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EMACS(1)							      EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]

       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original
       (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is  in  the  GNU	Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can	read on line using Info, a subsystem of Emacs.	Please
       look there for complete and up-to-date documentation.  This man page is
       updated	only  when someone volunteers to do so; the Emacs maintainers'
       priority goal is to minimize the amount of time	this  man  page	 takes
       away from other more useful projects.
       The  user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs
       editors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands  are
       written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you know how to  manipulate	 Emacs	windows	 and  buffers.
       CTRL-h  (backspace  or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.	 Help Tutorial
       (CTRL-h t) requests an interactive tutorial which can  teach  beginners
       the  fundamentals  of  Emacs in a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
       helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-
       h c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)
       describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing (Mail), outline editing  (Outline),	compiling  (Compile),  running
       subshells  within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There is an extensive reference manual,	but  users  of	other  Emacses
       should  have little trouble adapting even without a copy.  Users new to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go  to  the  line  specified  by	 number (do not insert a space
	       between the "+" sign and the number).

       -q      Do not load an init file.

       -u user Load user's init file.

       -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of using  stdin/std-
	       out.   This must be the first argument specified in the command

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

       -f function
	       Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

       -batch  Edit  in	 batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.
	       This option must be the first in the argument list.   You  must
	       use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions
	       to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If  you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis-
       play in.	 You will probably want to start the editor  as	 a  background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
	       Specifies  the  name  which  should  be assigned to the initial
	       Emacs window.  This controls looking up X resources as well  as
	       the window title.

       -title name
	       Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

       -i      Use  the	 "kitchen  sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs

       -font font, -fn font
	       Set the Emacs window's font to that  specified  by  font.   You
	       will  find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts direc-
	       tory.  Note that Emacs will  only  accept  fixed	 width	fonts.
	       Under  the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with
	       the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name  is
	       a  fixed	 width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the
	       form widthxheight are generally fixed width,  as	 is  the  font
	       fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

	       When  you  specify  a  font, be sure to put a space between the
	       switch and the font name.

       -bw pixels
	       Set the Emacs window's border width to  the  number  of	pixels
	       specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the

       -ib pixels
	       Set the window's internal border width to the number of	pixels
	       specified  by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each
	       side of the window.

       -geometry geometry
	       Set the Emacs window's width, height, and  position  as	speci-
	       fied.   The geometry specification is in the standard X format;
	       see X(1) for more information.  The width and height are speci-
	       fied in characters; the default is 80 by 24.

       -fg color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the text.

	       See  the	 file  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for a list of valid color

       -bg color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       -cr color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's text  cursor.

       -ms color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
	       Create the Emacs window on the display  specified  by  display-
	       name.   Must be the first option specified in the command line.

       -nw     Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you  use
	       this  switch  when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, dis-
	       play is done in that window.  This must	be  the	 first	option
	       specified in the command line.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following keywords:

       font (class Font)
	       Sets the window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
	       If  reverseVideo's  value is set to on, the window will be dis-
	       played in reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
	       If bitmapIcon's value is set to on,  the	 window	 will  iconify
	       into the "kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
	       For color displays, sets the window's background color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's  mouse  cur-

       geometry (class Geometry)
	       Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
	       Sets the title of the Emacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
	       Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If  you	try to set color values while using a black and white display,
       the window's characteristics will default as  follows:  the  foreground
       color  will be set to black, the background color will be set to white,
       the border color will be set to grey, and the text  and	mouse  cursors
       will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The  following  lists  the  mouse  button bindings for the Emacs window
       under X11.

       left		    Set point.
       middle		    Paste text.
       right		    Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle	    Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right	    Paste text.
       CTRL-middle	    Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
       CTRL-right	    Select this window, then split it  into  two  win-
			    dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left	    X  buffer  menu--hold  the	buttons and keys down,
			    wait  for  menu  to	 appear,  select  buffer,  and
			    release.   Move  mouse  out of menu and release to
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle    X help menu--pop up	 index	card  menu  for	 Emacs
       CTRL-SHIFT-right	    Select  window  with  mouse,  and delete all other
			    windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU	Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software	 Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the file ORDERS
       for ordering information.
       Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As  with
       all  software  and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
       and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem
       of Emacs) to refer to.  Currently not much of Unix is documented	 here,
       but  the	 complete  text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a
       convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and object files

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp - Lisp source files	 and  compiled
       files  that  define  most editing commands.  Some are preloaded; others
       are autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc - various programs  that  are  used
       with GNU Emacs, and some files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.*  - contains the documentation
       strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded  Lisp  functions  of  GNU
       Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/OTHER.EMACSES  discusses  GNU Emacs
       vs. other versions of Emacs.
       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering vari-
       ous  services  to assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, trou-
       bleshooting, porting and customization.
       These files also have information useful to  anyone  wishing  to	 write
       programs	 in  the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been
       fully documented.

       /usr/local/com/emacs/lock - holds lock files  that  are	made  for  all
       files  being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of
       one file by two users.

       /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

       There is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu on the  internet
       (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs  on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs
       bugs and fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	 We ask you to read the section ''Reporting Emacs Bugs''  near
       the  end	 of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug report that you send in.

       Do  not	expect	a  personal  answer  to	 a bug report.	The purpose of
       reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the	next  release,
       if  possible.   For  personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  Send
       requests	 to  be	 added	to mailing lists to the special list info-gnu-
       emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu (or the corresponding UUCP address).  For
       more   information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the  file
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be  fixed  if
       they  can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in such
       a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with  programs  running
       in Raw mode on some Unix versions.

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy  of	 which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged  with	 distributions
       of  Unix	 systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license
       covering those systems.	Such inclusion violates	 the  terms  on	 which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other  restric-
       tions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard	Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will	 be  a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix.
       Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

       Copyright (c) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.1  or
       any  later  version  published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

       This  document  is  part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
       Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this  document	 sepa-
       rately  from  the  collection,  you  can	 do so by adding a copy of the
       license to the document, as described in section 6 of the  license.   A
       copy  of	 the  license  is included in the gfdl(1) man page, and in the
       section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License" in the Emacs  manual.

4th Berkeley Distribution	1995 December 7			      EMACS(1)
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