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etags(1)			   GNU Tools			      etags(1)



NAME
       etags, ctags - generate tag file for Emacs, vi

SYNOPSIS
       etags [-aCDGImRVh] [-i file] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp]
       [--append] [--no-defines] [--no-globals] [--include=file]
       [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members]
       [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex]
       [--ignore-case-regex=regexp] [--help] [--version] file ...

       ctags [-aCdgImRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp]
       [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--defines] [--forward-search]
       [--globals] [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members]
       [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--ignore-case-regex=regexp]
       [--typedefs] [--typedefs-and-c++] [--update] [--no-warn] [--help]
       [--version] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       The etags program is used to create a tag table file, in a  format  un-
       derstood by emacs(1); the ctags program is used to create a similar ta-
       ble in a format understood by vi(1).  Both forms of the program	under-
       stand the syntax of C, Objective C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada, Cobol, Er-
       lang,  LaTeX,  Emacs  Lisp/Common  Lisp,	  makefiles,   Pascal,	 Perl,
       Postscript,  Python,  Prolog,  Scheme and most assembler-like syntaxes.
       Both forms read the files specified on the command line,	 and  write  a
       tag  table  (defaults:  TAGS  for etags, tags for ctags) in the current
       working directory.  Files specified with relative file  names  will  be
       recorded	 in  the  tag  table with file names relative to the directory
       where the tag table resides.  Files specified with absolute file	 names
       will  be recorded with absolute file names.  The programs recognize the
       language used in an input file based on its  file  name	and  contents.
       The  --language	switch	can be used to force parsing of the file names
       following the switch according to the given language, overriding guess-
       es based on filename extensions.

OPTIONS
       Some  options  make  sense  only for the vi style tag files produced by
       ctags; etags does not recognize them.  The programs accept  unambiguous
       abbreviations for long option names.

       -a, --append
	      Append to existing tag file.  (For vi-format tag files, see also
	      --update.)

       -B, --backward-search
	      Tag files written in the format expected by vi  contain  regular
	      expression  search instructions; the -B option writes them using
	      the delimiter '?', to search backwards through files.   The  de-
	      fault  is	 to  use the delimiter '/', to search forwards through
	      files.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       --declarations
	      In C and derived languages, create tags  for  function  declara-
	      tions,  and create tags for extern variables unless --no-globals
	      is used.

       -d, --defines
	      Create tag entries for C preprocessor constant  definitions  and
	      enum constants, too.  This is the default behavior for etags.

       -D, --no-defines
	      Do  not  create  tag entries for C preprocessor constant defini-
	      tions and enum constants.	 This may  make	 the  tags  file  much
	      smaller  if  many	 header files are tagged.  This is the default
	      behavior for ctags.

       -g, --globals
	      Create tag entries for global variables in C, C++, Objective  C,
	      Java, and Perl.  This is the default behavior for etags.

       -G, --no-globals
	      Do  not  tag  global variables.  Typically this reduces the file
	      size by one fourth.  This is the default behavior for ctags.

       -i file, --include=file
	      Include a note in the tag file indicating that,  when  searching
	      for  a  tag,  one	 should	 also consult the tags file file after
	      checking the current file.  This options	is  only  accepted  by
	      etags.

       -I, --ignore-indentation
	      Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do.  Currently,
	      this means not to assume that a closing brace in the first  col-
	      umn  is the final brace of a function or structure definition in
	      C and C++.

       -l language, --language=language
	      Parse the following files according to the given language.  More
	      than  one	 such  options	may be intermixed with filenames.  Use
	      --help to get a list of the available languages  and  their  de-
	      fault  filename  extensions.  The 'auto' language can be used to
	      restore automatic detection of language based on the file	 name.
	      The  'none' language may be used to disable language parsing al-
	      together; only regexp matching is done in	 this  case  (see  the
	      --regex option).

       -m, --members
	      Create  tag entries for variables that are members of structure-
	      like constructs in C++, Objective C, Java.

       -M, --no-members
	      Do not tag member variables.  This is the default behavior.

       --packages-only
	      Only tag packages in Ada files.

       -o tagfile, --output=tagfile
	      Explicit name of file for tag table; overrides default  TAGS  or
	      tags.   (But ignored with -v or -x.)

       -r regexp, --regex=regexp

       --ignore-case-regex=regexp
	      Make  tags  based	 on regexp matching for each line of the files
	      following this option, in addition to the	 tags  made  with  the
	      standard parsing based on language.  When using --regex, case is
	      significant, while it is not with	 --ignore-case-regex.  May  be
	      freely intermixed with filenames and the -R option.  The regexps
	      are cumulative, i.e. each option will add to the previous	 ones.
	      The regexps are of the form:
		   /tagregexp[/nameregexp]/

	      where  tagregexp is used to match the lines that must be tagged.
	      It should not match useless characters.  If the  match  is  such
	      that  more  characters  than  needed  are unavoidably matched by
	      tagregexp, it may be useful to add a nameregexp, to narrow  down
	      the tag scope.  ctags ignores regexps without a nameregexp.  The
	      syntax of regexps is the same as in emacs, augmented with inter-
	      vals of the form \{m,n\}, as in ed or grep.
	      Here  are	 some examples.	 All the regexps are quoted to protect
	      them from shell interpretation.

	      Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files:
	      --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"'

	      Tag VHDL files (this example is a single long line, broken  here
	      for formatting reasons):
	      --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\	    CONFIGURA-
	      TION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\ \(ATTRIBUTE\|ENTITY\|FUNC-
	      TION\|PACKAGE\( BODY\)?\			     \|PROCEDURE\|PRO-
	      CESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/'

	      Tag TCL files (this last example shows the usage	of  a  tagreg-
	      exp):
	      --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/'

	      A regexp can be preceded by {lang}, thus restricting it to match
	      lines of files of the specified language.	 Use etags  --help  to
	      obtain a list of the recognised languages.  This feature is par-
	      ticularly useful inside regex files.  A regex file contains  one
	      regex  per  line.	  Empty	 lines, and those lines beginning with
	      space or tab are ignored.	 Lines beginning with @ are references
	      to  regex	 files whose name follows the @ sign.  Other lines are
	      considered regular expressions like those following --regex.
	      For example, the command
	      etags --regex=@regex.file *.c
	      reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file.

       -R, --no-regex
	      Don't do any more regexp matching on the following  files.   May
	      be freely intermixed with filenames and the --regex option.

       -t, --typedefs
	      Record  typedefs	in  C code as tags.  Since this is the default
	      behaviour of etags, only ctags accepts this option.

       -T, --typedefs-and-c++
	      Generate tag entries for typedefs, struct, enum, and union tags,
	      and  C++	member functions.  Since this is the default behaviour
	      of etags, only ctags accepts this option.

       -u, --update
	      Update tag entries for files specified on command line,  leaving
	      tag entries for other files in place.  Currently, this is imple-
	      mented by deleting the existing entries for the given files  and
	      then  rewriting the new entries at the end of the tags file.  It
	      is often faster to simply rebuild the entire tag	file  than  to
	      use this.	 Only ctags accepts this option.

       -v, --vgrind
	      Instead of generating a tag file, write index (in vgrind format)
	      to standard output.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -w, --no-warn
	      Suppress warning messages about duplicate	 entries.   The	 etags
	      program  does not check for duplicate entries, so this option is
	      not allowed with it.

       -x, --cxref
	      Instead of generating a tag file, write a	 cross	reference  (in
	      cxref  format)  to standard output.  Only ctags accepts this op-
	      tion.

       -h, -H, --help
	      Print usage information.

       -V, --version
	      Print the current version of the program (same as the version of
	      the emacs etags is shipped with).


SEE ALSO
       'emacs' entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman.
       cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).


COPYING
       Copyright (c) 1999, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version  1.1  or
       any  later  version  published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
       Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.

       This  document  is  part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
       Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this  document	 sepa-
       rately  from  the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the li-
       cense to the document, as described in section 6	 of  the  license.   A
       copy  of	 the  license  is included in the gfdl(1) man page, and in the
       section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License" in the Emacs  manual.



GNU Tools			   08apr2001			      etags(1)
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