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FIND(1)								       FIND(1)



NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according to the rules of prece-
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome	 is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which point
       find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment	where  security	 is  important
       (for example if you are using it to seach directories that are writable
       by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"  chapter
       of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes
       with findutils.	 That document also includes a	lot  more  detail  and
       discussion  than	 this  manual  page,  so you may find it a more useful
       source of information.

OPTIONS
       The '-H', '-L' and '-P'	options	 control  the  treatment  of  symbolic
       links.  Command-line arguments following these are taken to be names of
       files or directories to be examined, up	to  the	 first	argument  that
       begins  with '-', '(', ')', ',', or '!'.	 That argument and any follow-
       ing arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is	to  be
       searched	 for.	If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the expression '-print'  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using '-print0' instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about	 'options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately  after  the  last path name.  The three 'real' options '-H', '-L'
       and '-P' must appear before the first path name, if at all.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
	      When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
	      a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
	      properties of the symbolic link itself.


       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
	      about files, the information used shall be taken from the	 prop-
	      erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
	      itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
	      examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
	      implies -noleaf.	If you later use the -P option,	 -noleaf  will
	      still  be	 in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
	      symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
	      tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
	      match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link	points
	      to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro-
	      ken).  Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates	always
	      to return false.


       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com-
	      mand line arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
	      about  files, the information used shall be taken from the prop-
	      erties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
	      behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a sym-
	      bolic link, and the link can be resolved.	 For  that  situation,
	      the  information	used is taken from whatever the link points to
	      (that is, the link is followed).	The information about the link
	      itself  is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the sym-
	      bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
	      the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
	      directory, the contents  of  that	 directory  will  be  examined
	      (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the	default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command	line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.	 If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.	If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example	because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).



EXPRESSIONS
       The expression is made up of options (which  affect  overall  operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests (which return a true or false value),  and	 actions  (which  have
       side effects and return a true or false value), all separated by opera-
       tors.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is per-
       formed on all files for which the expression is true.


   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	Except for -follow and -daystart, they
       always take effect, rather than being processed only when  their	 place
       in  the	expression  is reached.	 Therefore, for clarity, it is best to
       place them at the beginning of the expression.  A warning is issued  if
       you don't do this.

       -daystart
	      Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
	      -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24	 hours
	      ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later on the
	      command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
	      MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -follow
	      Deprecated;  use	the  -L	 option instead.  Dereference symbolic
	      links.  Implies -noleaf.	The -follow option affects only	 those
	      tests  which appear after it on the command line.	 Unless the -H
	      or -L option has been specified, the  position  of  the  -follow
	      option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
	      listed as the argument of -newer will be	dereferenced  if  they
	      are  symbolic  links.  The same consideration applies to -anewer
	      and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will	 always	 match
	      against  the  type  of  the  file that a symbolic link points to
	      rather than the link itself.  Using -follow  causes  the	-lname
	      and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,	 find will emit an error message when it fails to stat
	      a file.  If you give this option and a file is  deleted  between
	      the  time find reads the name of the file from the directory and
	      the time it tries to stat the file, no  error  message  will  be
	      issued.	 This also applies to files or directories whose names
	      are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at  the
	      time  the	 command  line	is  read,  which means that you cannot
	      search one part of the filesystem with this option on  and  part
	      of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do that, you will
	      need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
	      one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc-
	      tories below the command line arguments.	 '-maxdepth  0'	 means
	      only  apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels  (a
	      non-negative  integer).	'-mindepth  1' means process all files
	      except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't descend directories on other  filesystems.	 An  alternate
	      name  for	 -xdev,	 for compatibility with some other versions of
	      find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do not optimize by assuming that	directories  contain  2	 fewer
	      subdirectories  than  their  hard	 link  count.	This option is
	      needed when searching filesystems that do not  follow  the  Unix
	      directory-link  convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
	      or AFS volume mount points.  Each directory  on  a  normal  Unix
	      filesystem  has  at  least  2  hard  links: its name and its '.'
	      entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if any)	 each  have  a
	      '..'   entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a
	      directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than  the
	      directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
	      the directory are non-directories ('leaf' files in the directory
	      tree).   If  only the files' names need to be examined, there is
	      no need to stat them;  this  gives  a  significant  increase  in
	      search speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes  the  regular expression syntax understood by -regex and
	      -iregex tests which occur later on the command line.  Currently-
	      implemented  types  are  emacs (this is the default), posix-awk,
	      posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.


       -version, --version
	      Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn warning messages on or off.	These warnings apply  only  to
	      the  command  line  usage, not to any conditions that find might
	      encounter when it searches directories.  The  default  behaviour
	      corresponds  to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn
	      otherwise.

       -xautofs
	      Don't descend directories on autofs filesystems.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.


   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
	      file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
	      effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File  was	 last  accessed n*24 hours ago.	 When find figures out
	      how many 24-hour periods ago the file  was  last	accessed,  any
	      fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
	      have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was last changed more recently than file was modi-
	      fied.   If  file	is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L
	      option is in effect, the	status-change  time  of	 the  file  it
	      points to is always used.


       -ctime n
	      File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
	      of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File  is	on  a  filesystem  of type type.  The valid filesystem
	      types vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete  list
	      of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
	      another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.   You  can
	      use  -printf  with  the  %F  directive  to see the types of your
	      filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like -lname, but the match  is  case  insensitive.   If  the  -L
	      option  or  the  -follow	option is in effect, this test returns
	      false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
	      patterns	'fo*'  and  'F??'  match  the file names 'Foo', 'FOO',
	      'foo', 'fOo', etc.   In these patterns, unlike  filename	expan-
	      sion  by	the shell, an initial '.' can be matched by '*'.  That
	      is, find -name *bar will match the file '.foobar'.   Please note
	      that  you should quote patterns as a matter of course, otherwise
	      the shell will expand any wildcard characters in them.


       -inum n
	      File has inode number n.	It  is	normally  easier  to  use  the
	      -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Behaves  in  the same way as -iwholename.	 This option is depre-
	      cated, so please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern  pat-
	      tern.  The metacharacters do not treat '/' or '.' specially.  If
	      the -L option or the -follow option  is  in  effect,  this  test
	      returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's  data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
	      of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base  of	file  name  (the  path	with  the  leading directories
	      removed) matches	shell  pattern	pattern.   The	metacharacters
	      ('*',  '?',  and '[]') match a '.' at the start of the base name
	      (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CON-
	      FORMANCE	below).	 To ignore a directory and the files under it,
	      use -prune; see an example in  the  description  of  -wholename.
	      Braces  are  not	recognised  as being special, despite the fact
	      that some shells including Bash  imbue  braces  with  a  special
	      meaning  in  shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed
	      with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.	 Don't	forget
	      to  enclose  the	pattern	 in quotes in order to protect it from
	      expansion by the shell.


       -newer file
	      File was modified more recently than file.  If file  is  a  sym-
	      bolic  link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the
	      modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
	      See -wholename.	The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX
	      find.

       -perm mode
	      File's  permission  bits	are  exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
	      Since an exact match is required, if you want to use  this  form
	      for  symbolic  modes,  you  may have to specify a rather complex
	      mode string.  For example '-perm	g=w'  will  only  match	 files
	      which  have  mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write per-
	      mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
	      will want to use the '/' or '-' forms, for example '-perm -g=w',
	      which matches any file with group	 write	permission.   See  the
	      EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
	      modes are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way  in
	      which  would want to use them.  You must specify 'u', 'g' or 'o'
	      if you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for  some
	      illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
	      modes are accepted in this form.	You must specify 'u',  'g'  or
	      'o'  if  you  use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for
	      some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in  mode  are
	      set,  this  test	currently  matches no files.  However, it will
	      soon be changed to match any file (the idea is to be  more  con-
	      sistent with the behaviour of perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated,  old way of searching for files with any of the per-
	      mission bits in mode set.	 You should use -perm  /mode  instead.
	      Trying to use the '+' syntax with symbolic modes will yield sur-
	      prising results.	For example, '+u+x' is a valid	symbolic  mode
	      (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be eval-
	      uated as -perm +mode but instead as  the	exact  mode  specifier
	      -perm  mode  and so it matches files with exact permissions 0111
	      instead of files with any execute bit set.  If  you  found  this
	      paragraph	 confusing,  you're  not alone - just use -perm /mode.
	      This form of the -perm test  is  deprecated  because  the	 POSIX
	      specification  requires  the  interpretation of a leading '+' as
	      being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched to  using  '/'
	      instead.


       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
	      on the whole path, not a search.	For example, to match  a  file
	      named './fubar3', you can use the regular expression '.*bar.' or
	      '.*b.*3', but not 'f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
	      by  find	are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
	      be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
	      this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      'b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix  is
		     used)

	      'c'    for bytes

	      'w'    for two-byte words

	      'k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      'M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      'G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

	      The  size	 does  not  count  indirect  blocks, but it does count
	      blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
	      mind  that the '%k' and '%b' format specifiers of -printf handle
	      sparse  files  differently.   The	 'b'  suffix  always   denotes
	      512-byte	blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different
	      to the behaviour of -ls.


       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b	     block (buffered) special

	      c	     character (unbuffered) special

	      d	     directory

	      p	     named pipe (FIFO)

	      f	     regular file

	      l	     symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
		     -follow  option is in effect, unless the symbolic link is
		     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
		     is in effect, use -xtype.

	      s	     socket

	      D	     door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      File name matches shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters  do
	      not treat '/' or '.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -wholename './sr*sc'
	      will  print an entry for a directory called './src/misc' (if one
	      exists).	To ignore a whole directory tree,  use	-prune	rather
	      than  checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip the
	      directory 'src/emacs' and all files and  directories  under  it,
	      and  print the names of the other files found, do something like
	      this:
			find . -wholename './src/emacs' -prune -o -print

       -xtype c
	      The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For  sym-
	      bolic  links:  if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
	      file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
	      given,  true  if	c is 'l'.  In other words, for symbolic links,
	      -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
	      (SELinux only) Security context of the file  matches  glob  pat-
	      tern.


   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete files; true if removal succeeded.	If the removal failed,
	      an error message is issued.  Use of  this	 action	 automatically
	      turns on the '-depth' option.


       -exec command ;
	      Execute  command;	 true  if 0 status is returned.	 All following
	      arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
	      an  argument  consisting of ';' is encountered.  The string '{}'
	      is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
	      it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
	      where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both  of	 these
	      constructions might need to be escaped (with a '\') or quoted to
	      protect them from expansion by the shell.	 See the EXAMPLES sec-
	      tion  for examples of the use of the '-exec' option.  The speci-
	      fied command is run once for each matched file.  The command  is
	      executed	in  the	 starting  directory.	 There are unavoidable
	      security problems surrounding  use  of  the  -exec  option;  you
	      should use the -execdir option instead.


       -exec command {} +
	      This  variant  of the -exec option runs the specified command on
	      the selected files, but the command line is built	 by  appending
	      each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca-
	      tions of the command will	 be  much  less	 than  the  number  of
	      matched  files.	The command line is built in much the same way
	      that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of  '{}'
	      is  allowed  within the command.	The command is executed in the
	      starting directory.


       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
	      Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the  subdirec-
	      tory  containing	the  matched  file,  which is not normally the
	      directory in which you started find.  This a  much  more	secure
	      method  for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions dur-
	      ing resolution of the paths to the matched files.	 As  with  the
	      -exec option, the '+' form of -execdir will build a command line
	      to process more than one matched file, but any given  invocation
	      of command will only list files that exist in the same subdirec-
	      tory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that  your	 $PATH
	      environment  variable  does not reference the current directory;
	      otherwise, an attacker can run any commands they like by leaving
	      an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you will run
	      -execdir.


       -fls file
	      True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
	      is  always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See
	      the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
	      exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,	it  is
	      truncated.   The	file names ''/dev/stdout'' and ''/dev/stderr''
	      are handled specially; they refer to  the	 standard  output  and
	      standard	error output, respectively.  The output file is always
	      created, even if	the  predicate	is  never  matched.   See  the
	      UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for	information  about how unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
	      True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The	output
	      file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	 section  for  information  about  how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
	      True;  like  -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
	      file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
	      See  the	UNUSUAL	 FILENAMES  section  for information about how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like -exec but ask the user first (on the	 standard  input);  if
	      the response does not start with 'y' or 'Y', do not run the com-
	      mand, and return false.  If the command  is  run,	 its  standard
	      input is redirected from /dev/null.


       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
	      by a newline.   If you  are  piping  the	output	of  find  into
	      another  program	and there is the faintest possibility that the
	      files which you are searching for might contain a newline,  then
	      you should seriously consider using the '-print0' option instead
	      of '-print'.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information
	      about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -okdir command ;
	      Like -execdir but ask the user first (on the standard input); if
	      the response does not start with 'y' or 'Y', do not run the com-
	      mand,  and  return  false.   If the command is run, its standard
	      input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  null  character  (instead	of  the newline character that
	      '-print' uses).  This allows file names that contain newlines or
	      other  types  of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro-
	      grams that process the find output.  This option corresponds  to
	      the '-0' option of xargs.

       -printf format
	      True;  print  format  on	the  standard output, interpreting '\'
	      escapes and '%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can  be
	      specified	 as  with  the	'printf' C function.  Please note that
	      many of the fields are printed as %s rather than	%d,  and  this
	      may  mean	 that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also
	      means that the '-' flag does work (it forces fields to be	 left-
	      aligned).	  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the
	      end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush  the
		     output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \	     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash ('\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A '\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
	      ordinary character, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access time in the format returned by	the  C
		     'ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's  last  access  time	 in the format specified by k,
		     which is either '@' or a directive for the	 C  'strftime'
		     function.	 The  possible	values for k are listed below;
		     some of them might not be available on all	 systems,  due
		     to differences in 'strftime' between systems.

		      @	     seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

		     Time fields:

		      H	     hour (00..23)

		      I	     hour (01..12)

		      k	     hour ( 0..23)

		      l	     hour ( 1..12)

		      M	     minute (00..59)

		      p	     locale's AM or PM

		      r	     time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		      S	     second (00..61)

		      T	     time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		      +	     Date  and	time,  separated  by  '+', for example
			     '2004-04-28+22:22:05'.  The time is given in  the
			     current  timezone	(which may be affected by set-
			     ting the TZ environment variable).	 This is a GNU
			     extension.

		      X	     locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		      Z	     time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
			     is determinable

		     Date fields:

		      a	     locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		      A	     locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sun-
			     day..Saturday)

		      b	     locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		      B	     locale's  full  month name, variable length (Jan-
			     uary..December)

		      c	     locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04	 12:02:33  EST
			     1989)

		      d	     day of month (01..31)

		      D	     date (mm/dd/yy)

		      h	     same as b

		      j	     day of year (001..366)

		      m	     month (01..12)

		      U	     week  number  of year with Sunday as first day of
			     week (00..53)

		      w	     day of week (0..6)

		      W	     week number of year with Monday as first  day  of
			     week (00..53)

		      x	     locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		      y	     last two digits of year (00..99)

		      Y	     year (1970...)

	      %b     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 512-byte
		     blocks. Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file	 is  a
		     sparse file.

	      %c     File's  last status change time in the format returned by
		     the C 'ctime' function.

	      %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
		     k, which is the same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
		     command line argument.

	      %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the	st_dev
		     field of struct stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's  name  with	 any leading directories removed (only
		     the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can  be
		     used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
		     no name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last ele-
		     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
		     in the current directory) the  %h	specifier  expands  to
		     ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
		     Since  disk  space	 is  allocated	in  multiples  of  the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file	 is  a
		     sparse file.

	      %l     Object  of	 symbolic  link (empty string if file is not a
		     symbolic link).

	      %m     File's permission bits (in octal).	 This option uses  the
		     'traditional'  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
		     use,  but	if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
		     unusual  ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see
		     a difference between the actual value of the file's  mode
		     and  the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have a
		     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you	should
		     use the # flag (as in, for example, '%#m').

	      %M     File's  permissions  (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This
		     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's name with the name of the  command	line  argument
		     under which it was found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %t     File's  last  modification time in the format returned by
		     the C 'ctime' function.

	      %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified  by
		     k, which is the same as for %A.

	      %u     File's  user  name, or numeric user ID if the user has no
		     name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's type (like in ls -l),  U=unknown  type  (shouldn't
		     happen)

	      %Y     File's  type  (like  %y),	plus  follow symlinks: L=loop,
		     N=nonexistent

	      %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

	      A '%' character followed by any  other  character	 is  discarded
	      (but the other character is printed).

	      The  %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the
	      other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
	      directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
	      and n.  The '-' format flag is supported and changes the	align-
	      ment  of	a field from right-justified (which is the default) to
	      left-justified.

	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	 section  for  information  about  how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.



       -prune If -depth is not given, true; if the file is a directory, do not
	      descend into it.
	      If -depth is given, false; no effect.


       -quit  Exit immediately.	 No child processes will be left running,  but
	      no  more	paths specified on the command line will be processed.
	      For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
	      /tmp/foo.	  Any  command	lines  which  have  been built up with
	      -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The  exit
	      status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
	      already occurred.


       -ls    True; list current file in 'ls -dils' format on standard output.
	      The  block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment vari-
	      able POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte  blocks  are
	      used.   See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about
	      how unusual characters in filenames are handled.



   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing  of  data  which  is
       under  the  control  of	other users.  This includes file names, sizes,
       modification times and so forth.	 File names are	 a  potential  problem
       since  they  can	 contain  any  character except '\0' and '/'.  Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to  your	 terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function
       keys on some terminals).	 Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
	      Always  print  the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output
	      is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space,  backslash,
	      and  double  quote characters are printed using C-style escaping
	      (for example '\f', '\"').	 Other unusual characters are  printed
	      using  an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls and
	      -fls these are the characters between octal 041  and  0176)  are
	      printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
	      If  the  output is not going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.
	      Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
	      directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
	      are not under control of files' owners, and so are  printed  as-
	      is.   The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t,
	      %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' own-
	      ers  but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the ter-
	      minal, and so these are printed as-is.  The directives  %f,  %h,
	      %l, %p and %P are quoted.	 This quoting is performed in the same
	      way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same	quoting	 mechanism  as
	      the one used for	-ls and -fls.	If you are able to decide what
	      format to use for the output of find then it is normally	better
	      to  use  '\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file names
	      can contain white space and newline characters.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and  -fprintf.
	      If  you  are  using find in a script or in a situation where the
	      matched files might have arbitrary names,	 you  should  consider
	      using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
	      Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an  implied
	      "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
	      Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List;  both  expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
	      expr1 is discarded; the value  of	 the  list  is	the  value  of
	      expr2.	   The	comma operator can be useful for searching for
	      several different types of thing, but traversing the  filesystem
	      hierarchy	 only  once.   The -fprintf action can be used to list
	      the various matched items into several different output files.



STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       The following options are specified in the  POSIX  standard  (IEEE  Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the
	      POSIX conformance of the system's fnmatch(3)  library  function.
	      As  of  findutils-4.2.2,	shell metacharacters ('*'. '?' or '[]'
	      for example) will match a leading '.', because IEEE PASC	inter-
	      pretation	 126  requires	this.	This is a change from previous
	      versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies 'b', 'c', 'd', 'l',	'p',  'f'  and
	      's'.  GNU find also supports 'D', representing a Door, where the
	      OS provides these.


       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is not locale-depen-
	      dent (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).


       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified  is a symbolic link, it is
	      always dereferenced.  This is a change from previous  behaviour,
	      which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
	      the HISTORY section below.


       Other predicates
	      The predicates '-atime', '-ctime', '-depth', '-group', '-links',
	      '-mtime',	 '-nogroup',  '-nouser',  '-perm', '-print', '-prune',
	      '-size', '-user' and '-xdev', are all supported.


       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses '(', ')', negation '!' and the
       'and' and 'or' operators ('-a', '-o').

       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions
       beyond the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique  to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that

	      The  find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
	      a previously visited directory that is an ancestor of  the  last
	      file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
	      write a diagnostic message to standard error  and	 shall	either
	      recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       The  link  count	 of  directories  which contain entries which are hard
       links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should be.
       This  can  mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting
       of a subdirectory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since  find
       does  not  actually  enter  such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid
       emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this behaviour may be somewhat
       confusing,  it  is  unlikely  that  anybody  actually  depends  on this
       behaviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with  -noleaf,
       the  directory entry will always be examined and the diagnostic message
       will be issued where it is appropriate.	Symbolic links cannot be  used
       to  create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -fol-
       low option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find  encoun-
       ters  a	loop  of symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links,
       the leaf optimisation will often mean that find knows that  it  doesn't
       need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic
       is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD  systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the behaviour
       of the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified  in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides	a default value for the internationalization variables
	      that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values  of  all
	      the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat-
	      tern matching to be used for the '-name' option.	 GNU find uses
	      the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for 'LC_COLLATE'
	      depends on the system library.

	      POSIX also specifies that the 'LC_COLLATE' environment  variable
	      affects  the  interpretation of the user's response to the query
	      issued by '-ok', but this is not the case for GNU find.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This variable affects the treatment of  character	 classes  used
	      with  the '-name' test, if the system's fnmatch(3) library func-
	      tion supports this.   It has no effect on the behaviour  of  the
	      '-ok' expression.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
	      alogues.

       PATH   Affects  the directories which are searched to find the executa-
	      bles invoked by '-exec', '-execdir', '-ok' and '-okdir'.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines  the  block  size  used  by  '-ls'  and  '-fls'.   If
	      'POSIXLY_CORRECT' is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.	Other-
	      wise they are units of 1024 bytes.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related	format
	      directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or	directory  names  con-
       taining	single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly han-
       dled.  The -name test comes before the -type test  in  order  to	 avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.


       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  'file'  on	 every file in or below the current directory.	Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation  as  shell  script punctuation.	The semicolon is simi-
       larly protected by the use of a backslash, though ';' could  have  been
       used in that case also.


       find /	 \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
		 \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.


       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last modified  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.	That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is	 less  than  24	 hours
       ago.



       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which other users can read  but  not  write  to.	 Files
       which  meet  these  criteria  but  have other permissions bits set (for
       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.


       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for  their	 owner
       and  group, and which other users can read, without regard to the pres-
       ence of any extra permission bits (for  example	the  executable	 bit).
       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.


       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).


       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner	 or  their  group.  The files don't have to be
       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.


       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same	thing;	search	for  files  which  are
       writable by both their owner and their group.


       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search for files that are readable for every-
       body (-perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least on write bit set	(-perm
       /222  or	 -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody (!  -perm /111
       and ! -perm /a+x respectively)


EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0	 if  all  files	 are  processed	 successfully,
       greater	than  0	 if  errors occur.   This is deliberately a very broad
       description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should  not  rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.


SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),	 updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3),
       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters ('*'. '?' or '[]' for exam-
       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading '.',	 because  IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

       This  happens  because  *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of	 doing	things
       this way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes:
       $ find . -name ?*.c? -print


BUGS
       The test -perm /000 currently matches no files, but for greater consis-
       tency with -perm -000, this will be changed to match  all  files;  this
       change  will probably be made in early 2006.  Meanwhile, a warning mes-
       sage is given if you do this.

       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour  that  the	 POSIX
       standard	 specifies  for	 find,	which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For
       example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and  -execdir	should
       be used instead.	 Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The  best  way  to  report  a  bug  is to use the form at http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for  this	 is  that  you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com-
       ments about find(1) and about the findutils package in general  can  be
       sent  to	 the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list, send email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.



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