --cookie	option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is a better way to
	      store cookies.

	      When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines  are  considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      See -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP)  This  posts data exactly as specified with no extra pro-
	      cessing whatsoever.

	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest	 should	 be  a
	      filename.	  Data	is  posted in a similar manner as --data-ascii
	      does, except that newlines and carriage  returns	are  preserved
	      and conversions are never done.

	      If  this	option	is  used several times, the ones following the
	      first will append data as described in -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with
	      the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      To  be  CGI-compliant,  the <data> part should begin with a name
	      followed by a separator and a content specification. The	<data>
	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:

	      content
		     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
		     on. Just be careful so that the content  doesn't  contain
		     any  =  or	 @  symbols, as that will then make the syntax
		     match one of the other cases below!

	      =content
		     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass  that
		     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.

	      name=content
		     This  will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
		     that on. Note that the name part is expected to  be  URL-
		     encoded already.

	      @filename
		     This  will	 make  curl  load  data	 from  the  given file
		     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
		     it on in the POST.

	      name@filename
		     This  will	 make  curl  load  data	 from  the  given file
		     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
		     it	 on  in	 the  POST.  The  name part gets an equal sign
		     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
	      Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when
	      it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

	      none   Don't allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag  is  set
		     in	 the  Kerberos	service	 ticket,  which is a matter of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
	      (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an  authenti-
	      cation  scheme  that  prevents the password from being sent over
	      the wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the	normal
	      -u,  --user  option  to  set  user  name	and password. See also
	      --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

	      If this option is used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt  to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
	      option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and  LPRT  are	exten-
	      sions  to	 the  original	FTP  protocol, and may not work on all
	      servers, but they enable more functionality in a better way than
	      the traditional PORT command.

	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.

	      Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want  to
	      switch  to  passive  mode	 you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
	      force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use  of  the  EPSV	 command  when
	      doing  passive  FTP  transfers.  Curl will normally always first
	      attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option,  it  will
	      not try using EPSV.

	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.

	      Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
	      switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       --dns-interface <interface>
	      Tell  curl  to  send  outgoing DNS requests through <interface>.
	      This option is a counterpart  to	--interface  (which  does  not
	      affect  DNS). The supplied string must be an interface name (not
	      an address).

	      This option requires that libcurl	 was  built  with  a  resolver
	      backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
	      only such one. (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-ipv4-addr <ip-address>
	      Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv4 DNS requests,
	      so  that the DNS requests originate from this address. The argu-
	      ment should be a single IPv4 address.

	      This option requires that libcurl	 was  built  with  a  resolver
	      backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
	      only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-ipv6-addr <ip-address>
	      Tell curl to bind to <ip-address> when making IPv6 DNS requests,
	      so  that the DNS requests originate from this address. The argu-
	      ment should be a single IPv6 address.

	      This option requires that libcurl	 was  built  with  a  resolver
	      backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
	      only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       --dns-servers <ip-address,ip-address>
	      Set the list of DNS servers to be used  instead  of  the	system
	      default.	The list of IP addresses should be separated with com-
	      mas. Port numbers may also optionally be given as :<port-number>
	      after each IP address.

	      This  option  requires  that  libcurl  was built with a resolver
	      backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is  the
	      only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)

       -e, --referer <URL>
	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When
	      used with -L, --location you can append ";auto" to the --referer
	      URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it fol-
	      lows  a  Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone,
	      even if you don't set an initial --referer.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based proto-
	      col. The certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if	 using	Secure
	      Transport,  or  PEM  format  if  using any other engine.	If the
	      optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the
	      terminal.	 Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
	      that is the private key and  the	private	 certificate  concate-
	      nated! See --cert and --key to specify them independently.

	      If  curl	is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option
	      can tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within  the
	      NSS  database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by
	      default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM	PKCS#11	 module	 (lib-
	      nsspem.so)  is  available	 then  PEM files may be loaded. If you
	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
	      with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
	      If the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded by "\"  so
	      that  it	is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nick-
	      name contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it  is
	      not recognized as an escape character.

	      (iOS  and	 Mac OS X only) If curl is built against Secure Trans-
	      port, then the certificate string can either be the  name	 of  a
	      certificate/private  key	in the system or user keychain, or the
	      path to a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private	 key.  If  you
	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
	      with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
	      Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for  cipher  operations.
	      Use  --engine  list  to  print  a	 list  of build-time supported
	      engines. Note that not all (or  none)  of	 the  engines  may  be
	      available at run-time.

       --environment
	      (RISC  OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the
	      names the -w option supports, to allow easier extraction of use-
	      ful information after having run curl.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (SSL)  Specify  the  path	 name  to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
	      connections. See also the --random-file option.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (SSL)  Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate
	      is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,
	      PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
	      the peer. The file may contain  multiple	CA  certificates.  The
	      certificate(s)  must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to
	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
	      alter that default file.

	      curl  recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if it is set, and uses the given path as a path  to  a  CA  cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The  windows  version  of	 curl will automatically look for a CA
	      certs file named 'curl-ca-bundle.crt', either in the same direc-
	      tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any
	      folder along your PATH.

	      If curl is built against	the  NSS  SSL  library,	 the  NSS  PEM
	      PKCS#11  module  (libnsspem.so)  needs  to be available for this
	      option to work properly.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate	 directory  to
	      verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be provided by separating
	      them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
	      be  in  PEM  format,  and	 if curl is built against OpenSSL, the
	      directory must have been processed using	the  c_rehash  utility
	      supplied	with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
	      curl to make SSL-connections much more  efficiently  than	 using
	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,
	      and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --pinnedpubkey <pinned public key>
	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified public key file to	verify
	      the  peer.  The  file must contain a single public key in PEM or
	      DER format.

	      When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection,	 the  server  sends  a
	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
	      from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the  pub-
	      lic  key provided to this option, curl will abort the connection
	      before sending or receiving any data.

	      This is currently only implemented in the OpenSSL,  GnuTLS,  NSS
	      and GSKit backends.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
	      (Added in 7.39.0)

       -f, --fail
	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server	 errors.  This
	      is  mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal with
	      failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP  server  fails  to
	      deliver  a  document,  it	 returns  an  HTML document stating so
	      (which often also describes why and more). This flag  will  pre-
	      vent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

	      This  method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-
	      successful response codes will  slip  through,  especially  when
	      authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       -F, --form <name=content>
	      (HTTP)  This  lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user
	      has pressed the submit button. This causes  curl	to  POST  data
	      using  the  Content-Type	multipart/form-data  according	to RFC
	      2388. This enables uploading of binary files etc. To  force  the
	      'content'	 part  to  be  a  file, prefix the file name with an @
	      sign. To just get the content part from a file, prefix the  file
	      name  with  the symbol <. The difference between @ and < is then
	      that @ makes a file get attached in the post as a	 file  upload,
	      while  the  <  makes  a text field and just get the contents for
	      that text field from a file.

	      Example, to send your password file to the server, where	'pass-
	      word' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be
	      the input:

	      curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

	      To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the file-
	      name. This goes for both @ and < constructs.

	      You  can	also  tell  curl  what	Content-Type  to  use by using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	      curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

	      or

	      curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

	      You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file	upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	      curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

	      If  filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by dou-
	      ble-quotes like:

	      curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com

	      or

	      curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com

	      Note that if a filename/path is  quoted  by  double-quotes,  any
	      double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
	      backslash.

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
	      (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
	      and  password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
	      ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS  commands	fails,
	      send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's Secure
	      Transport server over FTPS using	a  client  certificate,	 using
	      "SITE  AUTH"  will tell the server to retrieve the username from
	      the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP/SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses	 a  path  that
	      doesn't  currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
	      create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
	      (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
	      FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the  follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl  does	 a  single CWD operation for each path part in
		     the given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very  many
		     commands.	This  is  how RFC 1738 says it should be done.
		     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com-
		     mands. This is the fastest behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
		     operates  on  the	file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
		     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP)  Use  passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the
	      internal default behavior, but using this option can be used  to
	      override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first one is
	      used. Undoing an enforced passive really isn't  doable  but  you
	      must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

	      Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
	      then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
	      its  response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
	      connection. Instead curl will re-use  the	 same  IP  address  it
	      already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

	      This  option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
	      of PASV.

       --ftp-pret
	      (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV  (and	EPSV).
	      Certain  FTP  servers,  mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
	      command for directory listings as well as up  and	 downloads  in
	      PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
	      (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS
	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com-
	      munication  will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol-
	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See --ftp-
	      ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
	      (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The
	      passive mode will not initiate the shutdown,  but	 instead  wait
	      for the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from
	      the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for
	      a reply from the server.	(Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
	      (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for  the FTP login, clear for transfer.
	      Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted  data  transfers
	      for  efficiency.	 Fails the transfer if the server doesn't sup-
	      port SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but will
	      be removed in a future version.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP)  Similar  to  --form except that the value string for the
	      named parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and  '<'  charac-
	      ters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special mean-
	      ing. Use this in preference to --form if there's any possibility
	      that  the	 string	 value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<'
	      features of --form.

       -g, --globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
	      this  option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
	      without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note  that
	      these  letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should
	      be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G, --get
	      When used, this option will make all  data  specified  with  -d,
	      --data,  --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
	      GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would  be
	      used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

	      If  used	in  combination with -I, the POST data will instead be
	      appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

	      If this option is used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.  This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but you
	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -H, --header <header>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending  HTTP
	      to  a  server. You may specify any number of extra headers. Note
	      that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as
	      one  of  the  internal  ones curl would use, your externally set
	      header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you
	      to  make	even  trickier	stuff than curl would normally do. You
	      should not replace internally set headers without	 knowing  per-
	      fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giv-
	      ing a replacement without content	 on  the  right	 side  of  the
	      colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom header with no-
	      value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon,  such
	      as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

	      curl  will  make	sure  that each header you add/replace is sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

	      Starting in 7.37.0, you need --proxy-header to send custom head-
	      ers intended for a proxy.

	      Example:

	      # curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" http://192.168.0.1/

	      This  option  can	 be  used multiple times to add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
	      (SCP/SFTP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal  digits.  The
	      string  should  be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's
	      public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless
	      the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
	      (HTTP)  Ignore  the  Content-Length header. This is particularly
	      useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will report	incor-
	      rect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

       -i, --include
	      (HTTP)  Include  the  HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header
	      includes things like server-name, date of	 the  document,	 HTTP-
	      version and more...

       -I, --head
	      (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature
	      the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but  the	header
	      of  a  document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays
	      the file size and last modification time only.

       --interface <name>
	      Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can	 enter
	      interface	 name,	IP address or host name. An example could look
	      like:

	       curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option  will  make  it  discard all "session cookies". This will
	      basically have the same effect as if a new session  is  started.
	      Typical  browsers	 always	 discard  session cookies when they're
	      closed down.

       -J, --remote-header-name
	      (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the
	      server-specified	 Content-Disposition   filename	  instead   of
	      extracting a filename from the URL.

	      There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in	 the  provided
	      file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected
	      file names.

       -k, --insecure
	      (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to  perform  "insecure"
	      SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted
	      to be made secure by using the CA certificate  bundle  installed
	      by  default.  This  makes	 all connections considered "insecure"
	      fail unless -k, --insecure is used.

	      See    this    online    resource	   for	  further     details:
	      http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       -K, --config <config file>
	      Specify  which config file to read curl arguments from. The con-
	      fig file is a text file in which command line arguments  can  be
	      written  which  then will be used as if they were written on the
	      actual command line.

	      Options and their parameters must be specified on the same  con-
	      fig  file	 line,	separated  by whitespace, colon, or the equals
	      sign. Long option names can optionally be given  in  the	config
	      file  without  the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or
	      equals characters can be used as separators. If  the  option  is
	      specified	 with  one  or	two  dashes,  there can be no colon or
	      equals character between the option and its parameter.

	      If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be
	      enclosed	within	quotes.	 Within	 double	 quotes, the following
	      escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n,  \r  and	\v.  A
	      backslash	 preceding  any	 other letter is ignored. If the first
	      column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line
	      will be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical
	      line in the config file.

	      Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to  make  curl  read
	      the file from stdin.

	      Note  that  to  be able to specify a URL in the config file, you
	      need to specify it using the --url option,  and  not  by	simply
	      writing  the  URL	 on its own line. So, it could look similar to
	      this:

	      url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

	      When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a
	      default  config  file  and  uses it if found. The default config
	      file is checked for in the following places in this order:

	      1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first  checks  for  the
	      CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
	      it uses getpwuid() on Unix-like systems (which returns the  home
	      dir  given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then
	      checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
	      PROFILE%\Application Data'.

	      2)  On  windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it
	      checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On
	      Unix-like	 systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
	      determined home dir.

	      # --- Example file ---
	      # this is a comment
	      url = "curl.haxx.se"
	      output = "curlhere.html"
	      user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

	      # and fetch another URL too
	      url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
	      -O
	      referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
	      # --- End of example file ---

	      This option can be used multiple times to load  multiple	config
	      files.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
	      This  option  sets  the  time  a connection needs to remain idle
	      before sending keepalive probes and the time between  individual
	      keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems
	      offering	the  TCP_KEEPIDLE  and	TCP_KEEPINTVL  socket  options
	      (meaning	Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no
	      effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
	      If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

       --key <key>
	      (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your pri-
	      vate key in this separate file. For SSH, if not specified,  curl
	      tries   the  following  candidates  in  order:  '~/.ssh/id_rsa',
	      '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
	      (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key  pro-
	      vided  private  key  is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not
	      specified, PEM is assumed.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
	      (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must  be
	      entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or
	      'private'. Should you use a level that  is  not  one  of	these,
	      'private' will instead be used.

	      This  option  requires  a	 library built with kerberos4 support.
	      This is not very common. Use -V, --version to see if  your  curl
	      supports it.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
	      (FTP)  When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-
	      only view. This is  especially  useful  if  the  user  wants  to
	      machine-parse  the contents of an FTP directory since the normal
	      directory view doesn't use a standard look or format. When  used
	      like  this,  the	option causes a NLST command to be sent to the
	      server instead of LIST.

	      Note: Some FTP servers list only	files  in  their  response  to
	      NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links.

	      (POP3)  When  retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch
	      forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR.  This  is
	      particularly  useful if the user wants to see if a specific mes-
	      sage id exists on the server and what size it is.

	      Note: When combined with -X, --request  <command>,  this	option
	      can be used to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use
	      the email's unique identifier rather than	 it's  message	id  to
	      make the request. (Added in 7.21.5)

       -L, --location
	      (HTTP/HTTPS)  If	the server reports that the requested page has
	      moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header
	      and  a  3XX  response code), this option will make curl redo the
	      request on the new place. If used together with -i, --include or
	      -I, --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When
	      authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials  to  the
	      initial  host.  If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it
	      won't be able to intercept the user+password. See	 also  --loca-
	      tion-trusted  on how to change this. You can limit the amount of
	      redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

	      When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain  GET
	      (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with
	      a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response
	      code  was	 any  other  3xx code, curl will re-send the following
	      request using the same unmodified method.

	      You can tell curl to not change the non-GET  request  method  to
	      GET  after  a  30x  response  by using the dedicated options for
	      that: --post301, --post302 and -post303.

       --libcurl <file>
	      Append this option to any ordinary curl command  line,  and  you
	      will  get a libcurl-using C source code written to the file that
	      does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does!

	      If this option is used several times, the last given  file  name
	      will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify  the  maximum  transfer  rate you want curl to use - for
	      both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you have a
	      limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your entire
	      bandwidth. To make it slower than it otherwise would be.

	      The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
	      appended.	  Appending  'k' or 'K' will count the number as kilo-
	      bytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G'  makes  it
	      gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

	      The  given  rate	is the average speed counted during the entire
	      transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in
	      short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate.

	      If  you  also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will
	      take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to
	      help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
	      Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for
	      the connection(s).  Note that  port  numbers  by	nature	are  a
	      scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this range
	      to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup
	      failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP/HTTPS)  Like  -L,  --location,  but will allow sending the
	      name + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This
	      may or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects
	      you to a site to which  you'll  send  your  authentication  info
	      (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds that you allow the whole operation to
	      take.  This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from	 hang-
	      ing  for	hours due to slow networks or links going down.	 Since
	      7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time-
	      out will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases
	      in decimal precision.  See also the --connect-timeout option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --login-options <options>
	      Specify the login options to use during server authentication.

	      You can use the  login  options  to  specify  protocol  specific
	      options  that may be used during authentication. At present only
	      IMAP, POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more  information
	      about  the  login options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092 and IETF
	      draft draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt (Added in 7.34.0).

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --mail-auth <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be  used  to  specify
	      the  authentication  address  (identity)	of a submitted message
	      that is being relayed to another server.

	      (Added in 7.25.0)

       --mail-from <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail  should  get
	      sent from.

	      (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      Specify  the  maximum  size (in bytes) of a file to download. If
	      the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer  will
	      not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

	      NOTE:  The  file size is not always known prior to download, and
	      for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans-
	      fer  ends	 up  being larger than this given limit. This concerns
	      both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
	      (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name.

	      When performing a mail transfer, the recipient should specify  a
	      valid email address to send the mail to. (Added in 7.20.0)

	      When  performing	an  address  verification  (VRFY command), the
	      recipient should be specified as the user name or user name  and
	      domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0)

	      When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the recip-
	      ient should be specified using the mailing list  name,  such  as
	      "Friends" or "London-Office".  (Added in 7.34.0)

       --max-redirs <num>
	      Set  maximum  number  of	redirection-followings allowed. If -L,
	      --location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl from
	      following	 redirections  "in absurdum". By default, the limit is
	      set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it	limit-
	      less.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --metalink
	      This  option  can	 tell curl to parse and process a given URI as
	      Metalink file (both version 3 and 4 (RFC	5854)  are  supported)
	      and  make use of the mirrors listed within for failover if there
	      are errors (such as the file or server not being available).  It
	      will  also  verify  the hash of the file after the download com-
	      pletes. The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed  in
	      memory and not stored in the local file system.

	      Example to use a remote Metalink file:

	      curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

	      To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE proto-
	      col (file://):

	      curl --metalink file://example.metalink

	      Please note that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is  no  way
	      to  use  a local Metalink file at the time of this writing. Also
	      note  that  if  --metalink  and  --include  are  used  together,
	      --include	 will be ignored. This is because including headers in
	      the response will break Metalink parser and if the  headers  are
	      included in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will
	      fail.

	      (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.)

       -n, --netrc
	      Makes curl scan the .netrc  (_netrc  on  Windows)	 file  in  the
	      user's home directory for login name and password. This is typi-
	      cally used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will	enable
	      user  authentication.  See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on the
	      file format. Curl will not complain if that  file	 doesn't  have
	      the  right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-
	      readable). The environment variable "HOME" is used to  find  the
	      home directory.

	      A	 quick	and  very  simple  example of how to setup a .netrc to
	      allow curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user  name
	      'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

	      machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -N, --no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations, curl will use a standard buffered  output  stream  that
	      will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
	      necessarily exactly when the data arrives.   Using  this	option
	      will disable that buffering.

	      Note  that  this	is the negated option name documented. You can
	      thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering.

       --netrc-file
	      This option is similar to --netrc, except that you  provide  the
	      path  (absolute  or relative) to the netrc file that Curl should
	      use.  You can only specify one netrc  file  per  invocation.  If
	      several  --netrc-file  options  are  provided, only the last one
	      will be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

	      This option overrides any use of --netrc as  they	 are  mutually
	      exclusive.  It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.


       --netrc-optional
	      Very  similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
	      optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does.


       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication.

	      If you want to enable Negotiate (SPNEGO) for  proxy  authentica-
	      tion, then use --proxy-negotiate.

	      This  option  requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI sup-
	      port. Use -V, --version  to  see	if  your  curl	supports  GSS-
	      API/SSPI and SPNEGO.

	      When  using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user
	      option to activate the authentication code properly.  Sending  a
	      '-u  :'  is  enough  as  the  user name and password from the -u
	      option aren't actually used.

	      If this option is used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
	      used.

       --no-keepalive
	      Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as
	      by default curl enables them.

	      Note that this is the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
	      (SSL)  Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default
	      all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while  nothing
	      should  ever  get	 hurt  by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs,
	      there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may
	      require  you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added
	      in 7.16.0)

	      Note that this is the negated option name	 documented.  You  can
	      thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
	      Comma-separated  list  of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one
	      is specified.  The only wildcard is a single * character,	 which
	      matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name
	      in this list is matched as either a domain  which	 contains  the
	      hostname,	 or  the hostname itself. For example, local.com would
	      match  local.com,	 local.com:80,	and  www.local.com,  but   not
	      www.notlocal.com.	 (Added in 7.19.4).

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It  is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior	should	not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
	      who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-
	      tion method instead, such as Digest.

	      If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      This option requires a library built with SSL support.  Use  -V,
	      --version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first one is
	      used.

       -o, --output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
	      []  to  fetch  multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a
	      number in the <file> specifier. That variable will  be  replaced
	      with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

		curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

		curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

	      You  may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you
	      have.

	      See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local  directo-
	      ries  dynamically.  Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash)
	      will force the output to be done to stdout.

       -O, --remote-name
	      Write output to a local file named like the remote file we  get.
	      (Only  the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut
	      off.)

	      The remote file name to use for saving  is  extracted  from  the
	      given URL, nothing else.

	      Consequentially,	the  file will be saved in the current working
	      directory. If you want the file saved in a different  directory,
	      make sure you change current working directory before you invoke
	      curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

	      There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or
	      other  URL  encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as
	      file name.

	      You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs  you
	      have.

       --oauth2-bearer
	      (IMAP, POP3, SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0 server
	      authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the
	      user  name  which	 can  be specified as part of the --url or -u,
	      --user options.

	      The Bearer Token and user name are formatted  according  to  RFC
	      6750.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --proxy-header <header>
	      (HTTP)  Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP
	      to a proxy. You may specify any number of extra headers. This is
	      the  equivalent option to -H, --header but is for proxy communi-
	      cation only like in CONNECT requests when you  want  a  separate
	      header  sent  to	the proxy to what is sent to the actual remote
	      host.

	      curl will make sure that each header  you	 add/replace  is  sent
	      with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns, they will only mess things up for you.

	      Headers  specified  with	this  option  will  not be included in
	      requests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

	      (Added in 7.37.0)

       -p, --proxytunnel
	      When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause
	      non-HTTP protocols  to  attempt  to  tunnel  through  the	 proxy
	      instead  of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tun-
	      nel approach is made with the HTTP  proxy	 CONNECT  request  and
	      requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
	      number curl wants to tunnel through to.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener  roles  when  con-
	      necting  with  FTP.  This	 switch makes curl use active mode. In
	      practice, curl then tells the server  to	connect	 back  to  the
	      client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the
	      server to setup an IP address and port for  it  to  connect  to.
	      <address> should be one of:

	      interface
		     i.e  "eth0"  to  specify which interface's IP address you
		     want to use (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

	      host name
		     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

	      -	     make curl pick the same IP address that is	 already  used
		     for the control connection

       If  this	 option is used several times, the last one will be used. Dis-
       able the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really
       PORT++.

       Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the
       address,	 to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you spec-
       ify a port range, from a lower to a  higher  number.  A	single	number
       works  as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since
       the port may not be available.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC	2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert
	      POST  requests  into GET requests when following a 301 redirect-
	      ion. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous	in  web	 browsers,  so
	      curl  does  the  conversion  by default to maintain consistency.
	      However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such
	      a	 redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,
	      --location (Added in 7.17.1)

       --post302
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC	2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert
	      POST  requests  into GET requests when following a 302 redirect-
	      ion. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous	in  web	 browsers,  so
	      curl  does  the  conversion  by default to maintain consistency.
	      However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such
	      a	 redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,
	      --location (Added in 7.19.1)

       --post303
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC	2616/10.3.2  and  not  convert
	      POST  requests  into GET requests when following a 303 redirect-
	      ion. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous	in  web	 browsers,  so
	      curl  does  the  conversion  by default to maintain consistency.
	      However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such
	      a	 redirection.  This  option  is meaningful only when using -L,
	      --location (Added in 7.26.0)

       --proto <protocols>
	      Tells  curl  to  use  the	 listed	 protocols  for	 its   initial
	      retrieval. Protocols are evaluated left to right, are comma sep-
	      arated, and are each a protocol name or 'all',  optionally  pre-
	      fixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

	      +	 Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permit-
		 ted (this is the default if no modifier is used).

	      -	 Deny this protocol, removing it from the  list	 of  protocols
		 already permitted.

	      =	 Permit	 only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit-
		 ted), though subject  to  later  modification	by  subsequent
		 entries in the comma separated list.

	      For example:

	      --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

	      --proto -all,https,+http
			     only enables http and https

	      --proto =http,https
			     also only enables http and https

	      Unknown  protocols  produce  a  warning.	This allows scripts to
	      safely rely on being able to disable potentially dangerous  pro-
	      tocols,  without	relying	 upon  support for that protocol being
	      built into curl to avoid an error.

	      This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect
	      is  the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of
	      the option.

	      (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proto-redir <protocols>
	      Tells curl to use the listed protocols  after  a	redirect.  See
	      --proto for how protocols are represented.

	      (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells  curl to pick a suitable authentication method when commu-
	      nicating with  the  given	 proxy.	 This  might  cause  an	 extra
	      request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
	      remote  host.  Basic  is	the default authentication method curl
	      uses with proxies.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a remote host.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate	(SPNEGO)  authentication  when
	      communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling
	      HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM  authentication  when	 communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
	      host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
	      Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If  the	 port  number  is  not
	      specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

	      The  only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x,
	      --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will
	      specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1.

       --pubkey <key>
	      (SSH)  Public  key  file name. Allows you to provide your public
	      key in this separate file.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

	      (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the public
	      key  from the private key file, so passing this option is gener-
	      ally not required. Note that this public key extraction requires
	      libcurl  to  be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or higher
	      that is itself linked against OpenSSL.)

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line,  the	curlrc
	      config  file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config for
	      details on the default config file search path.

       -Q, --quote <command>
	      (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP  or  SFTP
	      server.  Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place
	      (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP  transfer,	to  be
	      exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer,
	      prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make  commands  be  sent	 after
	      curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer
	      command(s), prefix the command with a '+'	 (this	is  only  sup-
	      ported  for FTP). You may specify any number of commands. If the
	      server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire oper-
	      ation  will  be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP
	      commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of  the  com-
	      mands  listed  below  to	SFTP servers.  This option can be used
	      multiple times. When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the  com-
	      mand with an asterisk (*) to make curl continue even if the com-
	      mand fails as by default curl will stop at first failure.

	      SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets  SFTP
	      quote  commands  itself before sending them to the server.  File
	      names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char-
	      acters.	Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote com-
	      mands:

	      chgrp group file
		     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named  by
		     the  file	operand to the group ID specified by the group
		     operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

	      chmod mode file
		     The chmod command modifies the  file  mode	 bits  of  the
		     specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode
		     number.

	      chown user file
		     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the
		     file  operand  to the user ID specified by the user oper-
		     and. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

	      ln source_file target_file
		     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the
		     target_file  location  pointing  to the source_file loca-
		     tion.

	      mkdir directory_name
		     The mkdir command creates	the  directory	named  by  the
		     directory_name operand.

	      pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur-
		     rent working directory.

	      rename source target
		     The rename command renames the file or directory named by
		     the  source  operand to the destination path named by the
		     target operand.

	      rm file
		     The rm command removes the file specified by the file op-
		     erand.

	      rmdir directory
		     The  rmdir	 command removes the directory entry specified
		     by the directory operand, provided it is empty.

	      symlink source_file target_file
		     See ln.

       -r, --range <range>
	      (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial	 docu-
	      ment)  from  a  HTTP/1.1,	 FTP  or  SFTP server or a local FILE.
	      Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500 bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

	      500-700,600-799
			specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply  with  a  multipart
       response!

       Only  digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields
       of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit character is given  in
       the  range, the server's response will be unspecified, depending on the
       server's configuration.

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do  not  have  this
       feature	enabled,  so  that  when  you  attempt	to get a range, you'll
       instead get the whole document.

       FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop'  syn-
       tax  (optionally	 with  one of the numbers omitted). FTP use depends on
       the extended FTP command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R, --remote-time
	      When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out  the	 time-
	      stamp  of	 the  remote  file,  and if that is available make the
	      local file get that same timestamp.

       --random-file <file>
	      (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be con-
	      sidered  as  random  data.  The  data is used to seed the random
	      engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of con-
	      tent  or	transfer  encodings  and  instead makes them passed on
	      unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       --remote-name-all
	      This option changes the default action for all given URLs to  be
	      dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if
	      you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-
	      all  has	been  used,  you  must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name.
	      (Added in 7.19.0)

       --resolve <host:port:address>
	      Provide a custom address for a  specific	host  and  port	 pair.
	      Using  this,  you	 can make the curl requests(s) use a specified
	      address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved  address  to
	      be  used.	 Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided
	      on the command line. The port number should be the  number  used
	      for  the	specific  protocol the host will be used for. It means
	      you need several entries if you want to provide address for  the
	      same host but different ports.

	      This  option  can	 be  used many times to add many host names to
	      resolve.

	      (Added in 7.21.3)

       --retry <num>
	      If a transient error is returned when curl tries	to  perform  a
	      transfer,	 it  will retry this number of times before giving up.
	      Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which  is  the
	      default).	 Transient  error  means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx
	      response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

	      When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first  wait  one
	      second  and  then for all forthcoming retries it will double the
	      waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be  the
	      delay  between  the rest of the retries.	By using --retry-delay
	      you  disable  this  exponential  backoff	algorithm.  See	  also
	      --retry-max-time	to  limit  the total time allowed for retries.
	      (Added in 7.12.3)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make curl sleep this amount of time before  each	retry  when  a
	      transfer	has  failed  with  a  transient	 error (it changes the
	      default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option  is
	      only  interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
	      zero will make curl use the default  backoff  time.   (Added  in
	      7.12.3)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
	      The  retry  timer	 is  reset  before the first transfer attempt.
	      Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
	      hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't
	      reached the limit, the request will be made and  while  perform-
	      ing,  it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a
	      single request's maximum time, use  -m,  --max-time.   Set  this
	      option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -s, --silent
	      Silent  or  quiet	 mode. Don't show progress meter or error mes-
	      sages.  Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data  you  ask
	      for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect
	      it.

       --sasl-ir
	      Enable initial  response	in  SASL  authentication.   (Added  in
	      7.31.0)

       -S, --show-error
	      When  used  with	-s  it	makes curl show an error message if it
	      fails.

       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for  the  connection.
	      Reverts to a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support
	      SSL/TLS.	See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for  differ-
	      ent levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

	      This  option  was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0).
	      That option name can still be used but  will  be	removed	 in  a
	      future version.

       --ssl-reqd
	      (FTP,  POP3,  IMAP,  SMTP)  Require  SSL/TLS for the connection.
	      Terminates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.
	      (Added in 7.20.0)

	      This  option  was	 formerly  known  as  --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in
	      7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be  removed
	      in a future version.

       --ssl-allow-beast
	      (SSL)  This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw
	      in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.	If this option
	      isn't  used,  the	 SSL  layer may use workarounds known to cause
	      interoperability problems with some older	 SSL  implementations.
	      WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this
	      flag you ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci-
	      fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not spec-
	      ified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol  pre-
	      fix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
	      Use  the	specified  SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the
	      host name). If the port number is not specified, it  is  assumed
	      at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

	      This  option  overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// proto-
	      col prefix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
	      (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as
	      --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy  -	 but  resolve  the  host  name
	      locally.	If  the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
	      port 1080.

	      This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a
	      socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
	      (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as
	      --socks without the number appended.)

	      This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6,  FTPS
	      or LDAP.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
	      The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn.
	      This option allows you to change it.

	      Examples:	 --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service	 sockd
	      would  use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-
	      service sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for	 cases
	      where  the proxy-name does not match the principal name.	(Added
	      in 7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
	      As part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is  negoti-
	      ated.  RFC  1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected,
	      but the NEC  reference  implementation  does  not.   The	option
	      --socks5-gssapi-nec  allows the unprotected exchange of the pro-
	      tection mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

       --stderr <file>
	      Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead.  If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
	      This  transfers  the  specified local file to the remote URL. If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
	      directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name  or
	      curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
	      given  file.   Alternately,  the file name "." (a single period)
	      may be specified instead of "-" to  use  stdin  in  non-blocking
	      mode  to	allow  reading	server	output	while  stdin  is being
	      uploaded.

	      You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T
	      + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also sup-
	      ports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload
	      multiple	files  to  a single URL by using the same URL globbing
	      style supported in the URL, like this:

	      curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

	      or even

	      curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3)  man
	      page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       --tftp-blksize <value>
	      (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block
	      size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from
	      a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

	      (Added in 7.20.0)

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>
	      Set  TLS	authentication	type.  Currently,  the	only supported
	      option is "SRP",	for  TLS-SRP  (RFC  5054).  If	--tlsuser  and
	      --tlspassword  are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this
	      option defaults to "SRP".	 (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlspassword <password>
	      Set password for use with the TLS authentication	method	speci-
	      fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires that --tlsuser also be set.
	      (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsuser <user>
	      Set username for use with the TLS authentication	method	speci-
	      fied  with  --tlsauthtype.  Requires  that --tlspassword also be
	      set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsv1.0
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 when negotiating with a
	      remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tlsv1.1
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 when negotiating with a
	      remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tlsv1.2
	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 when negotiating with a
	      remote TLS server.  (Added in 7.34.0)

       --tr-encoding
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one
	      of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the  data	 while
	      receiving it.

	      (Added in 7.21.6)

       --trace <file>
	      Enables  a  full	trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
	      including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-
	      ascii.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a full trace dump of all	incoming  and  outgoing	 data,
	      including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
	      only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
	      that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose  line  that  curl
	      displays.	 (Added in 7.14.0)

       --unix-socket <path>
	      (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using
	      the network. (Added in 7.40.0)

       -u, --user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and password to use for server authentica-
	      tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If  you  simply  specify	the  user name, curl will prompt for a
	      password.

	      The user name and passwords are split up	on  the	 first	colon,
	      which  makes  it impossible to use a colon in the user name with
	      this option. The password can, still.

	      When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based  server  you	should
	      include  the  Windows domain name in the user name, in order for
	      the server to succesfully obtain a Kerberos Ticket. If you don't
	      then the initial authentication handshake may fail.

	      When  using  NTLM,  the user name can be specified simply as the
	      user name, without the domain, if there is a single  domain  and
	      forest in your setup for example.

	      To  specify  the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or
	      UPN (User Principal Name) formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and
	      user@example.com respectively.

	      If  you  use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Ker-
	      beros V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you  can
	      tell  curl  to select the user name and password from your envi-
	      ronment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
	      Specify the user name and password to use for proxy  authentica-
	      tion.

	      If  you  use  a  Windows	SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either
	      Negotiate or NTLM authentication	then  you  can	tell  curl  to
	      select the user name and password from your environment by spec-
	      ifying a single colon with this option: "-U :".

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
	      Specify a URL to fetch. This option is  mostly  handy  when  you
	      want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

	      This  option  may	 be used any number of times. To control where
	      this URL is written, use the -o, --output or the	-O,  --remote-
	      name options.

       -v, --verbose
	      Be  more	verbose/talkative  during  the	operation.  Useful for
	      debugging and seeing what's going on "under the  hood".  A  line
	      starting	with  '>'  means "header data" sent by curl, '<' means
	      "header data" received by curl that is hidden in	normal	cases,
	      and  a  line starting with '*' means additional info provided by
	      curl.

	      Note that if you only want  HTTP	headers	 in  the  output,  -i,
	      --include might be the option you're looking for.

	      If  you think this option still doesn't give you enough details,
	      consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

	      This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

	      Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

       -w, --write-out <format>
	      Make curl display information on stdout after a completed trans-
	      fer.  The	 format	 is a string that may contain plain text mixed
	      with any number of variables. The format can be specified	 as  a
	      literal  "string",  or  you can have curl read the format from a
	      file with "@filename" and to tell curl to read the  format  from
	      stdin you write "@-".

	      The  variables  present in the output format will be substituted
	      by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as  described	below.
	      All  variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a
	      normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline  by
	      using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

	      NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment,
	      where all occurrences of %  must	be  doubled  when  using  this
	      option.

	      The variables available are:

	      content_type   The  Content-Type	of  the requested document, if
			     there was any.

	      filename_effective
			     The ultimate filename that curl  writes  out  to.
			     This  is only meaningful if curl is told to write
			     to a file	with  the  --remote-name  or  --output
			     option.  It's most useful in combination with the
			     --remote-header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1)

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on
			     to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

	      http_code	     The numerical response code that was found in the
			     last retrieved HTTP(S)  or	 FTP(s)	 transfer.  In
			     7.18.2  the alias response_code was added to show
			     the same info.

	      http_connect   The numerical code that was  found	 in  the  last
			     response	(from  a  proxy)  to  a	 curl  CONNECT
			     request. (Added in 7.12.4)

	      local_ip	     The IP address of	the  local  end	 of  the  most
			     recently  done connection - can be either IPv4 or
			     IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

	      local_port     The local port number of the most	recently  done
			     connection (Added in 7.29.0)

	      num_connects   Number  of new connects made in the recent trans-
			     fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      num_redirects  Number of redirects that  were  followed  in  the
			     request. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      redirect_url   When  an HTTP request was made without -L to fol-
			     low redirects, this variable will show the actual
			     URL  a  redirect  would  take  you	 to. (Added in
			     7.18.2)

	      remote_ip	     The remote IP address of the most	recently  done
			     connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in
			     7.29.0)

	      remote_port    The remote port number of the most recently  done
			     connection (Added in 7.29.0)

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
			     HTTP request.

	      size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

	      speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
			     the complete download. Bytes per second.

	      speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl	 measured  for
			     the complete upload. Bytes per second.

	      ssl_verify_result
			     The  result of the SSL peer certificate verifica-
			     tion that was requested. 0 means the verification
			     was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

	      time_appconnect
			     The  time,	 in  seconds,  it  took from the start
			     until the SSL/SSH/etc  connect/handshake  to  the
			     remote host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

	      time_connect   The  time,	 in  seconds,  it  took from the start
			     until the TCP connect  to	the  remote  host  (or
			     proxy) was completed.

	      time_namelookup
			     The  time,	 in  seconds,  it  took from the start
			     until the name resolving was completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The time, in seconds,  it	took  from  the	 start
			     until  the file transfer was just about to begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps  include  name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and transfer before  the  final  transaction  was
			     started.  time_redirect shows the complete execu-
			     tion time for multiple  redirections.  (Added  in
			     7.12.3)

	      time_starttransfer
			     The  time,	 in  seconds,  it  took from the start
			     until the first byte was just about to be	trans-
			     ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also
			     the time  the  server  needed  to	calculate  the
			     result.

	      time_total     The  total time, in seconds, that the full opera-
			     tion lasted. The time will be displayed with mil-
			     lisecond resolution.

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean-
			     ingful if you've told curl	 to  follow  location:
			     headers.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>
	      Use the specified proxy.

	      The  proxy  string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix to
	      specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://,  socks4a://,
	      socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to
	      be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all others  will  be
	      treated as HTTP proxies. (The protocol support was added in curl
	      7.21.7)

	      If the port number is not specified in the proxy string,	it  is
	      assumed to be 1080.

	      This  option  overrides  existing environment variables that set
	      the proxy to use. If there's an environment variable  setting  a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

	      All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will trans-
	      parently be converted to HTTP. It means  that  certain  protocol
	      specific operations might not be available. This is not the case
	      if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox-
	      ytunnel option.

	      User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are
	      URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special  charac-
	      ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

	      The  proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy
	      environment variables, including the protocol  prefix  (http://)
	      and the embedded user + password.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X, --request <command>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat-
	      ing with the HTTP server.	 The specified request	will  be  used
	      instead  of  the	method otherwise used (which defaults to GET).
	      Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for  details  and	 explanations.
	      Common  additional  HTTP	requests  include  PUT and DELETE, but
	      related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and
	      more.

	      Normally	you  don't  need  this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD,
	      POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated com-
	      mand line options.

	      This  option  only  changes  the	actual	word  used in the HTTP
	      request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for  example
	      if  you  want  to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will
	      not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

	      (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with FTP.

	      (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or
	      RETR. (Added in 7.26.0)

	      (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use instead  of	 LIST.
	      (Added in 7.30.0)

	      (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or
	      VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0)

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --xattr
	      When saving output to a file, this option tells  curl  to	 store
	      certain  file  metadata  in extended file attributes. Currently,
	      the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP,
	      the  content  type  is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the
	      file system does not support extended attributes, a  warning  is
	      issued.


       -y, --speed-time <time>
	      If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
	      a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
	      used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -Y.

	      This  option  controls  transfers	 and thus will not affect slow
	      connects etc. If this is a concern for you, try  the  --connect-
	      timeout option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per sec-
	      ond) for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time  is  set
	      with -y and is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z, --time-cond <date expression>|<file>
	      (HTTP/FTP)  Request a file that has been modified later than the
	      given time and date, or one that has been modified  before  that
	      time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date strings or
	      if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename
	      and  tries  to  get  the	modification  date (mtime) from <file>
	      instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for  date  expression
	      details.

	      Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
	      a document that is older than the given date/time, default is  a
	      document that is newer than the specified date/time.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -h, --help
	      Usage  help.  This lists all current command line options with a
	      short description.

       -M, --manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -V, --version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The first line includes the full version of  curl,  libcurl  and
	      other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

	      The  second  line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

	      SSL    SSL  versions of various protocols are supported, such as
		     HTTPS, FTPS, POP3S and so on.

	      libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP  is
		     supported.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      Debug  This  curl	 uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
		     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For	 curl-
		     developers only!

	      AsynchDNS
		     This  curl	 uses asynchronous name resolves. Asynchronous
		     name resolves can be done using either the c-ares or  the
		     threaded resolver backends.

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO authentication is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
		     than 2GB.

	      IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

	      GSS-API
		     GSS-API is supported.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported.

	      TLS-SRP
		     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is  supported
		     for TLS.

	      HTTP2  HTTP/2 support has been built-in.

	      Metalink
		     This  curl	 supports  Metalink (both version 3 and 4 (RFC
		     5854)), which describes mirrors and  hashes.   curl  will
		     use mirrors for failover if there are errors (such as the
		     file or server not being available).

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case.
       The lower case version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it
       is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same  effect  as
       using the --proxy option.


       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets  the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the pro-
	      tocol is a protocol that curl supports and  as  specified	 in  a
	      URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets  the	 proxy	server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is
	      set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
	      list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy.  If  set
	      to a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl  version  7.21.7,  the proxy string may be specified with a
       protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in  the  proxy  string  or  if  the	string
       doesn't	match  a  supported  one, the proxy will be treated as an HTTP
       proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
	      Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There are a bunch of different  error  codes  and  their	 corresponding
       error  messages	that  may appear during bad conditions. At the time of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A	 feature  or  option  that  was	 needed to perform the desired
	      request was not enabled or was  explicitly  disabled  at	build-
	      time.  To	 make  curl able to do this, you probably need another
	      build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy.  The  given  proxy  host	could  not  be
	      resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP  weird  server  reply.  The  server  sent data curl couldn't
	      parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied  access  to
	      the  particular  resource or directory you wanted to reach. Most
	      often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't  exist  on
	      the server.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
	      PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to  the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP  weird  227  format.	Curl  couldn't	parse the 227-line the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got  in  the
	      227-line.

       17     FTP  couldn't  set  binary.  Couldn't  change transfer method to
	      binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or	 simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP  page  not  retrieved.  The	requested url was not found or
	      returned another error with the HTTP error  code	being  400  or
	      above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write  error.  Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or
	      similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied	 the  STOR  operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation	 timeout.  The	specified  time-out period was reached
	      according to the conditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not  all  FTP  servers
	      support  the  PORT  command,  try	 doing	a  transfer using PASV
	      instead!

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command  is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP  bad	download  resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted
	      download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface	 error.	 A  specified  outgoing interface could not be
	      used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you
	      passed a weird option to curl that was passed on to libcurl  and
	      rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The  server  didn't  reply anything, which here is considered an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA  certifi-
	      cates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The  user	 name,	password, or similar was not accepted and curl
	      failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file,	missing	 or  wrong  format  (added  in
	      7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       89     No connection available, the session will be queued

       90     SSL public key does not matched pinned public key

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The exist-
	      ing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of  contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)



Curl 7.40.0			  30 Nov 2014			       curl(1)