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EMACS(1)		    General Commands Manual		      EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original
       (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.  The user functionality of GNU	 Emacs
       encompasses  everything	other  editors do, and it is easily extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is  in  the  GNU	Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can	read  using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone
       program.	 Please look there for complete and up-to-date	documentation.
       This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do so.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you know how to  manipulate	 Emacs	windows	 and  buffers.
       CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts
       an interactive tutorial to quickly teach beginners the fundamentals  of
       Emacs.	Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command with a name
       matching a given pattern, Help Key (CTRL-h k)  describes	 a  given  key
       sequence, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),	compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  automated	 psychotherapy	(Doctor),  and
       much more.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

	      file    Edit file.

	      --chdir directory
		      Change to directory

	      --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
		      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

	      +number Go  to  the  line	 specified  by number (do not insert a
		      space between  the  "+"  sign  and  the  number).	  This
		      applies only to the next file specified.

		      Go to the specified line and column.

	      -q, --no-init-file
		      Do not load an init file.

	      -nl, --no-shared-memory
		      Do not use shared memory

		      Do not load the site-wide startup file.

	      -nsl, --no-site-list
		      Do not add site-lisp directories to load-path

		      Do not load a saved desktop.

	      -Q, --quick
		      Similar to "-q --no-site-file --no-splash".  Also, avoid
		      processing X resources.

		      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

		      Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing of  the
		      user  init  file ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging
		      problems in the init file.

	      -u user, --user user
		      Load user's init file.

	      -t file, --terminal file
		      Use specified file as  the  terminal  instead  of	 using
		      stdin/stdout.  This must be the first argument specified
		      in the command line.

		      Start Emacs as a daemon, enabling the Emacs  server  and
		      disconnecting  from  the terminal.  You can then use the
		      emacsclient command to connect to the server (see	 emac-

		      Display Emacs version information and exit.

	      --help  Display this help and exit.

       The following options are Lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

	      -f function, --funcall function
		      Execute the lisp function function.

	      -l file, --load file
		      Load the lisp code in the file file.

	      --eval expr, --execute expr
		      Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

	      --batch Edit in batch mode.  The editor will  send  messages  to
		      stderr.  You must use -l and -f options to specify files
		      to execute and functions to call.

	      --script file
		      Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.

	      --insert file
		      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

	      --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

	      -L dir, --directory dir
		      Add dir to the list of directories  Emacs	 searches  for
		      Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs  has been tailored to work well with the X window system.	If you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis-
       play  in.   You	will probably want to start the editor as a background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

	      --name name
		      Specify the name which should be assigned to the initial
		      Emacs  window.   This controls looking up X resources as
		      well as the window title.

	      -T name, --title name
		      Specify the title for the initial X window.

	      -r, -rv, --reverse-video
		      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

	      -fn font, --font font
		      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified  by	 font.
		      You   will   find	  the	various	  X   fonts   in   the
		      /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will only
		      accept fixed width fonts.	 Under the X11 Release 4 font-
		      naming conventions, any font with the value "m"  or  "c"
		      in  the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width
		      font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name  are	 of  the  form
		      widthxheight  are	 generally fixed width, as is the font
		      fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

		      When you specify a font, be sure to put a space  between
		      the switch and the font name.

	      --xrm resources
		      Set additional X resources.

	      --color, --color=mode
		      Override	 color	mode  for  character  terminals;  mode
		      defaults to `auto', and can  also	 be  `never',  `auto',
		      `always', or a mode name like `ansi8'.

	      -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
		      Set  the	Emacs  window's	 border width to the number of
		      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to	one  pixel  on
		      each side of the window.

	      -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
		      Set  the window's internal border width to the number of
		      pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to	one  pixel  of
		      padding on each side of the window.

	      -g geometry, --geometry geometry
		      Set  the	Emacs  window's width, height, and position as
		      specified.  The geometry specification is in  the	 stan-
		      dard X format; see X(7) for more information.  The width
		      and height are specified in characters; the  default  is
		      80  by  24.   See the Emacs manual, section "Options for
		      Window Size and Position", for information on how window
		      sizes  interact  with  selecting or deselecting the tool
		      bar and menu bar.

	      -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
		      Additional space to put between lines.

	      -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
		      Enable vertical scrollbars.

	      -fh, --fullheight
		      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

	      -fs, --fullscreen
		      Make the first frame fullscreen.

	      -fw, --fullwidth
		      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

	      -mm, --maximized
		      Maximize the first frame, like "-fw -fh".

	      -fg color, --foreground-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the text.

		      Use the command M-x list-colors-display for  a  list  of
		      valid color names.

	      -bg color, --background-color color
		      On  color	 displays, set the color of the window's back-

	      -bd color, --border-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

	      -cr color, --cursor-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of  the	window's  text

	      -ms color, --mouse-color color
		      On  color	 displays, set the color of the window's mouse

	      -d displayname, --display displayname
		      Create the Emacs window on the display specified by dis-
		      playname.	  Must	be  the	 first option specified in the
		      command line.

	      -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
		      Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.

		      Start Emacs in iconified state.

	      -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
		      Disable blinking cursor.

	      --parent-id xid
		      Set parent window

	      -nw, --no-window-system
		      Tell Emacs not to create a graphical frame.  If you  use
		      this switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window,
		      display is done in that window.

	      -D, --basic-display
		      This option disables many display features; use  it  for
		      debugging Emacs.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following keywords:

	      background (class Background)
		      For color displays, sets the window's background color.

	      bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
		      If  bitmapIcon's	value  is  set	to on, the window will
		      iconify into the "kitchen sink."

	      borderColor (class BorderColor)
		      For color displays, sets the color of the window's  bor-

	      borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's border width in pixels.

	      cursorColor (class Foreground)
		      For  color displays, sets the color of the window's text

	      cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
		      Specifies whether to make the cursor blink.  The default
		      is on.  Use off or false to turn cursor blinking off.

	      font (class Font)
		      Sets the window's text font.

	      foreground (class Foreground)
		      For color displays, sets the window's text color.

	      fullscreen (class Fullscreen)
		      The  desired  fullscreen	size.  The value can be one of
		      fullboth, maximized,  fullwidth,	or  fullheight,	 which
		      correspond  to  the  command-line	 options `-fs', `-mm',
		      `-fw', and `-fh', respectively.  Note that this  applies
		      to the initial frame only.

	      geometry (class Geometry)
		      Sets  the	 geometry  of  the  Emacs window (as described

	      iconName (class Title)
		      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

	      internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

	      lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
		      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

	      menuBar (class MenuBar)
		      Gives frames menu bars if on; don't have	menu  bars  if
		      off.   See  the Emacs manual, sections "Lucid Resources"
		      and "LessTif Resources", for how to control the  appear-
		      ance of the menu bar if you have one.

	      minibuffer (class Minibuffer)
		      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It will
		      use a separate minibuffer frame instead.

	      paneFont (class Font)
		      Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit  versions
		      of Emacs.

	      pointerColor (class Foreground)
		      For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse

	      privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
		      If on, use a private color map, in the  case  where  the
		      "default visual" of class PseudoColor and Emacs is using

	      reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
		      If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will be
		      displayed in reverse video.

	      screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
		      Gamma  correction	 for  colors,  equivalent to the frame
		      parameter `screen-gamma'.

	      scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
		      The scroll bar width in pixels, equivalent to the	 frame
		      parameter `scroll-bar-width'.

	      selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
		      Font name for pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions
		      of Emacs.	 (For toolkit versions, see the Emacs  manual,
		      sections "Lucid Resources" and "LessTif Resources".)

	      selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
		      Number of milliseconds to wait for a selection reply.  A
		      value of 0 means wait as long as necessary.

	      synchronous (class Synchronous)
		      Run Emacs in synchronous mode if on.   Synchronous  mode
		      is useful for debugging X problems.

	      title (class Title)
		      Sets the title of the Emacs window.

	      toolBar (class ToolBar)
		      Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.

	      useXIM (class UseXIM)
		      Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.

	      verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars)
		      Gives  frames  scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars
		      if off.

	      visualClass (class VisualClass)
		      Specify the "visual" that X should use.	This  tells  X
		      how  to  handle colors.  The value should start with one
		      of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,  StaticColor,
		      GrayScale,  and  StaticGray,  followed  by -depth, where
		      depth is the number of color planes.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU	Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the online store
       at <http://shop.fsf.org/>.
       Your local administrator might also have copies available.  As with all
       software	 and  publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and
       distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The Texinfo source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/share/info -- files for the Info documentation browser.  The
       complete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient
       tree  structured	 form.	Also includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual,
       useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp  extension
       language, and the Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  -- Lisp source files and compiled
       files that define most editing commands.	 Some  are  preloaded;	others
       are autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH	--  various  programs that are
       used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc -- various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* -- contains the documentation
       strings	for  the  Lisp	primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU
       Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering vari-
       ous  services  to assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou-
       bleshooting, porting and customization.

       There is a mailing list,	 bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org,	 for  reporting	 Emacs
       bugs and fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	  We  ask  you	to  read the section ``Reporting Bugs'' in the
       Emacs manual for hints on how and when to report bugs.	Also,  include
       the  version  number  of	 the Emacs you are running in every bug report
       that you send in.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if they can  be  iso-
       lated, so it is in your interest to report them in such a way that they
       can be easily reproduced.

       Do not expect a personal answer	to  a  bug  report.   The  purpose  of
       reporting  bugs	is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,
       if possible.  For personal assistance, look in the  SERVICE  file  (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please  do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For
       more  information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the	  file

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated in the GNU General Public License,  a  copy  of	 which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged  with	 distributions
       of  Unix	 systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license
       covering those systems.	Such inclusion violates	 the  terms  on	 which
       distribution  is	 permitted.   In  fact, the primary purpose of the GNU
       General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching  any	 other
       restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard	Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will	 be a complete replacement for Unix.  Everyone
       will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       For detailed credits and acknowledgments, see the GNU Emacs manual.

       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted	to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
       document provided the copyright notice and this permission  notice  are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       document under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided  that  the
       entire  resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per-
       mission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this docu-
       ment  into  another  language,  under the above conditions for modified
       versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a	trans-
       lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 24.3			 2007 April 13			      EMACS(1)