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curl(1)				  Curl Manual			       curl(1)



NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is	 a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
       supported protocols (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, TFTP, DICT,	 TELNET,  LDAP
       or FILE).  The command is designed to work without user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen-
       tication, ftp upload, HTTP post,	 SSL  (https:)	connections,  cookies,
       file  transfer  resume  and  more. As you will see below, the amount of
       features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by  libcurl  for	 all  transfer-related	features.  See
       libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The  URL	 syntax is protocol dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip-
       tion in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
       within braces as in:

	http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

	ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
	ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
	ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       No nesting of the sequences is supported at the moment, but you can use
       several ones next to each other:

	http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
       fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.

       Since  curl 7.15.1 you can also specify step counter for the ranges, so
       that you can get every Nth number or letter:

	http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
	http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
       guess  what  protocol  you might want. It will then default to HTTP but
       try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For	 exam-
       ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
       speak FTP.

       Curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
       that  getting many files from the same server will not do multiple con-
       nects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done on
       files  specified	 on  a	single command line and cannot be used between
       separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during  operations,  indicating
       amount of transfered data, transfer speeds and estimated time left etc.

       However, since curl displays data to the terminal by  default,  if  you
       invoke  curl  to	 do  an operation and it is about to write data to the
       terminal, it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess  up
       the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
       redirect the response output to a file, using shell  redirect  (>),  -o
       [file] or similar.

       It  is  not the same case for FTP upload as that operation is not spit-
       ting out any response data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your
       friend.

OPTIONS
       -a/--append
	      (FTP)  When used in an FTP upload, this will tell curl to append
	      to the target file  instead  of  overwriting  it.	 If  the  file
	      doesn't exist, it will be created.

	      If this option is used twice, the second one will disable append
	      mode again.

       -A/--user-agent <agent string>
	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
	      Some  badly  done CGIs fail if its not set to "Mozilla/4.0".  To
	      encode blanks in the string, surround  the  string  with	single
	      quote  marks.   This can also be set with the -H/--header option
	      of course.

	      If this option is set more than once, the last one will  be  the
	      one that's used.

       --anyauth
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
	      and use the most secure one the remote site claims it  supports.
	      This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
	      headers, thus inducing an extra network round-trip. This is used
	      instead  of  setting a specific authentication method, which you
	      can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate.

	      Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you  do  uploads
	      from  stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and then
	      the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when
	      uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

	      If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
	      make no difference.

       -b/--cookie <name=data>
	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is  sup-
	      posedly  the data previously received from the server in a "Set-
	      Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format	"NAME1=VALUE1;
	      NAME2=VALUE2".

	      If  no  '=' letter is used in the line, it is treated as a file-
	      name to use to read previously stored cookie lines  from,	 which
	      should  be used in this session if they match. Using this method
	      also activates the "cookie parser" which will make  curl	record
	      incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in
	      combination with the -L/--location option. The  file  format  of
	      the  file	 to  read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
	      the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

	      NOTE that the file specified with -b/--cookie is	only  used  as
	      input.  No cookies will be stored in the file. To store cookies,
	      use the -c/--cookie-jar option or you could even save  the  HTTP
	      headers to a file using -D/--dump-header!

	      If  this	option is set more than once, the last one will be the
	      one that's used.

       -B/--use-ascii
	      Enable ASCII transfer when using FTP or LDAP. For FTP, this  can
	      also  be enforced by using an URL that ends with ";type=A". This
	      option causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode  for	 win32
	      systems.

	      If  this option is used twice, the second one will disable ASCII
	      usage.

       --basic
	      (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is  the
	      default  and this option is usually pointless, unless you use it
	      to override a  previously	 set  option  that  sets  a  different
	      authentication  method  (such  as --ntlm, --digest and --negoti-
	      ate).

	      If this option is used several times, the following  occurrences
	      make no difference.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
	      (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
	      of ciphers must be using valid ciphers. Read up  on  SSL	cipher
	      list	     details	       on	    this	  URL:
	      http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will override
	      the others.

       --compressed
	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
	      libcurl supports, and return the uncompressed document.  If this
	      option  is  used	and  the server sends an unsupported encoding,
	      Curl will report an error.

	      If this option is used several times, each occurrence will  tog-
	      gle it on/off.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
	      Maximum  time  in	 seconds  that you allow the connection to the
	      server to take.  This only limits	 the  connection  phase,  once
	      curl  has	 connected this option is of no more use. See also the
	      -m/--max-time option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -c/--cookie-jar <file name>
	      Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies after a
	      completed operation. Curl writes	all  cookies  previously  read
	      from  a  specified  file	as  well  as all cookies received from
	      remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be writ-
	      ten.  The	 file  will  be written using the Netscape cookie file
	      format. If you set the file name to  a  single  dash,  "-",  the
	      cookies will be written to stdout.

	      NOTE If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole
	      curl operation won't fail or even report an error clearly. Using
	      -v  will	get  a warning displayed, but that is the only visible
	      feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

	      If this option is used several times, the	 last  specified  file
	      name will be used.

       -C/--continue-at <offset>
	      Continue/Resume  a  previous  file transfer at the given offset.
	      The given offset is the exact  number  of	 bytes	that  will  be
	      skipped  counted from the beginning of the source file before it
	      is transferred to the destination.  If used  with	 uploads,  the
	      ftp server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

	      Use  "-C	-" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to
	      resume the transfer. It then uses the given  output/input	 files
	      to figure that out.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
	      When used in conjunction with the -o option,  curl  will	create
	      the  necessary  local directory hierarchy as needed. This option
	      creates the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else.  If
	      the  -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already
	      exist, no dir will be created.

	      To create remote directories when using FTP,  try	 --ftp-create-
	      dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

	      If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
	      make no difference.

       -d/--data <data>
	      (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request	 to  the  HTTP
	      server,  in  a way that can emulate as if a user has filled in a
	      HTML form and pressed the submit button. Note that the  data  is
	      sent  exactly  as	 specified  with no extra processing (with all
	      newlines cut off).  The data is expected	to  be	"url-encoded".
	      This  will  cause	 curl to pass the data to the server using the
	      content-type   application/x-www-form-urlencoded.	  Compare   to
	      -F/--form.  If  this  option  is used more than once on the same
	      command line, the data pieces specified will be merged  together
	      with  a  separating  &-letter.  Thus,  using  '-d name=daniel -d
	      skill=lousy'  would  generate  a	post  chunk  that  looks  like
	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

	      If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
	      file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl  to  read
	      the  data	 from stdin.  The contents of the file must already be
	      url-encoded. Multiple files can also be specified. Posting  data
	      from  a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data @foo-
	      bar".

	      To post data purely binary, you should instead use  the  --data-
	      binary option.

	      -d/--data is the same as --data-ascii.

	      If  this	option	is  used several times, the ones following the
	      first will append data.

       --data-ascii <data>
	      (HTTP) This is an alias for the -d/--data option.

	      If this option is used several times,  the  ones	following  the
	      first will append data.

       --data-binary <data>
	      (HTTP) This posts data in a similar manner as --data-ascii does,
	      although when using this option the entire context of the posted
	      data  is	kept  as-is. If you want to post a binary file without
	      the strip-newlines feature of the --data-ascii option,  this  is
	      for you.

	      If  this	option	is  used several times, the ones following the
	      first will append data.

       --delegation LEVEL
	      Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when
	      it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

	      none   Don't allow any delegation.

	      policy Delegates	if  and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set
		     in the Kerberos service ticket,  which  is	 a  matter  of
		     realm policy.

	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
	      (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is a authentica-
	      tion that prevents the password from being sent over the wire in
	      clear  text.  Use	 this in combination with the normal -u/--user
	      option to set user name and password. See also --ntlm, --negoti-
	      ate and --anyauth for related options.

	      If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
	      make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
	      when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
	      attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with  this
	      option,  it  will	 use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are exten-
	      sions to the original FTP protocol, may not work on all  servers
	      but  enable  more	 functionality in a better way than the tradi-
	      tional PORT command.

	      If this option is used several times, each occurrence will  tog-
	      gle this on/off.

       --disable-epsv
	      (FTP)  Tell  curl	 to  disable  the use of the EPSV command when
	      doing passive FTP transfers. Curl	 will  normally	 always	 first
	      attempt  to  use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will
	      not try using EPSV.

	      If this option is used several times, each occurrence will  tog-
	      gle this on/off.

       -D/--dump-header <file>
	      Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

	      This  option  is handy to use when you want to store the headers
	      that a HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from  the	headers	 could
	      then  be	read  in a second curl invoke by using the -b/--cookie
	      option! The -c/--cookie-jar option is however a  better  way  to
	      store cookies.

	      When  used  on FTP, the ftp server response lines are considered
	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -e/--referer <URL>
	      (HTTP)  Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server.
	      This can also be set with the -H/--header flag of course.	  When
	      used  with -L/--location you can append ";auto" to the --referer
	      URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it fol-
	      lows  a  Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone,
	      even if you don't set an initial --referer.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
	      Select  the  OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations.
	      Use --engine list	 to  print  a  list  of	 build-time  supported
	      engines.	Note  that  not	 all  (or  none) of the engines may be
	      available at run-time.

       --environment
	      (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using  the
	      names the -w option supports, to easier allow extraction of use-
	      ful information after having run curl.

	      If this option is used several times, each occurrence will  tog-
	      gle this on/off.

       --egd-file <file>
	      (HTTPS)  Specify	the  path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
	      connections. See also the --random-file option.

       -E/--cert <certificate[:password]>
	      (HTTPS)  Tells  curl  to use the specified certificate file when
	      getting a file with HTTPS. The certificate must be in  PEM  for-
	      mat.   If	 the  optional	password  isn't	 specified, it will be
	      queried for on the terminal. Note that this certificate  is  the
	      private key and the private certificate concatenated!

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cert-type <type>
	      (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided  certificate
	      is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
	      (HTTPS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to ver-
	      ify the peer. The file may contain multiple CA certificates. The
	      certificate(s) must be in PEM format.

	      curl recognizes the environment variable named  'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
	      if  that	is set, and uses the given path as a path to a CA cert
	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.

	      The windows version of curl will automatically  look  for	 a  CA
	      certs file named ?curl-ca-bundle.crt?, either in the same direc-
	      tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any
	      folder along your PATH.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
	      (HTTPS) Tells curl to use the specified certificate directory to
	      verify the peer. The certificates must be in PEM format, and the
	      directory must have been processed using	the  c_rehash  utility
	      supplied	with  openssl.	Using  --capath can allow curl to make
	      https connections much more efficiently than using  --cacert  if
	      the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -f/--fail
	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server	 errors.  This
	      is  mostly done like this to better enable scripts etc to better
	      deal with failed attempts. In normal cases when  a  HTTP	server
	      fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating
	      so (which often also describes why and  more).  This  flag  will
	      prevent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

	      If  this	option	is  used  twice, the second will again disable
	      silent failure.

       --ftp-account [data]
	      (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
	      and  password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
	      ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

	      If this option is used twice, the second will override the  pre-
	      vious use.

       --ftp-create-dirs
	      (FTP)  When  an  FTP URL/operation uses a path that doesn't cur-
	      rently exist on the server, the standard behavior of curl is  to
	      fail.  Using  this  option,  curl will instead attempt to create
	      missing directories.

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      directory creation.

       --ftp-method [method]
	      (FTP)  Control  what method curl should use to reach a file on a
	      FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the  follow-
	      ing alternatives:

	      multicwd
		     curl  does	 a  single CWD operation for each path part in
		     the given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very  many
		     commands.	This  is  how  RFC1738 says it should be done.
		     This is the default but the slowest behavior.

	      nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
		     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com-
		     mands. This is the fastest behavior.

	      singlecwd
		     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
		     operates  on  the	file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
		     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.

       --ftp-pasv
	      (FTP)  Use  PASV when transferring. PASV is the internal default
	      behavior, but using this option can be used to override a previ-
	      ous --ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

	      If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
	      make no difference.


       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
	      (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS  commands	fails,
	      send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's Secure
	      Transport server over FTPS using	a  client  certificate,	 using
	      "SITE  AUTH"  will tell the server to retrieve the username from
	      the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
	      its  response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
	      connection. Instead curl will re-use  the	 same  IP  address  it
	      already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

	      This  option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
	      of PASV.

	      If this option is used twice, the	 second	 will  again  use  the
	      server's suggested address.

       --ftp-ssl
	      (FTP)  Try  to use SSL/TLS for the FTP connection.  Reverts to a
	      non-secure connection if the  server  doesn't  support  SSL/TLS.
	      (Added in 7.11.0)

	      If  this	option	is  used  twice, the second will again disable
	      this.

       --ftp-ssl-reqd
	      (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP	 connection.   Terminates  the
	      connection  if  the  server  doesn't support SSL/TLS.  (Added in
	      7.15.5)

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      this.

       -F/--form <name=content>
	      (HTTP)  This  lets curl emulate a filled in form in which a user
	      has pressed the submit button. This causes  curl	to  POST  data
	      using the Content-Type multipart/form-data according to RFC1867.
	      This enables uploading of binary files etc. To force  the	 'con-
	      tent' part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To
	      just get the content part from a file, prefix the file name with
	      the  letter  <.  The  difference	between @ and < is then that @
	      makes a file get attached in the post as a  file	upload,	 while
	      the < makes a text field and just get the contents for that text
	      field from a file.

	      Example, to send your password file to the server, where	'pass-
	      word' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be
	      the input:

	      curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

	      To read the file's content from stdin instead of a file,	use  -
	      where  the  file name should've been. This goes for both @ and <
	      constructs.

	      You can also  tell  curl	what  Content-Type  to	use  by	 using
	      'type=', in a manner similar to:

	      curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

	      or

	      curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

	      You  can also explicitly change the name field of an file upload
	      part by setting filename=, like this:

	      curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

       --form-string <name=string>
	      (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value  string  for  the
	      named  parameter	is used literally. Leading '@' and '<' charac-
	      ters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special mean-
	      ing. Use this in preference to --form if there's any possibility
	      that the string value may accidentally trigger the  '@'  or  '<'
	      features of --form.

       -g/--globoff
	      This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
	      this option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters  {}[]
	      without  having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note that
	      these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they	should
	      be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G/--get
	      When  used,  this	 option	 will  make  all  data	specified with
	      -d/--data or --data-binary to be used  in	 a  HTTP  GET  request
	      instead  of  the	POST request that otherwise would be used. The
	      data will be appended to the URL with a '?'  separator.

	      If used in combination with -I, the POST data  will  instead  be
	      appended to the URL with a HEAD request.

	      If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
	      make no difference.

       -h/--help
	      Usage help.

       -H/--header <header>
	      (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting  a  web  page.  You  may
	      specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add
	      a custom header that has the same name as one  of	 the  internal
	      ones  curl  would	 use,  your externally set header will be used
	      instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even trick-
	      ier  stuff  than	curl would normally do. You should not replace
	      internally set  headers  without	knowing	 perfectly  well  what
	      you're doing. Replacing an internal header with one without con-
	      tent on the right side of the colon  will	 prevent  that	header
	      from appearing.

	      curl  will  make	sure that each header you add/replace get sent
	      with the proper end of line marker, you should thus not add that
	      as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage
	      returns they will only mess things up for you.

	      See also the -A/--user-agent and -e/--referer options.

	      This option can be used  multiple	 times	to  add/replace/remove
	      multiple headers.

       --ignore-content-length
	      (HTTP)  Ignore  the  Content-Length header. This is particularly
	      useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will report	incor-
	      rect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

       -i/--include
	      (HTTP)  Include  the  HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header
	      includes things like server-name, date of	 the  document,	 HTTP-
	      version and more...

	      If  this	option	is  used  twice, the second will again disable
	      header include.

       --interface <name>
	      Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can	 enter
	      interface	 name,	IP address or host name. An example could look
	      like:

	       curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -I/--head
	      (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature
	      the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but  the	header
	      of  a  document.	When used on a FTP or FILE file, curl displays
	      the file size and last modification time only.

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      header only.

       -j/--junk-session-cookies
	      (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this
	      option will make it discard all  "session	 cookies".  This  will
	      basically	 have  the same effect as if a new session is started.
	      Typical browsers always discard  session	cookies	 when  they're
	      closed down.

	      If  this option is used several times, each occurrence will tog-
	      gle this on/off.

       -k/--insecure
	      (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to  perform  "insecure"
	      SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted
	      to be made secure by using the CA certificate  bundle  installed
	      by  default. This makes all connections considered "insecure" to
	      fail unless -k/--insecure is used.

	      If this option is used twice, the second time will again disable
	      it.

       --key <key>
	      (SSL)  Private key file name. Allows you to provide your private
	      key in this separate file.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
	      (SSL)  Private key file type. Specify which type your --key pro-
	      vided private key is. DER, PEM and ENG are supported.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb4 <level>
	      (FTP) Enable kerberos4 authentication and use. The level must be
	      entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential'  or
	      'private'.  Should  you  use  a  level that is not one of these,
	      'private' will instead be used.

	      This option requires that the library was built  with  kerberos4
	      support.	This  is  not  very common. Use -V/--version to see if
	      your curl supports it.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -K/--config <config file>
	      Specify  which config file to read curl arguments from. The con-
	      fig file is a text file in which command line arguments  can  be
	      written  which  then will be used as if they were written on the
	      actual command line. Options and their parameters must be speci-
	      fied  on	the same config file line. If the parameter is to con-
	      tain white spaces, the parameter must be enclosed within quotes.
	      If  the  first  column  of a config line is a '#' character, the
	      rest of the line will be treated as a comment.

	      Specify the filename as '-' to make  curl	 read  the  file  from
	      stdin.

	      Note  that  to  be able to specify a URL in the config file, you
	      need to specify it using the --url option,  and  not  by	simply
	      writing  the  URL	 on its own line. So, it could look similar to
	      this:

	      url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

	      This option can be used multiple times.

	      When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a
	      default  config  file  and  uses it if found. The default config
	      file is checked for in the following places in this order:

	      1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first  checks  for  the
	      CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that,
	      it uses getpwuid() on unix-like systems (which returns the  home
	      dir  given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then
	      checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER-
	      PROFILE%0lication Data'.

	      2)  On  windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it
	      checks for one in the same dir the executable curl is placed. On
	      unix-like	 systems,  it will simply try to load .curlrc from the
	      determined home dir.

       --limit-rate <speed>
	      Specify the maximum transfer rate you want  curl	to  use.  This
	      feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your
	      transfer not use your entire bandwidth.

	      The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix  is
	      appended.	  Appending  'k' or 'K' will count the number as kilo-
	      bytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes while 'g' or	'G'  makes  it
	      gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

	      If  you  are also using the -Y/--speed-limit option, that option
	      will  take  precedence  and  might  cripple  the	 rate-limiting
	      slightly, to help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l/--list-only
	      (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a	 name-
	      only  view.   Especially useful if you want to machine-parse the
	      contents of an FTP directory since  the  normal  directory  view
	      doesn't use a standard look or format.

	      This  option  causes  an	FTP NLST command to be sent.  Some FTP
	      servers list only files in their response to NLST; they  do  not
	      include subdirectories and symbolic links.

	      If this option is used twice, the second will again disable list
	      only.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
	      Set a prefered number or range of local port numbers to use  for
	      the connection(s).  Note that port numbers by nature is a scarce
	      resource that will be busy at times so  setting  this  range  to
	      something	 too  narrow  might cause unnecessary connection setup
	      failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       -L/--location
	      (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the requested  page  has
	      moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header
	      and a 3XX response code) this option will	 make  curl  redo  the
	      request  on the new place. If used together with -i/--include or
	      -I/--head, headers from all requested pages will be shown.  When
	      authentication  is  used, curl only sends its credentials to the
	      initial host. If a redirect takes curl to a different  host,  it
	      won't  be	 able to intercept the user+password. See also --loca-
	      tion-trusted on how to change this. You can limit the amount  of
	      redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

	      If  this	option	is  used  twice, the second will again disable
	      location following.

       --location-trusted
	      (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L/--location, but will allow sending the name
	      +	 password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may
	      or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you
	      do  a  site to which you'll send your authentication info (which
	      is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      location following.

       --max-filesize <bytes>
	      Specify  the  maximum  size (in bytes) of a file to download. If
	      the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer  will
	      not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

	      NOTE:  The  file size is not always known prior to download, and
	      for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans-
	      fer  ends	 up  being larger than this given limit. This concerns
	      both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       -m/--max-time <seconds>
	      Maximum time in seconds that you allow the  whole	 operation  to
	      take.   This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hang-
	      ing for hours due to slow networks or  links  going  down.   See
	      also the --connect-timeout option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -M/--manual
	      Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -n/--netrc
	      Makes curl scan the .netrc file in the user's home directory for
	      login name and password. This is typically used for ftp on unix.
	      If used with http, curl will  enable  user  authentication.  See
	      netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on the file format. Curl will not
	      complain if that file hasn't the right  permissions  (it	should
	      not  be  world  nor  group  readable).  The environment variable
	      "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

	      A quick and very simple example of how  to  setup	 a  .netrc  to
	      allow  curl to ftp to the machine host.domain.com with user name
	      'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

	      machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      netrc usage.

       --netrc-optional
	      Very  similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage
	      optional and not mandatory as the --netrc does.

       --negotiate
	      (HTTP) Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication.  The	 GSS-Negotiate
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used in their web appli-
	      cations. It is  primarily	 meant	as  a  support	for  Kerberos5
	      authentication but may be also used along with another authenti-
	      cation methods. For  more	 information  see  IETF	 draft	draft-
	      brezak-spnego-http-04.txt.

	      If  you  want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication,
	      then use --proxy-negotiate.

	      This option requires that the library was built with GSSAPI sup-
	      port.  This  is not very common. Use -V/--version to see if your
	      version supports GSS-Negotiate.

	      When using this option, you must also provide a  fake  -u/--user
	      option  to  activate the authentication code properly. Sending a
	      '-u :' is enough as the user  name  and  password	 from  the  -u
	      option aren't actually used.

	      If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
	      make no difference.

       -N/--no-buffer
	      Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work sit-
	      uations,	curl  will  use a standard buffered output stream that
	      will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not
	      necessarily  exactly  when  the data arrives.  Using this option
	      will disable that buffering.

	      If this option is used twice, the second will  again  switch  on
	      buffering.

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables  NTLM  authentication.  The  NTLM authentication
	      method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers.
	      It is a proprietary protocol, reversed engineered by clever peo-
	      ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of
	      behavior	should	not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone
	      who uses NTLM to switch to a public and  documented  authentica-
	      tion method instead. Such as Digest.

	      If  you  want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then
	      use --proxy-ntlm.

	      This option requires that the library was built  with  SSL  sup-
	      port. Use -V/--version to see if your curl supports NTLM.

	      If  this option is used several times, the following occurrences
	      make no difference.

       -o/--output <file>
	      Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or
	      []  to  fetch  multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a
	      number in the <file> specifier. That variable will  be  replaced
	      with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

		curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

	      or use several variables like:

		curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

	      You  may	use  this  option  as many times as you have number of
	      URLs.

	      See also the --create-dirs option to create the  local  directo-
	      ries dynamically.

       -O/--remote-name
	      Write  output to a local file named like the remote file we get.
	      (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is  cut
	      off.)

	      The  remote  file	 name  to use for saving is extracted from the
	      given URL, nothing else.

	      You may use this option as many times  as	 you  have  number  of
	      URLs.

       --pass <phrase>
	      (SSL) Pass phrase for the private key

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --proxy-anyauth
	      Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when	commu-
	      nicating	with  the  given  proxy.  This	will  cause  an	 extra
	      request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

	      If this option is used twice, the second will again disable  the
	      proxy use-any authentication.

       --proxy-basic
	      Tells  curl  to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a
	      remote  host.  Basic  is	the default authentication method curl
	      uses with proxies.

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      proxy HTTP Basic authentication.

       --proxy-digest
	      Tells  curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with
	      a remote host.

	      If  this	option	is  used  twice, the second will again disable
	      proxy HTTP Digest.

       --proxy-negotiate
	      Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when communicat-
	      ing  with	 the  given  proxy.  Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP
	      Negotiate with a remote host.

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      proxy HTTP Negotiate.


       --proxy-ntlm
	      Tells  curl  to  use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating
	      with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote
	      host.

	      If  this	option	is  used  twice, the second will again disable
	      proxy HTTP NTLM.

       -p/--proxytunnel
	      When an HTTP proxy is used (-x/--proxy), this option will	 cause
	      non-HTTP	protocols  to  attempt	to  tunnel  through  the proxy
	      instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The  tun-
	      nel  approach  is	 made  with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and
	      requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port
	      number curl wants to tunnel through to.

	      If  this	option	is  used  twice, the second will again disable
	      proxy tunnel.

       -P/--ftp-port <address>
	      (FTP) Reverses the initiator/listener roles when connecting with
	      ftp.  This  switch  makes	 Curl  use the PORT command instead of
	      PASV. In practice, PORT tells  the  server  to  connect  to  the
	      client's	specified address and port, while PASV asks the server
	      for an ip address and port to connect to.	 <address>  should  be
	      one of:

	      interface
		     i.e  "eth0"  to  specify which interface's IP address you
		     want to use  (Unix only)

	      IP address
		     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify exact IP number

	      host name
		     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify machine

	      -	     make curl pick the same IP address that is	 already  used
		     for the control connection

       If  this	 option is used several times, the last one will be used. Dis-
       able the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt  to  use  the
       EPRT  command  instead  of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really
       PORT++.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line,  the	curlrc
	      config  file  will not be read and used. See the -K/--config for
	      details on the default config file search path.

       -Q/--quote <command>
	      (FTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP server.	 Quote
	      commands	are  sent  BEFORE  the	transfer is taking place (just
	      after the initial PWD command to be  exact).  To	make  commands
	      take  place after a successful transfer, prefix them with a dash
	      '-'. To make commands get sent after libcurl has changed working
	      directory,  just before the transfer command(s), prefix the com-
	      mand with '+'. You may specify any amount of  commands.  If  the
	      server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire oper-
	      ation will be aborted. You must send syntactically  correct  FTP
	      commands as RFC959 defines.

	      This option can be used multiple times.

       --random-file <file>
	      (HTTPS)  Specify	the  path name to file containing what will be
	      considered as random data. The data is used to seed  the	random
	      engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       -r/--range <range>
	      (HTTP/FTP) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial document) from a
	      HTTP/1.1 or FTP server. Ranges can be specified in a  number  of
	      ways.

	      0-499	specifies the first 500 bytes

	      500-999	specifies the second 500 bytes

	      -500	specifies the last 500 bytes

	      9500-	specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

	      0-0,-1	specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

	      500-700,600-799
			specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

	      100-199,500-599
			specifies two separate 100 bytes ranges(*)(H)

       (*)  =  NOTE  that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart
       response!

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do  not  have  this
       feature	enabled,  so  that  when  you  attempt	to get a range, you'll
       instead get the whole document.

       FTP  range  downloads  only  support  the  simple  syntax  'start-stop'
       (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). It depends on the non-RFC
       command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R/--remote-time
	      When used, this will make libcurl	 attempt  to  figure  out  the
	      timestamp	 of the remote file, and if that is available make the
	      local file get that same timestamp.

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  time	disables  this
	      again.

       --retry <num>
	      If  a  transient	error is returned when curl tries to perform a
	      transfer, it will retry this number of times before  giving  up.
	      Setting  the  number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the
	      default). Transient error means either: a timeout,  an  FTP  5xx
	      response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

	      When  curl  is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one
	      second and then for all forthcoming retries it will  double  the
	      waiting  time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be the
	      delay between the rest of the retries.  By  using	 --retry-delay
	      you   disable  this  exponential	backoff	 algorithm.  See  also
	      --retry-max-time to limit the total time	allowed	 for  retries.
	      (Added in 7.12.3)

	      If  this	option	is  used  multiple  times, the last occurrence
	      decide the amount.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
	      Make curl sleep this amount of time between each	retry  when  a
	      transfer	has  failed  with  a  transient	 error (it changes the
	      default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option  is
	      only  interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to
	      zero will make curl use the default  backoff  time.   (Added  in
	      7.12.3)

	      If  this	option	is  used  multiple  times, the last occurrence
	      decide the amount.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
	      The retry timer is reset	before	the  first  transfer  attempt.
	      Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer
	      hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't
	      reached  the  limit, the request will be made and while perform-
	      ing, it may take longer than this given time period. To limit  a
	      single  request?s	 maximum  time,	 use  -m/--max-time.  Set this
	      option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      If this option is	 used  multiple	 times,	 the  last  occurrence
	      decide the amount.

       -s/--silent
	      Silent mode. Don't show progress meter or error messages.	 Makes
	      Curl mute.

	      If this option is used twice,  the  second  will	again  disable
	      silent mode.

       -S/--show-error
	      When  used with -s it makes curl show error message if it fails.

	      If this option is used twice, the second will again disable show
	      error.

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci-
	      fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

	      This option overrides any previous use of	 -x/--proxy,  as  they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
	      Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy. If the port number is not speci-
	      fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.11.1)

	      This  option  overrides  any previous use of -x/--proxy, as they
	      are mutually exclusive.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
	      (This  option  was  previously  wrongly  documented  and used as
	      --socks without the number appended.)

	      This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPv6,  FTPS
	      or LDAP.

       --stderr <file>
	      Redirect	all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If
	      the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written  to  stdout.
	      This  option  has no point when you're using a shell with decent
	      redirecting capabilities.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --tcp-nodelay
	      Turn  on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man
	      page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

	      If this option is used several times,  each  occurrence  toggles
	      this on/off.

       -t/--telnet-option <OPT=val>
	      Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

	      TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

	      XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

	      NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T/--upload-file <file>
	      This  transfers  the  specified local file to the remote URL. If
	      there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the
	      local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last
	      directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name  or
	      curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file
	      name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to
	      fail.  If this is used on a http(s) server, the PUT command will
	      be used.

	      Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of  a
	      given file.

	      You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T
	      + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also sup-
	      ports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload
	      multiple files to a single URL by using the  same	 URL  globbing
	      style supported in the URL, like this:

	      curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

	      or even

	      curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --trace <file>
	      Enables  a  full	trace  dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
	      including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
	      Enables a full trace dump of all	incoming  and  outgoing	 data,
	      including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use
	      "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

	      This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and
	      only  shows  the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output
	      that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
	      Prepends	a  time	 stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl
	      displays.	 (Added in 7.14.0)

	      If this option is used several times, each occurrence will  tog-
	      gle it on/off.

       -u/--user <user:password>
	      Specify  user  and  password  to	use for server authentication.
	      Overrides -n/--netrc and --netrc-optional.

	      If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and  do  NTLM  autentica-
	      tion,  you  can force curl to pick up the user name and password
	      from your environment by simply specifying a single  colon  with
	      this option: "-u :".

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U/--proxy-user <user:password>
	      Specify user and password to use for proxy authentication.

	      If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and  do  NTLM  autentica-
	      tion,  you  can force curl to pick up the user name and password
	      from your environment by simply specifying a single  colon  with
	      this option: "-U :".

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
	      Specify a URL to fetch. This option is  mostly  handy  when  you
	      want to specify URL(s) in a config file.

	      This  option  may	 be used any number of times. To control where
	      this URL is written, use the -o/--output or the -O/--remote-name
	      options.

       -v/--verbose
	      Makes  the  fetching  more  verbose/talkative. Mostly usable for
	      debugging. Lines starting with '>' means "header data"  sent  by
	      curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in
	      normal cases and lines starting with '*' means  additional  info
	      provided by curl.

	      Note  that  if  you  only	 want  HTTP  headers  in  the  output,
	      -i/--include might be option you're looking for.

	      If you think this option still doesn't give you enough  details,
	      consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

	      If this option is used twice, the second will again disable ver-
	      bose.

       -V/--version
	      Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

	      The  first  line	includes the full version of curl, libcurl and
	      other 3rd party libraries linked with the executable.

	      The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows	all  protocols
	      that libcurl reports to support.

	      The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features
	      libcurl reports to offer. Available features include:

	      IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

	      krb4   Krb4 for ftp is supported.

	      SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

	      libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP  is
		     supported.

	      NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

	      GSS-Negotiate
		     Negotiate authentication is supported.

	      Debug  This  curl	 uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables
		     more error-tracking and memory debugging etc.  For	 curl-
		     developers only!

	      AsynchDNS
		     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

	      SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

	      Largefile
		     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger
		     than 2GB.

	      IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

	      SSPI   SSPI is supported. If you use NTLM and set a  blank  user
		     name,  curl  will authenticate with your current user and
		     password.

       -w/--write-out <format>
	      Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and success-
	      ful  operation.  The  format  is a string that may contain plain
	      text mixed with any number of variables. The string can be spec-
	      ified  as "string", to get read from a particular file you spec-
	      ify it "@filename" and to tell curl  to  read  the  format  from
	      stdin you write "@-".

	      The  variables  present in the output format will be substituted
	      by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as  described	below.
	      All  variables are specified like %{variable_name} and to output
	      a normal % you just write them like %%. You can output a newline
	      by  using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

	      NOTE: The %-letter is a special letter in the win32-environment,
	      where  all  occurrences  of  %  must  be doubled when using this
	      option.

	      Available variables are at this point:

	      url_effective  The URL that was fetched  last.  This  is	mostly
			     meaningful	 if  you've  told curl to follow loca-
			     tion: headers.

	      http_code	     The numerical code that was  found	 in  the  last
			     retrieved HTTP(S) page.

	      http_connect   The  numerical  code  that	 was found in the last
			     response  (from  a	 proxy)	 to  a	curl   CONNECT
			     request. (Added in 7.12.4)

	      time_total     The  total time, in seconds, that the full opera-
			     tion lasted. The time will be displayed with mil-
			     lisecond resolution.

	      time_namelookup
			     The  time,	 in  seconds,  it  took from the start
			     until the name resolving was completed.

	      time_connect   The time, in seconds,  it	took  from  the	 start
			     until  the	 connect to the remote host (or proxy)
			     was completed.

	      time_pretransfer
			     The time, in seconds,  it	took  from  the	 start
			     until  the	 file transfer is just about to begin.
			     This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego-
			     tiations that are specific to the particular pro-
			     tocol(s) involved.

	      time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection
			     steps  include  name lookup, connect, pretransfer
			     and  transfer  before   final   transaction   was
			     started.  time_redirect shows the complete execu-
			     tion time for multiple  redirections.  (Added  in
			     7.12.3)

	      time_starttransfer
			     The  time,	 in  seconds,  it  took from the start
			     until the first byte is just about to  be	trans-
			     ferred.  This  includes time_pretransfer and also
			     the  time	the  server  needs  to	calculate  the
			     result.

	      size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

	      size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

	      size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head-
			     ers.

	      size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent  in  the
			     HTTP request.

	      speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for
			     the complete download.

	      speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl	 measured  for
			     the complete upload.

	      content_type   The  Content-Type	of  the requested document, if
			     there was any.

	      num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent	trans-
			     fer. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      num_redirects  Number  of	 redirects  that  were followed in the
			     request. (Added in 7.12.3)

	      ftp_entry_path The initial path libcurl ended up in when logging
			     on to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x/--proxy <proxyhost[:port]>
	      Use  specified  HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified,
	      it is assumed at port 1080.

	      This option overrides existing environment variables  that  sets
	      proxy  to	 use.  If  there's  an	environment variable setting a
	      proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

	      Note that all operations that are performed over	a  HTTP	 proxy
	      will  transparently  be converted to HTTP. It means that certain
	      protocol specific operations might not be available. This is not
	      the  case	 if you can tunnel through the proxy, as done with the
	      -p/--proxytunnel option.

	      Starting with 7.14.1, the proxy host can be specified the	 exact
	      same  way	 as  the proxy environment variables, include protocol
	      prefix (http://) and embedded user + password.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X/--request <command>
	      (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat-
	      ing with the HTTP server.	 The specified request	will  be  used
	      instead  of  the	method otherwise used (which defaults to GET).
	      Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explanations.

	      (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when
	      doing file lists with ftp.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -y/--speed-time <time>
	      If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second during
	      a speed-time period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is
	      used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set with -y.

	      This option controls transfers and thus  will  not  affect  slow
	      connects	etc.  If this is a concern for you, try the --connect-
	      timeout option.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y/--speed-limit <speed>
	      If a download is slower than this given speed, in bytes per sec-
	      ond, for speed-time seconds it gets aborted. speed-time  is  set
	      with -Y and is 30 if not set.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>
	      (HTTP) Request a file that has  been  modified  later  than  the
	      given  time  and date, or one that has been modified before that
	      time. The date expression can be all sorts of date strings or if
	      it  doesn't  match  any  internal ones, it tries to get the time
	      from a given file name  instead!	See  the  curl_getdate(3)  man
	      pages for date expression details.

	      Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for
	      a document that is older than the given date/time, default is  a
	      document that is newer than the specified date/time.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --max-redirs <num>
	      Set  maximum  number  of	redirection-followings	 allowed.   If
	      -L/--location  is	 used, this option can be used to prevent curl
	      from following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit
	      is set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it lim-
	      itless.

	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -0/--http1.0
	      (HTTP)  Forces curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0 instead
	      of using its internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1/--tlsv1
	      (HTTPS) Forces curl to use TSL version 1 when negotiating with a
	      remote TLS server.

       -2/--sslv2
	      (HTTPS) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a
	      remote SSL server.

       -3/--sslv3
	      (HTTPS) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a
	      remote SSL server.

       --3p-quote
	      (FTP)  Specify  arbitrary commands to send to the source server.
	      See the -Q/--quote option for details. (Added in 7.13.0)

       --3p-url
	      (FTP) Activates a FTP 3rd party transfer. Specifies  the	source
	      URL  to  get a file from, while the "normal" URL will be used as
	      target URL, the file that will be written/created.

	      Note that not all FTP server allow 3rd party  transfers.	(Added
	      in 7.13.0)

       --3p-user
	      (FTP)  Specify user:password for the source URL transfer. (Added
	      in 7.13.0)

       -4/--ipv4
	      If libcurl is capable of resolving an  address  to  multiple  IP
	      versions	(which it is if it is ipv6-capable), this option tells
	      libcurl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6/--ipv6
	      If libcurl is capable of resolving an  address  to  multiple  IP
	      versions	(which it is if it is ipv6-capable), this option tells
	      libcurl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.

       -#/--progress-bar
	      Make curl display progress information as a progress bar instead
	      of the default statistics.

	      If  this option is used twice, the second will again disable the
	      progress bar.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
	      Default config file, see -K/--config for details.


ENVIRONMENT
       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       FTP_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets proxy server to use for FTP.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
	      Sets proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
	      list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy.  If  set
	      to a asterisk '*' only, it matches all hosts.

EXIT CODES
       There  exists  a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding
       error messages that may appear during bad conditions. At	 the  time  of
       this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this
	      protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformat. The syntax was not correct.

       4      URL user malformatted. The user-part of the URL syntax  was  not
	      correct.

       5      Couldn't	resolve	 proxy.	 The  given  proxy  host  could not be
	      resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP weird server reply.  The  server  sent  data	curl  couldn't
	      parse.

       9      FTP  access  denied. The server denied login or denied access to
	      the particular resource or directory you wanted to  reach.  Most
	      often  you  tried to change to a directory that doesn't exist on
	      the server.

       10     FTP  user/password  incorrect.  Either  one  or  both  were  not
	      accepted by the server.

       11     FTP  weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
	      PASS request.

       12     FTP weird USER reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to  the
	      USER request.

       13     FTP  weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the
	      PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format.  Curl  couldn't  parse  the	 227-line  the
	      server sent.

       15     FTP  can't  get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the
	      227-line.

       16     FTP can't reconnect. Couldn't connect to the host we got in  the
	      227-line.

       17     FTP  couldn't  set  binary.  Couldn't  change transfer method to
	      binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or	 simi-
	      lar) command failed.

       20     FTP write error. The transfer was reported bad by the server.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested  url  was	not  found  or
	      returned	another	 error	with  the HTTP error code being 400 or
	      above. This return code only appears if -f/--fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local	filesystem  or
	      similar.

       24     Malformed user. User name badly specified.

       25     FTP  couldn't  STOR  file. The server denied the STOR operation,
	      used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified	time-out  period  was  reached
	      according to the conditions.

       29     FTP couldn't set ASCII. The server returned an unknown reply.

       30     FTP  PORT	 failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers
	      support the PORT	command,  try  doing  a	 transfer  using  PASV
	      instead!

       31     FTP  couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command is
	      used for resumed FTP transfers.

       32     FTP couldn't use SIZE. The SIZE command failed. The  command  is
	      an extension to the original FTP spec RFC 959.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP  bad	download  resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted
	      download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       40     Library not found. The LDAP library was not found.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the oper-
	      ation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       44     Internal error. A function was called in a bad order.

       45     Interface	 error.	 A  specified  outgoing interface could not be
	      used.

       46     Bad password entered. An error was signaled  when	 the  password
	      was entered.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maxi-
	      mum amount.

       48     Unknown TELNET option specified.

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The remote peer's SSL certificate wasn't ok

       52     The server didn't reply anything, which here  is	considered  an
	      error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default

       55     Failed sending network data

       56     Failure in receiving network data

       57     Share is in use (internal error)

       58     Problem with the local certificate

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher

       60     Problem with the CA cert (path? permission?)

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding

       62     Invalid LDAP URL

       63     Maximum file size exceeded

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine

       67     User,  password  or  similar was not accepted and curl failed to
	      login

       68     File not found on TFTP server

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server

       71     Illegal TFTP operation

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID

       73     File already exists (TFTP)

       74     No such user (TFTP)

       75     Character conversion failed

       76     Character conversion functions required

       XX     There will appear more error codes here in future releases.  The
	      existing ones are meant to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel  Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors
       is found in the separate THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)




Curl 7.15.4			  21 Mar 2006			       curl(1)
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