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GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)		  Git Manual		    GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)

       git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object

       git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
       git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
			 [(-F <file>)...] <tree>

       This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See git-
       commit(1) instead.

       Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits
       the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read from the
       standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.

       The -m and -F options can be given any number of times, in any order.
       The commit log message will be composed in the order in which the
       options are given.

       A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one
       parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the
       commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits
       have no parents.

       While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
       directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
       to get there.

       Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
       doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
       tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
       .git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last committed state was.

	   An existing tree object.

       -p <parent>
	   Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object.

       -m <message>
	   A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
	   once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.

       -F <file>
	   Read the commit log message from the given file. Use - to read from
	   the standard input. This can be given more than once and the
	   content of each file becomes its own paragraph.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
	   GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults to
	   the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the
	   option without a space.  --no-gpg-sign is useful to countermand a
	   --gpg-sign option given earlier on the command line.

       A commit encapsulates:

       o   all parent object ids

       o   author name, email and date

       o   committer name and email and the commit time.

       A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not
       provided via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for one to
       be entered and terminated with ^D.

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables
       support the following date formats:

       Git internal format
	   It is <unix-timestamp> <time-zone-offset>, where <unix-timestamp>
	   is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.  <time-zone-offset>
	   is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which
	   is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100.

       RFC 2822
	   The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
	   Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
	   Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
	   2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of the T
	   character as well. Fractional parts of a second will be ignored,
	   for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13.019 will be treated as

	       In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
	       formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
	   bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
	   to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names
	   in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
	   (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
	   and gitmodules(5)).

	   Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
	   sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
	   conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
	   path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
	   use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
	   on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
	   Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based
	   tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
	   other encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
	   extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
	   ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
	   CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

	1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
	   message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
	   you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
	   say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding in .git/config file, like

		       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

	   Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
	   people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
	   commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

	2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
	   header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
	   UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
	   output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file,
	   like this:

		       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

	   If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.


       git-write-tree(1) git-commit(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.38.4			  05/16/2024		    GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)