git-fetch manpage

Search topic Section

GIT-FETCH(1)			  Git Manual			  GIT-FETCH(1)

       git-fetch - Download objects and refs from another repository

       git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
       git fetch [<options>] <group>
       git fetch --multiple [<options>] [(<repository> | <group>)...]
       git fetch --all [<options>]

       Fetch branches and/or tags (collectively, "refs") from one or more
       other repositories, along with the objects necessary to complete their
       histories. Remote-tracking branches are updated (see the description of
       <refspec> below for ways to control this behavior).

       By default, any tag that points into the histories being fetched is
       also fetched; the effect is to fetch tags that point at branches that
       you are interested in. This default behavior can be changed by using
       the --tags or --no-tags options or by configuring remote.<name>.tagOpt.
       By using a refspec that fetches tags explicitly, you can fetch tags
       that do not point into branches you are interested in as well.

       git fetch can fetch from either a single named repository or URL, or
       from several repositories at once if <group> is given and there is a
       remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file. (See git-config(1)).

       When no remote is specified, by default the origin remote will be used,
       unless there's an upstream branch configured for the current branch.

       The names of refs that are fetched, together with the object names they
       point at, are written to .git/FETCH_HEAD. This information may be used
       by scripts or other git commands, such as git-pull(1).

	   Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
	   Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing
	   contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in
	   .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

	   Use an atomic transaction to update local refs. Either all refs are
	   updated, or on error, no refs are updated.

	   Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of
	   each remote branch history. If fetching to a shallow repository
	   created by git clone with --depth=<depth> option (see git-
	   clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the specified number of
	   commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

	   Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits from
	   the current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of each remote
	   branch history.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include
	   all reachable commits after <date>.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude
	   commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This
	   option can be specified multiple times.

	   If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository
	   to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow

	   If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so
	   that the current repository has the same history as the source

	   By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch
	   refuses refs that require updating .git/shallow. This option
	   updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.

	   By default, Git will report, to the server, commits reachable from
	   all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to reduce the
	   size of the to-be-received packfile. If specified, Git will only
	   report commits reachable from the given tips. This is useful to
	   speed up fetches when the user knows which local ref is likely to
	   have commits in common with the upstream ref being fetched.

	   This option may be specified more than once; if so, Git will report
	   commits reachable from any of the given commits.

	   The argument to this option may be a glob on ref names, a ref, or
	   the (possibly abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob is
	   equivalent to specifying this option multiple times, one for each
	   matching ref name.

	   See also the fetch.negotiationAlgorithm and push.negotiate
	   configuration variables documented in git-config(1), and the
	   --negotiate-only option below.

	   Do not fetch anything from the server, and instead print the
	   ancestors of the provided --negotiation-tip=* arguments, which we
	   have in common with the server.

	   This is incompatible with --recurse-submodules=[yes|on-demand].
	   Internally this is used to implement the push.negotiate option, see

	   Show what would be done, without making any changes.

	   Write the list of remote refs fetched in the FETCH_HEAD file
	   directly under $GIT_DIR. This is the default. Passing
	   --no-write-fetch-head from the command line tells Git not to write
	   the file. Under --dry-run option, the file is never written.

       -f, --force
	   When git fetch is used with <src>:<dst> refspec it may refuse to
	   update the local branch as discussed in the <refspec> part below.
	   This option overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
	   Keep downloaded pack.

	   Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be specified.
	   No <refspec>s may be specified.

       --[no-]auto-maintenance, --[no-]auto-gc
	   Run git maintenance run --auto at the end to perform automatic
	   repository maintenance if needed. (--[no-]auto-gc is a synonym.)
	   This is enabled by default.

	   Write a commit-graph after fetching. This overrides the config
	   setting fetch.writeCommitGraph.

	   Modify the configured refspec to place all refs into the
	   refs/prefetch/ namespace. See the prefetch task in git-

       -p, --prune
	   Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
	   longer exist on the remote. Tags are not subject to pruning if they
	   are fetched only because of the default tag auto-following or due
	   to a --tags option. However, if tags are fetched due to an explicit
	   refspec (either on the command line or in the remote configuration,
	   for example if the remote was cloned with the --mirror option),
	   then they are also subject to pruning. Supplying --prune-tags is a
	   shorthand for providing the tag refspec.

	   See the PRUNING section below for more details.

       -P, --prune-tags
	   Before fetching, remove any local tags that no longer exist on the
	   remote if --prune is enabled. This option should be used more
	   carefully, unlike --prune it will remove any local references
	   (local tags) that have been created. This option is a shorthand for
	   providing the explicit tag refspec along with --prune, see the
	   discussion about that in its documentation.

	   See the PRUNING section below for more details.

       -n, --no-tags
	   By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the
	   remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
	   disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
	   remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See

	   Instead of negotiating with the server to avoid transferring
	   commits and associated objects that are already present locally,
	   this option fetches all objects as a fresh clone would. Use this to
	   reapply a partial clone filter from configuration or using
	   --filter= when the filter definition has changed. Automatic
	   post-fetch maintenance will perform object database pack
	   consolidation to remove any duplicate objects.

	   When fetching refs listed on the command line, use the specified
	   refspec (can be given more than once) to map the refs to
	   remote-tracking branches, instead of the values of remote.*.fetch
	   configuration variables for the remote repository. Providing an
	   empty <refspec> to the --refmap option causes Git to ignore the
	   configured refspecs and rely entirely on the refspecs supplied as
	   command-line arguments. See section on "Configured Remote-tracking
	   Branches" for details.

       -t, --tags
	   Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags refs/tags/*
	   into local tags with the same name), in addition to whatever else
	   would otherwise be fetched. Using this option alone does not
	   subject tags to pruning, even if --prune is used (though tags may
	   be pruned anyway if they are also the destination of an explicit
	   refspec; see --prune).

	   This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of
	   submodules should be fetched too. When recursing through
	   submodules, git fetch always attempts to fetch "changed"
	   submodules, that is, a submodule that has commits that are
	   referenced by a newly fetched superproject commit but are missing
	   in the local submodule clone. A changed submodule can be fetched as
	   long as it is present locally e.g. in $GIT_DIR/modules/ (see
	   gitsubmodules(7)); if the upstream adds a new submodule, that
	   submodule cannot be fetched until it is cloned e.g. by git
	   submodule update.

	   When set to on-demand, only changed submodules are fetched. When
	   set to yes, all populated submodules are fetched and submodules
	   that are both unpopulated and changed are fetched. When set to no,
	   submodules are never fetched.

	   When unspecified, this uses the value of fetch.recurseSubmodules if
	   it is set (see git-config(1)), defaulting to on-demand if unset.
	   When this option is used without any value, it defaults to yes.

       -j, --jobs=<n>
	   Number of parallel children to be used for all forms of fetching.

	   If the --multiple option was specified, the different remotes will
	   be fetched in parallel. If multiple submodules are fetched, they
	   will be fetched in parallel. To control them independently, use the
	   config settings fetch.parallel and submodule.fetchJobs (see git-

	   Typically, parallel recursive and multi-remote fetches will be
	   faster. By default fetches are performed sequentially, not in

	   Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect
	   as using the --recurse-submodules=no option).

	   If the remote is fetched successfully, add upstream (tracking)
	   reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1) and other commands.
	   For more information, see branch.<name>.merge and
	   branch.<name>.remote in git-config(1).

	   Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages such as
	   "Fetching submodule foo". This option is used internally when
	   recursing over submodules.

	   This option is used internally to temporarily provide a
	   non-negative default value for the --recurse-submodules option. All
	   other methods of configuring fetch's submodule recursion (such as
	   settings in gitmodules(5) and git-config(1)) override this option,
	   as does specifying --[no-]recurse-submodules directly.

       -u, --update-head-ok
	   By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds
	   to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely
	   for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git fetch,
	   and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not
	   supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
	   When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git
	   fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
	   specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.

       -q, --quiet
	   Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally
	   used git commands. Progress is not reported to the standard error

       -v, --verbose
	   Be verbose.

	   Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
	   when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
	   flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
	   not directed to a terminal.

       -o <option>, --server-option=<option>
	   Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using
	   protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF
	   character. The server's handling of server options, including
	   unknown ones, is server-specific. When multiple
	   --server-option=<option> are given, they are all sent to the other
	   side in the order listed on the command line.

	   By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during fetch.
	   This can be disabled through fetch.showForcedUpdates, but the
	   --show-forced-updates option guarantees this check occurs. See git-

	   By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during fetch.
	   Pass --no-show-forced-updates or set fetch.showForcedUpdates to
	   false to skip this check for performance reasons. If used during
	   git-pull the --ff-only option will still check for forced updates
	   before attempting a fast-forward update. See git-config(1).

       -4, --ipv4
	   Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.

       -6, --ipv6
	   Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.

	   The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull
	   operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT
	   URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES

	   A name referring to a list of repositories as the value of
	   remotes.<group> in the configuration file. (See git-config(1)).

	   Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. When
	   no <refspec>s appear on the command line, the refs to fetch are
	   read from remote.<repository>.fetch variables instead (see

	   The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed
	   by the source <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
	   destination ref <dst>. The colon can be omitted when <dst> is
	   empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be a fully spelled
	   hex object name.

	   A <refspec> may contain a * in its <src> to indicate a simple
	   pattern match. Such a refspec functions like a glob that matches
	   any ref with the same prefix. A pattern <refspec> must have a * in
	   both the <src> and <dst>. It will map refs to the destination by
	   replacing the * with the contents matched from the source.

	   If a refspec is prefixed by ^, it will be interpreted as a negative
	   refspec. Rather than specifying which refs to fetch or which local
	   refs to update, such a refspec will instead specify refs to
	   exclude. A ref will be considered to match if it matches at least
	   one positive refspec, and does not match any negative refspec.
	   Negative refspecs can be useful to restrict the scope of a pattern
	   refspec so that it will not include specific refs. Negative
	   refspecs can themselves be pattern refspecs. However, they may only
	   contain a <src> and do not specify a <dst>. Fully spelled out hex
	   object names are also not supported.

	   tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it
	   requests fetching everything up to the given tag.

	   The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not
	   an empty string, an attempt is made to update the local ref that
	   matches it.

	   Whether that update is allowed without --force depends on the ref
	   namespace it's being fetched to, the type of object being fetched,
	   and whether the update is considered to be a fast-forward.
	   Generally, the same rules apply for fetching as when pushing, see
	   the <refspec>...  section of git-push(1) for what those are.
	   Exceptions to those rules particular to git fetch are noted below.

	   Until Git version 2.20, and unlike when pushing with git-push(1),
	   any updates to refs/tags/* would be accepted without + in the
	   refspec (or --force). When fetching, we promiscuously considered
	   all tag updates from a remote to be forced fetches. Since Git
	   version 2.20, fetching to update refs/tags/* works the same way as
	   when pushing. I.e. any updates will be rejected without + in the
	   refspec (or --force).

	   Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), any updates outside of
	   refs/{tags,heads}/* will be accepted without + in the refspec (or
	   --force), whether that's swapping e.g. a tree object for a blob, or
	   a commit for another commit that's doesn't have the previous commit
	   as an ancestor etc.

	   Unlike when pushing with git-push(1), there is no configuration
	   which'll amend these rules, and nothing like a pre-fetch hook
	   analogous to the pre-receive hook.

	   As with pushing with git-push(1), all of the rules described above
	   about what's not allowed as an update can be overridden by adding
	   an the optional leading + to a refspec (or using --force command
	   line option). The only exception to this is that no amount of
	   forcing will make the refs/heads/* namespace accept a non-commit

	       When the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be rewound
	       and rebased regularly, it is expected that its new tip will not
	       be descendant of its previous tip (as stored in your
	       remote-tracking branch the last time you fetched). You would
	       want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates
	       will be needed for such branches. There is no way to determine
	       or declare that a branch will be made available in a repository
	       with this behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is
	       the expected usage pattern for a branch.

	   Read refspecs, one per line, from stdin in addition to those
	   provided as arguments. The "tag <name>" format is not supported.

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
       address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
       on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and
       ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated;
       do not use it).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

       o   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
       colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
       example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path
       or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes may be used:

       o   /path/to/repo.git/

       o   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
       former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       git clone, git fetch and git pull, but not git push, will also accept a
       suitable bundle file. See git-bundle(1).

       When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
       explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:

       o   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked.
       See gitremote-helpers(7) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
       you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
       will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
       section of the form:

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
			   insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
			   insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
       rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
			   pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/

       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still
       use the original URL.

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       o   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
       configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
       default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
       entry in the config file would appear like this:

		   [remote "<name>"]
			   url = <URL>
			   pushurl = <pushurl>
			   push = <refspec>
			   fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
       the command line. This file should have the following format:

		   URL: one of the above URL format
		   Push: <refspec>
		   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:


       <URL> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
       if you don't provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:


       You often interact with the same remote repository by regularly and
       repeatedly fetching from it. In order to keep track of the progress of
       such a remote repository, git fetch allows you to configure
       remote.<repository>.fetch configuration variables.

       Typically such a variable may look like this:

	   [remote "origin"]
		   fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*

       This configuration is used in two ways:

       o   When git fetch is run without specifying what branches and/or tags
	   to fetch on the command line, e.g.  git fetch origin or git fetch,
	   remote.<repository>.fetch values are used as the refspecs--they
	   specify which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. The
	   example above will fetch all branches that exist in the origin
	   (i.e. any ref that matches the left-hand side of the value,
	   refs/heads/*) and update the corresponding remote-tracking branches
	   in the refs/remotes/origin/* hierarchy.

       o   When git fetch is run with explicit branches and/or tags to fetch
	   on the command line, e.g.  git fetch origin master, the <refspec>s
	   given on the command line determine what are to be fetched (e.g.
	   master in the example, which is a short-hand for master:, which in
	   turn means "fetch the master branch but I do not explicitly say
	   what remote-tracking branch to update with it from the command
	   line"), and the example command will fetch only the master branch.
	   The remote.<repository>.fetch values determine which
	   remote-tracking branch, if any, is updated. When used in this way,
	   the remote.<repository>.fetch values do not have any effect in
	   deciding what gets fetched (i.e. the values are not used as
	   refspecs when the command-line lists refspecs); they are only used
	   to decide where the refs that are fetched are stored by acting as a

       The latter use of the remote.<repository>.fetch values can be
       overridden by giving the --refmap=<refspec> parameter(s) on the command

       Git has a default disposition of keeping data unless it's explicitly
       thrown away; this extends to holding onto local references to branches
       on remotes that have themselves deleted those branches.

       If left to accumulate, these stale references might make performance
       worse on big and busy repos that have a lot of branch churn, and e.g.
       make the output of commands like git branch -a --contains <commit>
       needlessly verbose, as well as impacting anything else that'll work
       with the complete set of known references.

       These remote-tracking references can be deleted as a one-off with
       either of:

	   # While fetching
	   $ git fetch --prune <name>

	   # Only prune, don't fetch
	   $ git remote prune <name>

       To prune references as part of your normal workflow without needing to
       remember to run that, set fetch.prune globally, or remote.<name>.prune
       per-remote in the config. See git-config(1).

       Here's where things get tricky and more specific. The pruning feature
       doesn't actually care about branches, instead it'll prune local <-->
       remote-references as a function of the refspec of the remote (see
       <refspec> and CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES above).

       Therefore if the refspec for the remote includes e.g.
       refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*, or you manually run e.g. git fetch --prune
       <name> "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*" it won't be stale remote tracking
       branches that are deleted, but any local tag that doesn't exist on the

       This might not be what you expect, i.e. you want to prune remote
       <name>, but also explicitly fetch tags from it, so when you fetch from
       it you delete all your local tags, most of which may not have come from
       the <name> remote in the first place.

       So be careful when using this with a refspec like
       refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*, or any other refspec which might map
       references from multiple remotes to the same local namespace.

       Since keeping up-to-date with both branches and tags on the remote is a
       common use-case the --prune-tags option can be supplied along with
       --prune to prune local tags that don't exist on the remote, and
       force-update those tags that differ. Tag pruning can also be enabled
       with fetch.pruneTags or remote.<name>.pruneTags in the config. See git-

       The --prune-tags option is equivalent to having refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*
       declared in the refspecs of the remote. This can lead to some seemingly
       strange interactions:

	   # These both fetch tags
	   $ git fetch --no-tags origin 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
	   $ git fetch --no-tags --prune-tags origin

       The reason it doesn't error out when provided without --prune or its
       config versions is for flexibility of the configured versions, and to
       maintain a 1=1 mapping between what the command line flags do, and what
       the configuration versions do.

       It's reasonable to e.g. configure fetch.pruneTags=true in ~/.gitconfig
       to have tags pruned whenever git fetch --prune is run, without making
       every invocation of git fetch without --prune an error.

       Pruning tags with --prune-tags also works when fetching a URL instead
       of a named remote. These will all prune tags not found on origin:

	   $ git fetch origin --prune --prune-tags
	   $ git fetch origin --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
	   $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune --prune-tags
	   $ git fetch <url of origin> --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'

       The output of "git fetch" depends on the transport method used; this
       section describes the output when fetching over the Git protocol
       (either locally or via ssh) and Smart HTTP protocol.

       The status of the fetch is output in tabular form, with each line
       representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:

	    <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> [<reason>]

       The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if the --verbose option is

       In compact output mode, specified with configuration variable
       fetch.output, if either entire <from> or <to> is found in the other
       string, it will be substituted with * in the other string. For example,
       master -> origin/master becomes master -> origin/*.

	   A single character indicating the status of the ref:

	       for a successfully fetched fast-forward;

	       for a successful forced update;

	       for a successfully pruned ref;

	       for a successful tag update;

	       for a successfully fetched new ref;

	       for a ref that was rejected or failed to update; and

	       for a ref that was up to date and did not need fetching.

	   For a successfully fetched ref, the summary shows the old and new
	   values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
	   git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for
	   forced non-fast-forward updates).

	   The name of the remote ref being fetched from, minus its
	   refs/<type>/ prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the
	   remote ref is "(none)".

	   The name of the local ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/

	   A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully fetched
	   refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
	   failure is described.

       o   Update the remote-tracking branches:

	       $ git fetch origin

	   The above command copies all branches from the remote refs/heads/
	   namespace and stores them to the local refs/remotes/origin/
	   namespace, unless the branch.<name>.fetch option is used to specify
	   a non-default refspec.

       o   Using refspecs explicitly:

	       $ git fetch origin +seen:seen maint:tmp

	   This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches seen and tmp in
	   the local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively)
	   seen and maint from the remote repository.

	   The seen branch will be updated even if it does not fast-forward,
	   because it is prefixed with a plus sign; tmp will not be.

       o   Peek at a remote's branch, without configuring the remote in your
	   local repository:

	       $ git fetch git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git maint
	       $ git log FETCH_HEAD

	   The first command fetches the maint branch from the repository at
	   git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git and the second command
	   uses FETCH_HEAD to examine the branch with git-log(1). The fetched
	   objects will eventually be removed by git's built-in housekeeping
	   (see git-gc(1)).

       The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side from
       stealing data from the other repository that was not intended to be
       shared. If you have private data that you need to protect from a
       malicious peer, your best option is to store it in another repository.
       This applies to both clients and servers. In particular, namespaces on
       a server are not effective for read access control; you should only
       grant read access to a namespace to clients that you would trust with
       read access to the entire repository.

       The known attack vectors are as follows:

	1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has
	   that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to
	   optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker
	   chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn't
	   required to send the content of X because the victim already has
	   it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends
	   the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most
	   straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating a
	   ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then
	   fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a
	   client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user
	   does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the
	   server without noticing the merge.)

	2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim
	   sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and the attacker
	   falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends Y as a
	   delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are similar to
	   Y to the attacker.

       Everything below this line in this section is selectively included from
       the git-config(1) documentation. The content is the same as what's
       found there:

	   This option controls whether git fetch (and the underlying fetch in
	   git pull) will recursively fetch into populated submodules. This
	   option can be set either to a boolean value or to on-demand.
	   Setting it to a boolean changes the behavior of fetch and pull to
	   recurse unconditionally into submodules when set to true or to not
	   recurse at all when set to false. When set to on-demand, fetch and
	   pull will only recurse into a populated submodule when its
	   superproject retrieves a commit that updates the submodule's
	   reference. Defaults to on-demand, or to the value of
	   submodule.recurse if set.

	   If it is set to true, git-fetch-pack will check all fetched
	   objects. See transfer.fsckObjects for what's checked. Defaults to
	   false. If not set, the value of transfer.fsckObjects is used

	   Acts like fsck.<msg-id>, but is used by git-fetch-pack(1) instead
	   of git-fsck(1). See the fsck.<msg-id> documentation for details.

	   Acts like fsck.skipList, but is used by git-fetch-pack(1) instead
	   of git-fsck(1). See the fsck.skipList documentation for details.

	   If the number of objects fetched over the Git native transfer is
	   below this limit, then the objects will be unpacked into loose
	   object files. However if the number of received objects equals or
	   exceeds this limit then the received pack will be stored as a pack,
	   after adding any missing delta bases. Storing the pack from a push
	   can make the push operation complete faster, especially on slow
	   filesystems. If not set, the value of transfer.unpackLimit is used

	   If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the --prune option
	   was given on the command line. See also remote.<name>.prune and the
	   PRUNING section of git-fetch(1).

	   If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the
	   refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* refspec was provided when pruning, if not
	   set already. This allows for setting both this option and
	   fetch.prune to maintain a 1=1 mapping to upstream refs. See also
	   remote.<name>.pruneTags and the PRUNING section of git-fetch(1).

	   Control how ref update status is printed. Valid values are full and
	   compact. Default value is full. See section OUTPUT in git-fetch(1)
	   for detail.

	   Control how information about the commits in the local repository
	   is sent when negotiating the contents of the packfile to be sent by
	   the server. Set to "consecutive" to use an algorithm that walks
	   over consecutive commits checking each one. Set to "skipping" to
	   use an algorithm that skips commits in an effort to converge
	   faster, but may result in a larger-than-necessary packfile; or set
	   to "noop" to not send any information at all, which will almost
	   certainly result in a larger-than-necessary packfile, but will skip
	   the negotiation step. Set to "default" to override settings made
	   previously and use the default behaviour. The default is normally
	   "consecutive", but if feature.experimental is true, then the
	   default is "skipping". Unknown values will cause git fetch to error

	   See also the --negotiate-only and --negotiation-tip options to git-

	   Set to false to enable --no-show-forced-updates in git-fetch(1) and
	   git-pull(1) commands. Defaults to true.

	   Specifies the maximal number of fetch operations to be run in
	   parallel at a time (submodules, or remotes when the --multiple
	   option of git-fetch(1) is in effect).

	   A value of 0 will give some reasonable default. If unset, it
	   defaults to 1.

	   For submodules, this setting can be overridden using the
	   submodule.fetchJobs config setting.

	   Set to true to write a commit-graph after every git fetch command
	   that downloads a pack-file from a remote. Using the --split option,
	   most executions will create a very small commit-graph file on top
	   of the existing commit-graph file(s). Occasionally, these files
	   will merge and the write may take longer. Having an updated
	   commit-graph file helps performance of many Git commands, including
	   git merge-base, git push -f, and git log --graph. Defaults to

       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in submodules
       that are present locally e.g. in $GIT_DIR/modules/. If the upstream
       adds a new submodule, that submodule cannot be fetched until it is
       cloned e.g. by git submodule update. This is expected to be fixed in a
       future Git version.


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.38.4			  05/16/2024			  GIT-FETCH(1)