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CVS(1)									CVS(1)



NAME
       cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
	      cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
       generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth	 docu-
       mentation,  please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS com-
       mand or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section	of  this  man-
       page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
   Guide to CVS commands
       This  appendix  describes  the  overall	structure of cvs commands, and
       describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere;  for
       a  quick	 reference to cvs commands, see node 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS
       manual).


Structure
   Overall structure of CVS commands
       The overall format of all cvs commands is:


	 cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]






       cvs

	 The name of the cvs program.



       cvs_options

	 Some  options	that  affect  all  sub-commands	 of  cvs.   These  are
	 described below.



       cvs_command

	 One  of  several  different  sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
	 aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref-
	 erence	 manual for that command.  There are only two situations where
	 you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a  list  of  available  com-
	 mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.



       command_options

	 Options that are specific for the command.



       command_args

	 Arguments to the commands.

	 There	is  unfortunately  some confusion between cvs_options and com-
	 mand_options.	When given as a cvs_option, some options  only	affect
	 some  of  the commands.  When given as a command_option it may have a
	 different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
	 do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc-
	 umentation instead.


Exit status
   CVS's exit status
       cvs can indicate to the calling environment  whether  it	 succeeded  or
       failed  by  setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit
       status will vary from one operating system to another.  For example  in
       a  unix	shell  script  the  $?	variable will be 0 if the last command
       returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status
       indicated failure.

       If  cvs	is  successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an
       error, it prints an error message and returns a	failure	 status.   The
       one  exception  to this is the cvs diff command.	 It will return a suc-
       cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there
       were  differences or if there was an error.  Because this behavior pro-
       vides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is	possible  that
       cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands.


~/.cvsrc
   Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file
       There  are  some	 command_options that are used so often that you might
       have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always	 spec-
       ify that option.	 One example (the one that drove the implementation of
       the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out-
       put  of	the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con-
       text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand.

       The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com-
       mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts.

       The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple.  The file is searched for  a
       line  that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed.
       If a match is found, then the remainder of the line  is	split  up  (at
       whitespace  characters)	into separate options and added to the command
       arguments before any options from the command line.

       If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official	 name,
       not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match
       against the file.  So if this is the contents of	 the  user's  ~/.cvsrc
       file:


	 log -N
	 diff -uN
	 rdiff -u
	 update -Pd
	 checkout -P
	 release -d




       the  command  cvs  checkout  foo	 would have the -P option added to the
       arguments, as well as cvs co foo.

       With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in
       unidiff	format.	  cvs  diff  -c	 foobar will provide context diffs, as
       usual.  Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more  complicated,
       because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format,
       so you would need cvs -f diff foobar.

       In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global  options
       (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual).  For example the follow-
       ing line in .cvsrc


	 cvs -z6




       causes cvs to use compression level 6.


Global options
       The available cvs_options (that are given to the left  of  cvs_command)
       are:



       --allow-root=rootdir

	 Specify  legal cvsroot directory.  See see node 'Password authentica-
	 tion server' in the CVS manual.



       -a

	 Authenticate all communication between the  client  and  the  server.
	 Only  has  an	effect on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is
	 only implemented when using a GSSAPI  connection  (see	 node  'GSSAPI
	 authenticated'	 in  the CVS manual).  Authentication prevents certain
	 sorts of attacks  involving  hijacking	 the  active  tcp  connection.
	 Enabling authentication does not enable encryption.



       -b bindir

	 In  cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the
	 bindir directory.  Current versions of cvs do not run	rcs  programs;
	 for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing.



       -T tempdir

	 Use  tempdir  as  the	directory  where  temporary files are located.
	 Overrides the setting of the $TMPDIR  environment  variable  and  any
	 precompiled  directory.   This	 parameter  should  be specified as an
	 absolute pathname.  (When running client/server, -T affects only  the
	 local	process;  specifying  -T  for  the client has no effect on the
	 server and vice versa.)



       -d cvs_root_directory

	 Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the  reposi-
	 tory.	 Overrides  the	 setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable.
	 see node 'Repository' in the CVS manual.



       -e editor

	 Use editor to enter revision log information.	Overrides the  setting
	 of the $CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables.  For more infor-
	 mation, see see node 'Committing your changes' in the CVS manual.



       -f

	 Do not read the ~/.cvsrc  file.   This	 option	 is  most  often  used
	 because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set.  For example,
	 the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a
	 corresponding	option	to  turn the display on.  So if you have -N in
	 the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to	show  the  tag
	 names.



       -H




       --help

	 Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not
	 actually execute the command).	 If you don't specify a command	 name,
	 cvs  -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help
	 options.



       -n

	 Do not change any files.  Attempt to  execute	the  cvs_command,  but
	 only  to  issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing
	 files, or create any new files.

	 Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as
	 without  -n.  In some cases the output will be the same, but in other
	 cases cvs will skip some of  the  processing  that  would  have  been
	 required to produce the exact same output.



       -Q

	 Cause	the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate
	 output for serious problems.



       -q

	 Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages,  such
	 as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed.



       -r

	 Make  new  working  files  read-only.	Same effect as if the $CVSREAD
	 environment variable is set (see node 'Environment variables' in  the
	 CVS  manual).	 The default is to make working files writable, unless
	 watches are on (see node 'Watches' in the CVS manual).



       -s variable=value

	 Set a user variable (see node 'Variables' in the CVS manual).



       -t

	 Trace program execution; display messages showing the	steps  of  cvs
	 activity.   Particularly  useful  with	 -n  to	 explore the potential
	 impact of an unfamiliar command.



       -v




       --version

	 Display version and copyright information for cvs.



       -w

	 Make new working files read-write.   Overrides	 the  setting  of  the
	 $CVSREAD  environment	variable.   Files  are	created	 read-write by
	 default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is given.



       -x

	 Encrypt all communication between the client and  the	server.	  Only
	 has  an  effect  on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only
	 implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node 'GSSAPI  authen-
	 ticated'  in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node 'Ker-
	 beros authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
	 that  message	traffic	 is also authenticated.	 Encryption support is
	 not available by default; it must be enabled using a special  config-
	 ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.



       -z gzip-level

	 Set  the compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low com-
	 pression) to 9 (low speed, high compression), or 0  to	 disable  com-
	 pression (the default).  Only has an effect on the cvs client.



Common options
   Common command options
       This  section  describes	 the command_options that are available across
       several cvs commands.  These options are always given to the  right  of
       cvs_command. Not all commands support all of these options; each option
       is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  However,  when  a
       command	has  one  of  these options you can almost always count on the
       same behavior of the option  as	in  other  commands.   (Other  command
       options,	 which	are listed with the individual commands, may have dif-
       ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other).

       The history command is an exception; it supports many options that con-
       flict even with these standard options.



       -D date_spec

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.	date_spec is a
	 single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

	 The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of
	 a  source  file;  that	 is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs
	 records the date you specified, so that further updates in  the  same
	 directory  will  use  the  same  date (for more information on sticky
	 tags/dates, see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

	 -D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff,  export,  history,
	 rdiff,	 rtag,	and  update  commands.	(The history command uses this
	 option in a slightly different way; see node 'history options' in the
	 CVS manual).

	 A  wide variety of date formats are supported by cvs.	The most stan-
	 dard ones are ISO8601 (from the International Standards Organization)
	 and  the  Internet e-mail standard (specified in RFC822 as amended by
	 RFC1123).

	 ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:


	   1972-09-24
	   1972-09-24 20:05




	 There are a lot more ISO8601 date formats, and cvs  accepts  many  of
	 them, but you probably don't want to hear the whole long story :-).

	 In  addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, cvs also
	 allows some of the fields to be omitted.  For example:


	   24 Sep 1972 20:05
	   24 Sep




	 The date is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a spe-
	 cific timezone is specified.

	 These two date formats are preferred.	However, cvs currently accepts
	 a wide variety of other date formats.	 They  are  intentionally  not
	 documented  here  in any detail, and future versions of cvs might not
	 accept all of them.

	 One such format is month/day/year.  This may confuse people  who  are
	 accustomed  to having the month and day in the other order; 1/4/96 is
	 January 4, not April 1.

	 Remember to quote the argument to the -D  flag	 so  that  your	 shell
	 doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the
	 -D flag can look like this:


	   $ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo






       -f

	 When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they  nor-
	 mally	ignore	files  that  do	 not contain the tag (or did not exist
	 prior to the date) that you specified.	 Use the -f option if you want
	 files	retrieved  even	 when  there  is no match for the tag or date.
	 (The most recent revision of the file will be used).

	 Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist  (that  is,
	 in some file, not necessary in every file).  This is so that cvs will
	 continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name.

	 -f is available with  these  commands:	 annotate,  checkout,  export,
	 rdiff, rtag, and update.

	 WARNING:   The	 commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but
	 it has a different behavior for those commands.  See see node 'commit
	 options'  in the CVS manual, and see node 'Removing files' in the CVS
	 manual.



       -k kflag

	 Alter the default processing of keywords.  see node 'Keyword  substi-
	 tution'  in  the  CVS	manual,	 for the meaning of kflag.  Your kflag
	 specification is sticky when you use it to create a private copy of a
	 source	 file;	that is, when you use this option with the checkout or
	 update commands, cvs associates your selected kflag  with  the	 file,
	 and  continues to use it with future update commands on the same file
	 until you specify otherwise.

	 The -k option is available  with  the	add,  checkout,	 diff,	rdiff,
	 import and update commands.



       -l

	 Local;	 run  only in current working directory, rather than recursing
	 through subdirectories.

	 Available with the following commands:	 annotate,  checkout,  commit,
	 diff,	edit,  editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag,
	 unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -m message

	 Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

	 Available with the following commands: add, commit and import.



       -n

	 Do not run any tag program.  (A program can be specified  to  run  in
	 the  modules  database	 (see  node 'modules' in the CVS manual); this
	 option bypasses it).

	 This is not the same as the cvs -n  program  option,  which  you  can
	 specify to the left of a cvs command!

	 Available with the checkout, export, and rtag commands.



       -P

	 Prune	empty directories.  See see node 'Removing directories' in the
	 CVS manual.



       -p

	 Pipe the files retrieved from	the  repository	 to  standard  output,
	 rather	 than  writing	them in the current directory.	Available with
	 the checkout and update commands.



       -R

	 Process directories recursively.  This is on by default.

	 Available with the following commands:	 annotate,  checkout,  commit,
	 diff,	edit,  editors,	 export,  rdiff,  remove,  rtag,  status, tag,
	 unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -r tag

	 Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default
	 head  revision.   As  well  as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or
	 rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD  refers  to
	 the  most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers
	 to the revision you last checked out into the current working	direc-
	 tory.

	 The  tag  specification  is sticky when you use this with checkout or
	 update to make your own copy of a file: cvs  remembers	 the  tag  and
	 continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth-
	 erwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see	 node  'Sticky
	 tags' in the CVS manual).

	 The  tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in see
	 node 'Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as  described
	 in  see  node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.  When a com-
	 mand expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted
	 as the most recent revision on that branch.

	 Specifying  the  -q global option along with the -r command option is
	 often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does
	 not contain the specified tag.

	 This  is  not	the  same  as the overall cvs -r option, which you can
	 specify to the left of a cvs command!

	 -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit,  diff,  history,
	 export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands.



       -W

	 Specify  file names that should be filtered.  You can use this option
	 repeatedly.  The spec can be a file name pattern  of  the  same  type
	 that  you  can	 specify in the .cvswrappers file.  Available with the
	 following commands: import, and update.



admin
   Administration
       ? Requires: repository, working directory.

       ? Changes: repository.

       ? Synonym: rcs

	 This is the cvs  interface  to	 assorted  administrative  facilities.
	 Some  of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for his-
	 torical purposes.  Some of the questionable  options  are  likely  to
	 disappear  in	the  future.   This  command does work recursively, so
	 extreme care should be used.

	 On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin,  only  members  of  that
	 group	can  run cvs admin (except for the cvs admin -k command, which
	 can be run by anybody).  This group should exist on  the  server,  or
	 any  system running the non-client/server cvs.	 To disallow cvs admin
	 for all users, create a group with no users in it.  On NT, the cvsad-
	 min feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin.


admin options
       Some  of	 these	options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist
       for historical purposes.	 Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
       you undo the effect!



       -Aoldfile

	 Might	not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile
	 to the access list of the rcs file.



       -alogins

	 Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login  names  appearing
	 in  the  comma-separated  list	 logins	 to the access list of the rcs
	 file.



       -b[rev]

	 Set the default branch to rev.	 In cvs, you normally do  not  manipu-
	 late default branches; sticky tags (see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS
	 manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work  on.
	 There	is  one	 reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's
	 version  when	using  vendor  branches	 (see  node  'Reverting	 local
	 changes'  in  the  CVS manual).  There can be no space between -b and
	 its argument.



       -cstring

	 Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by
	 current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely
	 not worry about it.  see node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS  man-
	 ual.



       -e[logins]

	 Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
	 the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
	 If  logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be no
	 space between -e and its argument.



       -I

	 Run interactively, even if the standard  input	 is  not  a  terminal.
	 This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
	 disappear in a future release of cvs.



       -i

	 Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with-
	 out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com-
	 mand (see node 'Adding files' in the CVS manual).



       -ksubst

	 Set the default keyword substitution to  subst.   see	node  'Keyword
	 substitution' in the CVS manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs
	 update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.



       -l[rev]

	 Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is  given,  lock  the
	 latest	 revision  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest
	 revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
	 its argument.

	 This  can  be	used  in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the
	 contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide  reserved
	 checkouts  (where  only  one  user  can  be editing a given file at a
	 time).	 See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
	 file  in  that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature
	 of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
	 strict (which is the default).



       -L

	 Set locking to strict.	 Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS
	 file is not exempt from locking  for  checkin.	  For  use  with  cvs,
	 strict	 locking  must	be set; see the discussion under the -l option
	 above.



       -mrev:msg

	 Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.



       -Nname[:[rev]]

	 Act like -n, except override any previous assignment  of  name.   For
	 use  with  magic branches, see see node 'Magic branch numbers' in the
	 CVS manual.



       -nname[:[rev]]

	 Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
	 is  normally  better  to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the
	 symbolic name if both : and rev  are  omitted;	 otherwise,  print  an
	 error	message if name is already associated with another number.  If
	 rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
	 of  a	branch	number	followed  by a . stands for the current latest
	 revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
	 latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam-
	 ple, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest	 revi-
	 sion  of  all	the  RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$
	 which associates name with the revision numbers extracted  from  key-
	 word strings in the corresponding working files.



       -orange

	 Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

	 Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly
	 what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how  the
	 rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

	 If you are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice
	 before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest	 backup
	 to  undo  this	 command!   If you delete different revisions than you
	 planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven	 forbid)  a  cvs  bug,
	 there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
	 deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of
	 the repository first.

	 Specify range in one of the following ways:


	 rev1::rev2

	   Collapse  all  revisions  between  rev1  and rev2, so that cvs only
	   stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not
	   intermediate	 steps.	  For  example,	 after	-o  1.3::1.5  one  can
	   retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from
	   1.3	to  1.5,  but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between
	   1.3 and 1.4.	 Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3  have  no
	   effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove.


	 ::rev

	   Collapse  revisions	between the beginning of the branch containing
	   rev and rev itself.	The branchpoint and rev are left intact.   For
	   example,  -o	 ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5,
	   and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.


	 rev::

	   Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing
	   rev.	 Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted.


	 rev

	   Delete the revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent	to  -o
	   1.2::1.4.


	 rev1:rev2

	   Delete  the	revisions  from	 rev1  to rev2, inclusive, on the same
	   branch.  One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2  or  any  of
	   the	revisions  in  between.	  For  example,	 the command cvs admin
	   -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful.	It means to  delete  revisions
	   up  to,  and	 including, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are
	   files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will
	   have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02
	   and R_1_03.	So not only will it be impossible to retrieve  R_1_02;
	   R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!	 In most cases
	   you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.


	 :rev

	   Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up
	   to and including rev.


	 rev:

	   Delete  revisions  from  revision rev, including rev itself, to the
	   end of the branch containing rev.

	   None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

	   If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and  one
	   specifies  one  of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and
	   not delete any revisions.  If you really want to  delete  both  the
	   symbolic  names  and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names
	   with cvs tag -d, then run cvs  admin	 -o.   If  one	specifies  the
	   non-::  syntaxes,  then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the
	   symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is
	   preserved  for  compatibility  with	previous  versions of cvs, but
	   because it isn't very useful, in the future it  may	change	to  be
	   like the :: case.

	   Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol-
	   ically if it is a branch.  see node 'Magic branch numbers'  in  the
	   CVS manual, for an explanation.

	   Make	 sure  that  no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you
	   outdate.  Strange things will happen if he starts to	 edit  it  and
	   tries  to  check it back in.	 For this reason, this option is not a
	   good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing
	   the	bogus  change instead (see node 'Merging two revisions' in the
	   CVS manual).



       -q

	 Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.



       -sstate[:rev]

	 Useful with cvs.  Set the state attribute  of	the  revision  rev  to
	 state.	 If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that
	 branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default
	 branch.   Any	identifier  is	acceptable for state.  A useful set of
	 states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for  stable),	and  Rel  (for
	 released).   By  default,  the	 state of a new revision is set to Exp
	 when it is created.  The state is visible in the output from cvs  log
	 (see node 'log' in the CVS manual), and in the $Log$ and $State$ key-
	 words (see node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual).  Note that
	 cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node 'Attic' in the
	 CVS manual); to take a file to or from the dead  state	 use  commands
	 like  cvs  remove  and cvs add (see node 'Adding and removing' in the
	 CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.



       -t[file]

	 Useful with cvs.  Write descriptive text from	the  contents  of  the
	 named	file  into the RCS file, deleting the existing text.  The file
	 pathname may not begin with -.	 The descriptive text can be  seen  in
	 the  output  from  cvs log (see node 'log' in the CVS manual).	 There
	 can be no space between -t and its argument.

	 If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard  input,  terminated
	 by  end-of-file  or by a line containing . by itself.	Prompt for the
	 text if interaction is possible; see -I.



       -t-string

	 Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the  string  into  the
	 rcs  file, deleting the existing text.	 There can be no space between
	 -t and its argument.



       -U

	 Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that  the	 owner
	 of  a	file  need not lock a revision for checkin.  For use with cvs,
	 strict locking must be set; see the discussion under  the  -l	option
	 above.



       -u[rev]

	 See  the  option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with
	 cvs.  Unlock the revision with number rev.  If	 a  branch  is	given,
	 unlock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, remove
	 the latest lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the locker	 of  a
	 revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
	 lock.	This causes the original locker to be sent a commit  notifica-
	 tion  (see  node 'Getting Notified' in the CVS manual).  There can be
	 no space between -u and its argument.



       -Vn

	 In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an  rcs  file
	 which	would  be  acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete
	 and specifying it will produce an error.



       -xsuffixes

	 In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify-
	 ing  the  names  of  the rcs files.  However, cvs has always required
	 that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this  option  has	 never
	 done anything useful.



annotate
   What revision modified each line of a file?
       ? Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

       ? Requires: repository.

       ? Changes: nothing.

	 For  each  file  in  files,  print  the  head	revision of the trunk,
	 together with information on the last modification for each line.


annotate options
       These standard options are supported  by	 annotate  (see	 node  'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -l

	 Local directory only, no recursion.



       -R

	 Process directories recursively.



       -f

	 Use head revision if tag/date not found.



       -F

	 Annotate binary files.



       -r revision

	 Annotate file as of specified revision/tag.



       -D date

	 Annotate file as of specified date.


annotate example
       For example:


	 $ cvs annotate ssfile
	 Annotations for ssfile
	 ***************
	 1.1	      (mary	27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
	 1.2	      (joe	28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2




       The  file  ssfile currently contains two lines.	The ssfile line 1 line
       was checked in by mary on March 27.  Then, on March  28,	 joe  added  a
       line  ssfile  line  2,  without modifying the ssfile line 1 line.  This
       report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
       replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node 'diff' in the CVS
       manual).

       The options to cvs annotate are listed in see node  'Invoking  CVS'  in
       the  CVS	 manual,  and can be used to select the files and revisions to
       annotate.  The options are described in more detail there  and  in  see
       node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.


checkout
   Check out sources for editing
       ? Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

       ? Requires: repository.

       ? Changes: working directory.

       ? Synonyms: co, get

	 Create	 or update a working directory containing copies of the source
	 files specified by modules.  You must execute checkout	 before	 using
	 most  of  the	other cvs commands, since most of them operate on your
	 working directory.

	 The modules are either symbolic names for some collection  of	source
	 directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repos-
	 itory.	 The symbolic names are defined in the modules file.  see node
	 'modules' in the CVS manual.

	 Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create
	 directories and populate them with the appropriate source files.  You
	 can  then  edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether
	 other software	 developers  are  editing  their  own  copies  of  the
	 sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the
	 source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change  to  the
	 source repository.

	 Note  that  checkout  is  used	 to create directories.	 The top-level
	 directory created is always added to the directory where checkout  is
	 invoked,  and	usually has the same name as the specified module.  In
	 the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif-
	 ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
	 that checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as  it
	 is  extracted	into your private work area (unless you specify the -Q
	 global option).

	 The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless  the  -r
	 option to cvs (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci-
	 fied, the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node	'Envi-
	 ronment  variables'  in  the CVS manual), or a watch is in effect for
	 that file (see node 'Watches' in the CVS manual).

	 Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
	 prior	checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying the
	 -d option to the update command in the	 sense	that  new  directories
	 that  have  been  created  in the repository will appear in your work
	 area.	However, checkout takes a module name whereas update  takes  a
	 directory  name.   Also  to use checkout this way it must be run from
	 the top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from),  so
	 before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
	 to change your directory to the top level directory.

	 For the output produced by the checkout command see see node  'update
	 output' in the CVS manual.


checkout options
       These  standard	options	 are  supported	 by checkout (see node 'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later	than  date.   This  option  is
	 sticky,  and  implies	-P.   See  see	node  'Sticky tags' in the CVS
	 manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

	 Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.	If no  matching	 revi-
	 sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
	 the file).



       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node 'Keyword substitu-
	 tion'	in  the	 CVS manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of
	 this file in this working directory will use  the  same  kflag.   The
	 status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See see node
	 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the	status
	 command.



       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.



       -n

	 Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
	 the modules file; see node 'modules' in the CVS manual).



       -P

	 Prune empty directories.  See see node 'Moving	 directories'  in  the
	 CVS manual.



       -p

	 Pipe files to the standard output.



       -R

	 Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

	 Use  revision	tag.   This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See see
	 node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on	sticky
	 tags/dates.

	 In  addition to those, you can use these special command options with
	 checkout:



       -A

	 Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not	 reset	sticky
	 -k  options on modified files.	 See see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS
	 manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -c

	 Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre-
	 ating	or  modifying  any files or directories in your working direc-
	 tory.



       -d dir

	 Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
	 the  module name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent to using
	 mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the checkout  command  without  the  -d
	 flag.

	 There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient when
	 checking out a single item to have the output appear in  a  directory
	 that  doesn't	contain	 empty intermediate directories.  In this case
	 only, cvs tries to ``shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty	direc-
	 tories.

	 For  example,	given  a  module foo that contains the file bar.c, the
	 command cvs co -d dir foo will create directory dir and  place	 bar.c
	 inside.   Similarly,  given  a	 module bar which has subdirectory baz
	 wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs  co  -d  dir  bar/baz
	 will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

	 Using	the  -N flag will defeat this behavior.	 Given the same module
	 definitions above, cvs co -N  -d  dir	foo  will  create  directories
	 dir/foo  and  place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz will
	 create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.



       -j tag

	 With two -j options, merge changes from the revision  specified  with
	 the  first  -j	 option	 to  the  revision specified with the second j
	 option, into the working directory.

	 With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision  to  the
	 revision  specified  with  the -j option, into the working directory.
	 The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of  the  revision	 which
	 the  working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the
	 -j option.

	 In addition, each -j option can contain an optional  date  specifica-
	 tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
	 one within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by	adding
	 a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

	 see node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



       -N

	 Only  useful  together	 with  -d dir.	With this option, cvs will not
	 ``shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
	 a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.



       -s

	 Like  -c,  but	 include the status of all modules, and sort it by the
	 status string.	 see node 'modules' in the CVS manual, for info	 about
	 the  -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the module
	 status.


checkout examples
       Get a copy of the module tc:


	 $ cvs checkout tc




       Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:


	 $ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc





commit
   Check files into the repository
       ? Synopsis: commit [-lRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F	 file]	[-r  revision]
	 [files...]

       ? Requires: working directory, repository.

       ? Changes: repository.

       ? Synonym: ci

	 Use  commit  when  you	 want to incorporate changes from your working
	 source files into the source repository.

	 If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files  in
	 your  working	current	 directory are examined.  commit is careful to
	 change in the repository  only	 those	files  that  you  have	really
	 changed.   By	default	 (or if you explicitly specify the -R option),
	 files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they  have
	 changed;  you	can  use  the -l option to limit commit to the current
	 directory only.

	 commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the  cur-
	 rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
	 without committing, if any of the specified files must be  made  cur-
	 rent first with update (see node 'update' in the CVS manual).	commit
	 does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that  for
	 you to do when the time is right.

	 When  all  is	well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log
	 message that will be written to one or	 more  logging	programs  (see
	 node  'modules'  in the CVS manual, and see node 'loginfo' in the CVS
	 manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository.   This  log
	 message  can be retrieved with the log command; see see node 'log' in
	 the CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command  line
	 with  the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or
	 use the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the
	 log message.


commit options
       These  standard	options	 are  supported	 by  commit  (see node 'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.



       -R

	 Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r revision

	 Commit to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a  revision
	 on  the  main	trunk that is higher than any existing revision number
	 (see node 'Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot  com-
	 mit to a specific revision on a branch.

	 commit also supports these options:



       -F file

	 Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor.



       -f

	 Note  that  this  is  not  the	 standard behavior of the -f option as
	 defined in see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

	 Force cvs to commit a new revision  even  if  you  haven't  made  any
	 changes  to  the  file.  If the current revision of file is 1.7, then
	 the following two commands are equivalent:


	   $ cvs commit -f file
	   $ cvs commit -r 1.8 file




	 The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs
	 to  commit  a	new  revision for all files in all subdirectories, you
	 must use -f -R.



       -m message

	 Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.


commit examples
   Committing to a branch
       You can commit to a branch revision (one that has  an  even  number  of
       dots)  with  the	 -r  option.   To create a branch revision, use the -b
       option of the rtag or tag commands (see node 'Branching and merging' in
       the  CVS	 manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be used to base
       your sources on the newly created branch.  From that point on, all com-
       mit  changes  made  within  these working sources will be automatically
       added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing  main-line  develop-
       ment  in any way.  For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2
       version of the product, even though the 2.0 version  is	already	 under
       development, you might do:


	 $ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
	 $ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
	 $ cd product_module
	 [[ hack away ]]
	 $ cvs commit




       This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.


   Creating the branch after editing
       Say  you	 have  been  working  on some extremely experimental software,
       based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If oth-
       ers  in	your  group  would like to work on this software with you, but
       without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your	change
       to  a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and
       utilize the full benefit of  cvs	 conflict  resolution.	 The  scenario
       might look like:


	 [[ hacked sources are present ]]
	 $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
	 $ cvs update -r EXPR1
	 $ cvs commit




       The  update  command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files.
       Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update
       command.	  The  commit will automatically commit to the correct branch,
       because the -r is sticky.  You could also do like this:


	 [[ hacked sources are present ]]
	 $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
	 $ cvs commit -r EXPR1




       but then, only those files that were changed by you will	 have  the  -r
       EXPR1 sticky flag.  If you hack away, and commit without specifying the
       -r EXPR1 flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk.

       To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do


	 $ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module





diff
   Show differences between revisions
       ? Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k  kflag]  [format_options]  [[-r  rev1	 |  -D
	 date1] [-r rev2 |  -D date2]] [files...]

       ? Requires: working directory, repository.

       ? Changes: nothing.

	 The  diff  command  is	 used to compare different revisions of files.
	 The default action is to compare your working files  with  the	 revi-
	 sions	they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

	 If any file names are given, only those files are compared.   If  any
	 directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

	 The  exit  status  for diff is different than for other cvs commands;
	 for details see node 'Exit status' in the CVS manual.


diff options
       These standard options are supported by diff (see node 'Common options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
	 affects the comparison.



       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node 'Keyword substitu-
	 tion' in the CVS manual.



       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.



       -R

	 Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

	 Compare  with	revision  tag.	 Zero,	one  or	 two -r options can be
	 present.  With no -r option, the working file will be	compared  with
	 the  revision	it  was	 based on.  With one -r, that revision will be
	 compared to your current working file.	 With two -r options those two
	 revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the
	 outcome in any way).

	 One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described
	 above.

	 The  following	 options  specify the format of the output.  They have
	 the same meaning as in GNU diff.  Most options	 have  two  equivalent
	 names,	 one  of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other
	 of which is a long name preceded by --.



       -lines

	 Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec-
	 ify  an  output  format by itself; it has no effect unless it is com-
	 bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.	 For proper operation,
	 patch typically needs at least two lines of context.



       -a

	 Treat	all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
	 do not seem to be text.



       -b

	 Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
	 or more white space characters to be equivalent.



       -B

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --binary

	 Read and write data in binary mode.



       --brief

	 Report	 only whether the files differ, not the details of the differ-
	 ences.



       -c

	 Use the context output format.



       -C lines




       --context[=lines]

	 Use the context output format, showing lines (an  integer)  lines  of
	 context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
	 typically needs at least two lines of context.



       --changed-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a line group  containing	differing  lines  from
	 both  files in if-then-else format.  see node 'Line group formats' in
	 the CVS manual.



       -d

	 Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.	  This
	 makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -e




       --ed

	 Make output that is a valid ed script.



       --expand-tabs

	 Expand	 tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
	 tabs in the input files.



       -f

	 Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
	 the order they appear in the file.



       -F regexp

	 In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
	 some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --forward-ed

	 Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
	 the order they appear in the file.



       -H

	 Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
	 scattered small changes.



       --horizon-lines=lines

	 Do not discard the last lines lines of	 the  common  prefix  and  the
	 first lines lines of the common suffix.



       -i

	 Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv-
	 alent.



       -I regexp

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ifdef=name

	 Make merged if-then-else output using name.



       --ignore-all-space

	 Ignore white space when comparing lines.



       --ignore-blank-lines

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --ignore-case

	 Ignore changes in case; consider upper-  and  lower-case  to  be  the
	 same.



       --ignore-matching-lines=regexp

	 Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ignore-space-change

	 Ignore	 trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
	 or more white space characters to be equivalent.



       --initial-tab

	 Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in	normal
	 or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
	 look normal.



       -L label

	 Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified
	 format headers.



       --label=label

	 Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified
	 format headers.



       --left-column

	 Print only the left column of two common lines in side by  side  for-
	 mat.



       --line-format=format

	 Use  format  to  output  all input lines in if-then-else format.  see
	 node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       --minimal

	 Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.	  This
	 makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -n

	 Output	 RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
	 the number of lines affected.



       -N




       --new-file

	 In directory comparison, if a file is found in	 only  one  directory,
	 treat it as present but empty in the other directory.



       --new-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file
	 in if-then-else format.  see node 'Line group	formats'  in  the  CVS
	 manual.



       --new-line-format=format

	 Use  format  to  output a line taken from just the second file in if-
	 then-else format.  see node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       --old-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first  file
	 in  if-then-else  format.   see  node 'Line group formats' in the CVS
	 manual.



       --old-line-format=format

	 Use format to output a line taken from just the  first	 file  in  if-
	 then-else format.  see node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -p

	 Show which C function each change is in.



       --rcs

	 Output	 RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
	 the number of lines affected.



       --report-identical-files




       -s

	 Report when two files are the same.



       --show-c-function

	 Show which C function each change is in.



       --show-function-line=regexp

	 In context and unified format, for each  hunk	of  differences,  show
	 some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --side-by-side

	 Use the side by side output format.



       --speed-large-files

	 Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
	 scattered small changes.



       --suppress-common-lines

	 Do not print common lines in side by side format.



       -t

	 Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the	 alignment  of
	 tabs in the input files.



       -T

	 Output	 a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal
	 or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line  to
	 look normal.



       --text

	 Treat	all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
	 do not appear to be text.



       -u

	 Use the unified output format.



       --unchanged-group-format=format

	 Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
	 if-then-else  format.	 see node 'Line group formats' in the CVS man-
	 ual.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

	 Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for-
	 mat.  see node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -U lines




       --unified[=lines]

	 Use  the  unified  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of
	 context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
	 typically needs at least two lines of context.



       -w

	 Ignore white space when comparing lines.



       -W columns




       --width=columns

	 Use an output width of columns in side by side format.



       -y

	 Use the side by side output format.


Line group formats
       Line  group  formats let you specify formats suitable for many applica-
       tions that allow if-then-else input,  including	programming  languages
       and  text formatting languages.	A line group format specifies the out-
       put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

       For example, the following command compares the TeX  file  myfile  with
       the  original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in
       which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and  new
       regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.


	 cvs diff \
	    --old-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 ' \
	    --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \
	    myfile




       The  following  command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a
       little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group  for-
       mats.


	 cvs diff \
	    --old-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 ' \
	    --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \
	    --unchanged-group-format='%=' \
	    --changed-group-format='\begin{em}
	 %<\end{em}
	 \begin{bf}
	 %>\end{bf}
	 ' \
	    myfile




       Here  is	 a  more  advanced  example, which outputs a diff listing with
       headers containing line numbers in a ``plain English'' style.


	 cvs diff \
	    --unchanged-group-format='' \
	    --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
	 %<' \
	    --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
	 %>' \
	    --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
	 %<-------- to:
	 %>' \
	    myfile




       To  specify  a  line group format, use one of the options listed below.
       You can specify up to four line group formats, one  for	each  kind  of
       line  group.   You  should  quote format, because it typically contains
       shell metacharacters.



       --old-group-format=format

	 These line groups are hunks containing	 only  lines  from  the	 first
	 file.	 The default old group format is the same as the changed group
	 format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs  the
	 line group as-is.



       --new-group-format=format

	 These	line  groups  are  hunks containing only lines from the second
	 file.	The default new group format is same as the changed group for-
	 mat  if  it  is  specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
	 line group as-is.



       --changed-group-format=format

	 These line groups are hunks containing lines from  both  files.   The
	 default  changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new
	 group formats.



       --unchanged-group-format=format

	 These line groups contain lines common to both	 files.	  The  default
	 unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

	 In a line group format,  ordinary  characters	represent  themselves;
	 conversion  specifications start with % and have one of the following
	 forms.



       %<

	 stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new-
	 line.	 Each  line is formatted according to the old line format (see
	 node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual).



       %>

	 stands for the lines from the second  file,  including	 the  trailing
	 newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.



       %=

	 stands	 for  the  lines  common to both files, including the trailing
	 newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for-
	 mat.



       %%

	 stands for %.



       %c'C'

	 where	C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
	 slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon,  even
	 inside	 the  then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would
	 normally terminate.



       %c'\O'

	 where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the	 char-
	 acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
	 acter.



       Fn

	 where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the fol-
	 lowing letters, stands for n's value formatted with F.


	 e

	   The	line number of the line just before the group in the old file.


	 f

	   The line number of the first line in the group  in  the  old	 file;
	   equals e + 1.


	 l

	   The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.


	 m

	   The	line  number of the line just after the group in the old file;
	   equals l + 1.


	 n

	   The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.


	 E, F, L, M, N

	   Likewise, for lines in the new file.


	   The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec-
	   ifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper  case  hex-
	   adecimal  output  respectively.   After the % the following options
	   can appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification; an inte-
	   ger specifying the minimum field width; and a period followed by an
	   optional integer specifying the  minimum  number  of	 digits.   For
	   example,  %5dN  prints  the	number	of new lines in the group in a
	   field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".



       (A=B?T:E)

	 If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal  con-
	 stant	or  a single letter interpreted as above.  This format spec is
	 equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it	is  equivalent
	 to E.

	 For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
	 N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1  line
	 if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.


Line formats
       Line  formats  control how each line taken from an input file is output
       as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

       For example, the following  command  outputs  text  with	 a  one-column
       change  indicator  to the left of the text.  The first column of output
       is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a	 space	for  unchanged
       lines.	The  formats  contain  newline	characters  where newlines are
       desired on output.


	 cvs diff \
	    --old-line-format='-%l
	 ' \
	    --new-line-format='|%l
	 ' \
	    --unchanged-line-format=' %l
	 ' \
	    myfile




       To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
       quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.



       --old-line-format=format

	 formats lines just from the first file.



       --new-line-format=format

	 formats lines just from the second file.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

	 formats lines common to both files.



       --line-format=format

	 formats  all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simul-
	 taneously.

	 In a line format, ordinary characters represent  themselves;  conver-
	 sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.



       %l

	 stands for the contents of the line, not counting its	trailing  new-
	 line (if any).	 This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.



       %L

	 stands	 for  the contents of the line, including its trailing newline
	 (if any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its	incom-
	 pleteness.



       %%

	 stands for %.



       %c'C'

	 where	C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
	 slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.



       %c'\O'

	 where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the	 char-
	 acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
	 acter.



       Fn

	 where F is a printf conversion specification,	stands	for  the  line
	 number	 formatted  with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the line number
	 using the printf format "%.5d".  see node 'Line group formats' in the
	 CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.


	 The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

	 If  the  input	 contains tab characters and it is important that they
	 line up on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a  line	format
	 is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char-
	 acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

	 Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify  many
	 different  formats.  For example, the following command uses a format
	 similar to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to  get
	 fine control over diff's output.


	 cvs diff \
	    --old-line-format='< %l
	 ' \
	    --new-line-format='> %l
	 ' \
	    --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
	 %<' \
	    --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
	 %>' \
	    --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
	 %<--
	 %>' \
	    --unchanged-group-format='' \
	    myfile





diff examples
       The  following  line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14
       and 1.19 of backend.c.  Due to the -kk flag  no	keywords  are  substi-
       tuted,  so  differences	that  only  depend on keyword substitution are
       ignored.


	 $ cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c




       Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was  based	 on  a	set  of	 files
       tagged  RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on that branch, the fol-
       lowing can be used:


	 $ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1




       A command like this can be used to produce a context diff  between  two
       releases:


	 $ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs




       If  you	are  maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just
       before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog	entry.
       All  local  modifications  that	have  not  yet	been committed will be
       printed.


	 $ cvs diff -u | less





export
   Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
       ? Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d  dir]  mod-
	 ule...

       ? Requires: repository.

       ? Changes: current directory.

	 This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
	 the source for module without	the  cvs  administrative  directories.
	 For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-
	 site.	This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with  -D
	 or  -r),  so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to
	 others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

	 One often would like to use -kv with cvs  export.   This  causes  any
	 keywords  to  be expanded such that an import done at some other site
	 will not lose the keyword revision information.  But  be  aware  that
	 doesn't  handle an export containing binary files correctly.  Also be
	 aware that after having used -kv, one can no  longer  use  the	 ident
	 command (which is part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which looks for
	 keyword strings.  If you want to be able to use ident	you  must  not
	 use -kv.


export options
       These  standard	options	 are  supported	 by  export  (see node 'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

	 If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most  recent  revision
	 (instead of ignoring the file).



       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.



       -n

	 Do not run any checkout program.



       -R

	 Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r tag

	 Use revision tag.

	 In  addition,	these options (that are common to checkout and export)
	 are also supported:



       -d dir

	 Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
	 the  module name.  see node 'checkout options' in the CVS manual, for
	 complete details on how cvs handles this flag.



       -k subst

	 Set keyword expansion mode (see node 'Substitution modes' in the  CVS
	 manual).



       -N

	 Only useful together with -d dir.  see node 'checkout options' in the
	 CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.


history
   Show status of files and users
       ? Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

       ? Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

       ? Changes: nothing.

	 cvs can keep a history file that tracks each  use  of	the  checkout,
	 commit,  rtag,	 update, and release commands.	You can use history to
	 display this information in various formats.

	 Logging must be enabled by creating  the  file	 $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his-
	 tory.

	 history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal
	 use inside cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).


history options
       Several options (shown above as -report)	 control  what kind of	report
       is generated:



       -c

	 Report	 on  each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository
	 was modified).



       -e

	 Everything (all record types).	 Equivalent to specifying -x with  all
	 record types.	Of course, -e will also include record types which are
	 added in a future version of cvs; if you are writing a	 script	 which
	 can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.



       -m module

	 Report	 on  a	particular  module.  (You can meaningfully use -m more
	 than once on the command line.)



       -o

	 Report on checked-out modules.	 This is the default report type.



       -T

	 Report on all tags.



       -x type

	 Extract a particular set of record types type from the	 cvs  history.
	 The  types  are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in
	 combination.

	 Certain commands have a single record type:


	 F

	   release

	 O

	   checkout

	 E

	   export

	 T

	   rtag

	   One of five record types may result from an update:


	 C

	   A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring  man-
	   ual merging).

	 G

	   A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

	 U

	   A working file was copied from the repository.

	 P

	   A working file was patched to match the repository.

	 W

	   The	working	 copy  of a file was deleted during update (because it
	   was gone from the repository).

	   One of three record types results from commit:


	 A

	   A file was added for the first time.

	 M

	   A file was modified.

	 R

	   A file was removed.

	   The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without
	   requiring option arguments:



       -a

	 Show  data  for  all  users (the default is to show data only for the
	 user executing history).



       -l

	 Show last modification only.



       -w

	 Show only the records for modifications done from  the	 same  working
	 directory where history is executing.

	 The  options  shown as -options args constrain the report based on an
	 argument:



       -b str

	 Show data back to a record containing	the  string  str   in	either
	 the module name, the file name, or the repository path.



       -D date

	 Show data since date.	This is slightly different from the normal use
	 of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.



       -f file

	 Show data for a particular file (you can specify several  -f  options
	 on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
	 on the command line.



       -n module

	 Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options
	 on the same command line).



       -p repository

	 Show  data  for a particular source repository	 (you can specify sev-
	 eral -p options on the same command line).



       -r rev

	 Show records referring to revisions since the revision or  tag	 named
	 rev  appears  in individual rcs files.	 Each rcs file is searched for
	 the revision or tag.



       -t tag

	 Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.	  This
	 differs  from	the  -r	 flag  above in that it reads only the history
	 file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.



       -u name

	 Show records for user name.



       -z timezone

	 Show times in the selected records  using  the	 specified  time  zone
	 instead of UTC.


import
   Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
       ? Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

       ? Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

       ? Changes: repository.

	 Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an out-
	 side source (e.g., a  source  vendor)	into  your  source  repository
	 directory.   You  can use this command both for initial creation of a
	 repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the  outside
	 source.  see node 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discus-
	 sion on this subject.

	 The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc-
	 tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
	 did not exist, import creates it.

	 When you use import for updates to source that has been  modified  in
	 your  source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of
	 any files that conflict in  the  two  branches	 of  development;  use
	 checkout  -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to
	 do.

	 If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in  the
	 CVS  manual),	it  does  not  import it and prints I  followed by the
	 filename (see node 'import output' in the CVS manual, for a  complete
	 description of the output).

	 If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names
	 match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and
	 the  appropriate  filtering  will  be performed on the file/directory
	 before being imported.	 see node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

	 The outside source is saved  in  a  first-level  branch,  by  default
	 1.1.1.	  Updates  are	leaves of this branch; for example, files from
	 the first imported collection of source  will	be  revision  1.1.1.1,
	 then  files  from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2,
	 and so on.

	 At least three arguments are required.	 repository is needed to iden-
	 tify  the  collection	of  source.  vendortag is a tag for the entire
	 branch (e.g., for  1.1.1).   You  must	 also  specify	at  least  one
	 releasetag  to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each
	 time you execute import.  The releasetag should be  new,  not	previ-
	 ously	existing  in  the  repository  file, and uniquely identify the
	 imported release,

	 Note that import does not change the directory in  which  you	invoke
	 it.   In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs work-
	 ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first
	 and then check them out into a different directory (see node 'Getting
	 the source' in the CVS manual).


import options
       This standard option is supported by import (see node 'Common  options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description):



       -m message

	 Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

	 There are the following additional special options.



       -b branch

	 See see node 'Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.



       -k subst

	 Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply
	 to all files created during the import, but not  to  any  files  that
	 previously  existed  in  the  repository.  See see node 'Substitution
	 modes' in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings.



       -I name

	 Specify file names that should be ignored during import.  You can use
	 this  option  repeatedly.   To	 avoid ignoring any files at all (even
	 those ignored by default), specify `-I !'.

	 name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
	 in the .cvsignore file.  see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual.



       -W spec

	 Specify  file	names  that should be filtered during import.  You can
	 use this option repeatedly.

	 spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
	 in the .cvswrappers file. see node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.


import output
       import  keeps  you informed of its progress by printing a line for each
       file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:



       U file

	 The file already exists in the repository and has  not	 been  locally
	 modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary).



       N file

	 The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.



       C file

	 The  file already exists in the repository but has been locally modi-
	 fied; you will have to merge the changes.



       I file

	 The file is being ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).



       L file

	 The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links.  Peo-
	 ple periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if
	 there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it doesn't seem
	 to  be apparent.  (Various options in the modules file can be used to
	 recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node 'modules'
	 in the CVS manual.)


import examples
       See  see	 node 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and see node 'From
       files' in the CVS manual.


log
   Print out log information for files
       ? Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

       ? Requires: repository, working directory.

       ? Changes: nothing.

	 Display log information for files.  log used to call the rcs  utility
	 rlog.	 Although  this is no longer true in the current sources, this
	 history determines the format of the output and  the  options,	 which
	 are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

	 The  output  includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision
	 (the latest revision on the trunk), all  symbolic  names  (tags)  and
	 some  other  things.	For  each  revision,  the revision number, the
	 author, the number of lines added/deleted and	the  log  message  are
	 printed.   All	 times	are  displayed	in  Coordinated Universal Time
	 (UTC).	 (Other parts of cvs print times in the local timezone).

	 log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal  use  inside  cvs
	 (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).


log options
       By  default,  log  prints all information that is available.  All other
       options restrict the output.  Note that the revision selection  options
       (-d,  -r,  -s,  and  -w)	 have no effect, other than possibly causing a
       search for files in Attic directories, when used	 in  conjunction  with
       the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h,
       -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified.



       -b

	 Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally
	 the highest branch on the trunk.



       -d dates

	 Print	information  about  revisions  with a checkin date/time in the
	 range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates.	The date  for-
	 mats  accepted	 are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs
	 commands (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).  Dates can be
	 combined into ranges as follows:


	 d1<d2



	 d2>d1

	   Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2.


	 <d



	 d>

	   Select all revisions dated d or earlier.


	 d<



	 >d

	   Select all revisions dated d or later.


	 d

	   Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier.

	   The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive
	   range rather than an exclusive one.

	   Note that the separator is a semicolon (;).



       -h

	 Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the  working
	 directory,  head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names,
	 and suffix.



       -l

	 Local; run only in current working directory.	 (Default  is  to  run
	 recursively).



       -N

	 Do not print the list of tags for this file.  This option can be very
	 useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather  than  "more"'ing
	 over  3  pages	 of  tag information, the log information is presented
	 without tags at all.



       -R

	 Print only the name of the rcs file.



       -rrevisions

	 Print information about revisions given in the	 comma-separated  list
	 revisions  of revisions and ranges.  The following table explains the
	 available range formats:


	 rev1:rev2

	   Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch).


	 rev1::rev2

	   The same, but excluding rev1.


	 :rev



	 ::rev

	   Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev.


	 rev:

	   Revisions  starting	with  rev  to the end of the branch containing
	   rev.


	 rev::

	   Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain-
	   ing rev.


	 branch

	   An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch.


	 branch1:branch2



	 branch1::branch2

	   A  range  of	 branches  means all revisions on the branches in that
	   range.


	 branch.

	   The latest revision in branch.

	   A bare -r with no  revisions	 means	the  latest  revision  on  the
	   default  branch, normally the trunk.	 There can be no space between
	   the -r option and its argument.



       -S

	 Suppress the header if no revisions are selected.



       -s states

	 Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of
	 the  states  given  in	 the  comma-separated list states.  Individual
	 states may be any text string, though	cvs  commonly  only  uses  two
	 states, Exp and dead.	See see node 'admin options' in the CVS manual
	 for more information.



       -t

	 Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text.



       -wlogins

	 Print information about revisions checked  in	by  users  with	 login
	 names	appearing  in  the  comma-separated list logins.  If logins is
	 omitted, the user's login is assumed.	There can be no space  between
	 the -w option and its argument.

	 log  prints  the  intersection	 of  the  revisions  selected with the
	 options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of	the  revisions
	 selected by -b and -r.


log examples
       Contributed examples are gratefully accepted.


rdiff
   'patch' format diffs between releases
       ? rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules...

       ? Requires: repository.

       ? Changes: nothing.

       ? Synonym: patch

	 Builds	 a  Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that
	 can be fed directly into the patch program to bring  an  old  release
	 up-to-date  with  the	new release.  (This is one of the few cvs com-
	 mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require
	 a  prior  checkout.)  The  diff output is sent to the standard output
	 device.

	 You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options)	 any  combina-
	 tion  of one or two revisions or dates.  If only one revision or date
	 is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that	 revi-
	 sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file.

	 Note  that if the software release affected is contained in more than
	 one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p  option  to
	 the  patch  command  when  patching the old sources, so that patch is
	 able to find the files that are located in other directories.


rdiff options
       These standard  options	are  supported	by  rdiff  (see	 node  'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

	 If  no	 matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision
	 (instead of ignoring the file).



       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node 'Keyword substitu-
	 tion' in the CVS manual.



       -l

	 Local; don't descend subdirectories.



       -R

	 Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

	 Use revision tag.

	 In addition to the above, these options are available:



       -c

	 Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.



       -s

	 Create	 a  summary  change  report  instead  of a patch.  The summary
	 includes information about files that were changed or	added  between
	 the  releases.	  It  is  sent to the standard output device.  This is
	 useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between
	 two dates or revisions.



       -t

	 A  diff  of  the  top	two  revisions	is sent to the standard output
	 device.  This is most useful for seeing what the  last	 change	 to  a
	 file was.



       -u

	 Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.	Remember that old ver-
	 sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you
	 plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u.



       -V vn

	 Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the
	 expansion format changed with rcs version 5).	Note that this	option
	 is  no longer accepted.  cvs will always expand keywords the way that
	 rcs version 5 does.


rdiff examples
       Suppose you receive mail from foo@example.net asking for an update from
       release	1.2  to	 1.4  of the tc compiler.  You have no such patches on
       hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed  with  a  command  such  as
       this:


	 $ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
	 $$ Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@example.net




       Suppose	you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix
       for bug fixes.  R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1,  which  was  made
       some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
       on the branch.  This command can be used:


	 $ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
	 cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
	 File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
	 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
	 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2





release
   Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
       ? release [-d] directories...

       ? Requires: Working directory.

       ? Changes: Working directory, history log.

	 This command is meant to safely cancel the effect  of	cvs  checkout.
	 Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this
	 command.  You can always simply delete your working directory, if you
	 like;	but  you  risk	losing changes you may have forgotten, and you
	 leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node  'history  file'  in
	 the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

	 Use cvs release to avoid these problems.  This command checks that no
	 uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme-
	 diately  above	 a  cvs	 working  directory;  and  that the repository
	 recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in  the
	 module database.

	 If  all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its
	 execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your  checkout)
	 in the cvs history log.


release options
       The release command supports one command option:



       -d

	 Delete	 your  working	copy  of the file if the release succeeds.  If
	 this flag is not given your files will remain in your working	direc-
	 tory.

	 WARNING:   The	 release  command  deletes  all	 directories and files
	 recursively.  This has the very serious side-effect that  any	direc-
	 tory  that  you have created inside your checked-out sources, and not
	 added to the repository (using the  add  command;  see	 node  'Adding
	 files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted---even if it is non-
	 empty!


release output
       Before release releases your sources it will print a  one-line  message
       for any file that is not up-to-date.



       U file




       P file

	 There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you
	 have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the  same
	 thing).



       A file

	 The  file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has
	 not yet been committed to the repository.  If you delete your copy of
	 the sources this file will be lost.



       R file

	 The  file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but
	 has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not  yet
	 committed the removal.	 see node 'commit' in the CVS manual.



       M file

	 The  file is modified in your working directory.  There might also be
	 a newer revision inside the repository.



       ? file

	 file is in your working directory, but does not  correspond  to  any-
	 thing	in  the source repository, and is not in the list of files for
	 cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I  option,	and  see  node
	 'cvsignore'  in the CVS manual).  If you remove your working sources,
	 this file will be lost.


release examples
       Release the tc directory, and delete your local	working	 copy  of  the
       files.


	 $ cd ..	 # You must stand immediately above the
			 # sources when you issue cvs release.
	 $ cvs release -d tc
	 You have [0] altered files in this repository.
	 Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory `tc': y
	 $





update
   Bring work tree in sync with repository
       ? update	 [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag|-D
	 date] [-W spec] files...

       ? Requires: repository, working directory.

       ? Changes: working directory.

	 After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source  from
	 the  common  repository,  other developers will continue changing the
	 central source.  From time to time, when it  is  convenient  in  your
	 development  process, you can use the update command from within your
	 working directory to reconcile your work with any  revisions  applied
	 to the source repository since your last checkout or update.


update options
       These  standard	options	 are  available	 with update (see node 'Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

	 Use the most recent revision no later	than  date.   This  option  is
	 sticky,  and  implies -P.  See see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS man-
	 ual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

	 Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.	If no  matching	 revi-
	 sion is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
	 the file).



       -k kflag

	 Process keywords according to kflag.  See see node 'Keyword substitu-
	 tion'	in  the	 CVS manual.  This option is sticky; future updates of
	 this file in this working directory will use  the  same  kflag.   The
	 status command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See see node
	 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the	status
	 command.



       -l

	 Local;	 run  only  in current working directory.  see node 'Recursive
	 behavior' in the CVS manual.



       -P

	 Prune empty directories.  See see node 'Moving	 directories'  in  the
	 CVS manual.



       -p

	 Pipe files to the standard output.



       -R

	 Update directories recursively (default).  see node 'Recursive behav-
	 ior' in the CVS manual.



       -r rev

	 Retrieve revision/tag rev.  This option is sticky,  and  implies  -P.
	 See see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual, for more information on
	 sticky tags/dates.

	 These special options are also available with update.



       -A

	 Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not	 reset	sticky
	 -k  options on modified files.	 See see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS
	 manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -C

	 Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from  the  reposi-
	 tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).



       -d

	 Create	 any directories that exist in the repository if they're miss-
	 ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc-
	 tories	 and  files  that were already enrolled in your working direc-
	 tory.

	 This is useful for updating directories  that	were  created  in  the
	 repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
	 effect.  If you  deliberately	avoided	 certain  directories  in  the
	 repository  when  you	created your working directory (either through
	 use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and  directo-
	 ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre-
	 ate those directories, which may not be what you want.



       -I name

	 Ignore files whose names match name (in your working directory)  dur-
	 ing  the  update.   You  can specify -I more than once on the command
	 line to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid  ignoring
	 any  files at all.  see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for other
	 ways to make cvs ignore some files.



       -Wspec

	 Specify file names that should be filtered during  update.   You  can
	 use this option repeatedly.

	 spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
	 in the .cvswrappers file. see node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.



       -jrevision

	 With two -j options, merge changes from the revision  specified  with
	 the  first  -j	 option	 to  the  revision specified with the second j
	 option, into the working directory.

	 With one -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision  to  the
	 revision  specified  with  the -j option, into the working directory.
	 The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of  the  revision	 which
	 the  working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the
	 -j option.

	 Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j  branchname
	 to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
	 removed on the branch.	 see node 'Merging adds and removals'  in  the
	 CVS manual, for more.

	 In  addition,	each -j option can contain an optional date specifica-
	 tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
	 one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
	 a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

	 see node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



update output
       update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by  printing  a
       line  for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of
       the file:



       U file

	 The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
	 is  done  for	any file that exists in the repository but not in your
	 working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not
	 the most recent versions available in the repository.



       P file

	 Like  U,  but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.
	 This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.



       A file

	 The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
	 be  added  to	the source repository when you run commit on the file.
	 This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.



       R file

	 The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,  and
	 will be removed from the source repository when you run commit on the
	 file.	This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.



       M file

	 The file is modified in  your	working	 directory.

	 M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either
	 there were no modifications to the same file in  the  repository,  so
	 that  your  file  remains as you last saw it; or there were modifica-
	 tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
	 successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

	 cvs  will  print  some	 messages if it merges your work, and a backup
	 copy of your working file (as it looked before you ran	 update)  will
	 be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.



       C file

	 A  conflict  was  detected while trying to merge your changes to file
	 with changes from the source repository.   file  (the	copy  in  your
	 working  directory)  is now the result of attempting to merge the two
	 revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also  in	 your  working
	 directory,  with the name .#file.revision where revision is the revi-
	 sion that your modified file started from.  Resolve the  conflict  as
	 described  in	see node 'Conflicts example' in the CVS manual.	 (Note
	 that some systems automatically purge files that  begin  with	.#  if
	 they  have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a
	 copy of your original file, it is a very good	idea  to  rename  it.)
	 Under vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.



       ? file

	 file  is  in  your working directory, but does not correspond to any-
	 thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of  files  for
	 cvs  to  ignore  (see	the description of the -I option, and see node
	 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
	      Original author of  the  cvs  shell  script  version  posted  to
	      comp.sources.unix	 in  the  volume6  release  of December, 1986.
	      Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
	      Coder and designer of the cvs program  itself  in	 April,	 1989,
	      based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
	      Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
	      support and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the  ancestor
	      of cvs import).

       Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
	      Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

       And many others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get
       it  with	 the  info  CVS	 command  or  it  may  be available as cvs.pdf
       (Portable Document Format), cvs.ps (PostScript),	 cvs.texinfo  (Texinfo
       source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

	   http://cvs.nongnu.org

 ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1),  patch(1),	rcs(1),	 rcsd-
 iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).



									CVS(1)
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