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GIT-REV-LIST(1)			  Git Manual		       GIT-REV-LIST(1)

       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order

       git rev-list [<options>] <commit>... [[--] <path>...]

       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the
       given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s)
       given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in reverse
       chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits reachable from any of
       the commits given on the command line form a set, and then commits
       reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are subtracted
       from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the
       command's output. Various other options and paths parameters can be
       used to further limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

	   $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but
       not from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand
       for "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either of the following may be
       used interchangeably:

	   $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
	   $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for
       merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
       between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

	   $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
	   $ git rev-list A...B

       rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the ability
       to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a
       lot of different options that enables it to be used by commands as
       different as git bisect and git repack.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
       special notations explained in the description, additional commit
       limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
       --since=<date1> limits to commits newer than <date1>, and using it with
       --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a line
       that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting
       options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
	   Limit the number of commits to output.

	   Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
	   Show commits more recent than a specific date.

	   Show all commits more recent than a specific date. This visits all
	   commits in the range, rather than stopping at the first commit
	   which is older than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
	   Show commits older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
	   Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
	   Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines
	   that match the specified pattern (regular expression). With more
	   than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches any of
	   the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple

	   Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
	   --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
	   given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
	   --walk-reflogs is in use.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the
	   specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one
	   --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
	   patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

	   Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
	   instead of ones that match at least one.

	   Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match
	   the pattern specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
	   Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to
	   letter case.

	   Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
	   this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
	   Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
	   instead of the default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
	   Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
	   pattern as a regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
	   Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular

	   Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
	   compile-time dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with support for
	   them providing this option will cause it to die.

	   Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

	   Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as

	   Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the
	   same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents,
	   Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
	   commits. In particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges,
	   --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all
	   root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

	   --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no
	   limit) again. Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has
	   0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no
	   upper limit).

	   When finding commits to include, follow only the first parent
	   commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a better
	   overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
	   because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting
	   to updated upstream from time to time, and this option allows you
	   to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such
	   a merge.

	   When finding commits to exclude (with a ^), follow only the first
	   parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This can be used to find
	   the set of changes in a topic branch from the point where it
	   diverged from the remote branch, given that arbitrary merges can be
	   valid topic branch changes.

	   Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all
	   following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed on
	   the command line as <commit>.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command
	   line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones
	   matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command
	   line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones
	   matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
	   end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the
	   command line as <commit>. If <pattern> is given, limit
	   remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If
	   pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

	   Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are
	   listed on the command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is
	   automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
	   at the end is implied.

	   Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
	   --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
	   Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
	   next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
	   options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

	   The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
	   refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
	   respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
	   or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

	   Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
	   command line as <commit>.

	   Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate
	   repositories were listed on the command line. An alternate
	   repository is any repository whose object directory is specified in
	   objects/info/alternates. The set of included objects may be
	   modified by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

	   By default, all working trees will be examined by the following
	   options when there are more than one (see git-worktree(1)): --all,
	   --reflog and --indexed-objects. This option forces them to examine
	   the current working tree only.

	   Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the
	   bad input was not given.

	   In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them
	   from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading
	   commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

	   Don't print anything to standard output. This form is primarily
	   meant to allow the caller to test the exit status to see if a range
	   of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than
	   redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be

       --disk-usage, --disk-usage=human
	   Suppress normal output; instead, print the sum of the bytes used
	   for on-disk storage by the selected commits or objects. This is
	   equivalent to piping the output into git cat-file
	   --batch-check='%(objectsize:disk)', except that it runs much faster
	   (especially with --use-bitmap-index). See the CAVEATS section in
	   git-cat-file(1) for the limitations of what "on-disk storage"
	   means. With the optional value human, on-disk storage size is shown
	   in human-readable string(e.g. 12.24 Kib, 3.50 Mib).

	   Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with =
	   rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with +.

	   Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit
	   on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with
	   symmetric difference.

	   For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list
	   all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right (see the
	   example below in the description of the --left-right option).
	   However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the
	   other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from
	   branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded
	   from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
	   List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
	   i.e. only those which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

	   For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits
	   from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In
	   other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B. More
	   precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact

	   A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to
	   limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
	   have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
	   log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream

       -g, --walk-reflogs
	   Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries
	   from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used
	   you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
	   commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

	   With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for obvious
	   reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines of
	   information taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the
	   output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
	   reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp}
	   (with the timestamp for that entry), depending on a few rules:

	    1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index

	    2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the
	       timestamp format.

	    3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line,
	       show the timestamp in the format requested by --date.

	    4. Otherwise, show the index format.

	   Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this
	   information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with
	   --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

	   Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown at

	   After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict
	   and don't exist on all heads to merge.

	   Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed
	   with -.

	   Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if one
	   is available). Note that when traversing with --objects, trees and
	   blobs will not have their associated path printed.

	   Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
	   <header> text will be printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example
       the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
       History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other
       is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

	   Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

	   Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
	   Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final
	   state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if
	   the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same

	   Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge
	   commits that are not TREESAME to the first parent but are TREESAME
	   to a later parent. This mode is helpful for showing the merge
	   commits that "first introduced" a change to a branch.

	   Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

	   Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful

	   All commits in the simplified history are shown.

	   Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges
	   from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits
	   contributing to this merge.

	   When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or
	   commit2 ^commit1), only display commits in that range that are
	   ancestors of <commit>, descendants of <commit>, or <commit> itself.
	   If no commit is specified, use commit1 (the excluded part of the
	   range) as <commit>. Can be passed multiple times; if so, a commit
	   is included if it is any of the commits given or if it is an
	   ancestor or descendant of one of them.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that
       modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for
       foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
       illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
       that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

		    /	  /   /	  /   /	  /
		   I	 B   C	 D   E	 Y
		    \	/   /	/   /	/
		     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
       each merge. The commits are:

       o   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf",
	   and a file quux exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are
	   compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

       o   In A, foo contains just "foo".

       o   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence
	   TREESAME to all parents.

       o   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so
	   it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D
	   to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       o   E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to
	   "quux xyzzy".  P is TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       o   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y
	   modified it.	 Y is TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and
	   Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding
       commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via
       --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are

       Default mode
	   Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though
	   this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a
	   merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent.
	   (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of
	   them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

	   This results in:

			/     /	  /

	   Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
	   available, removed B from consideration entirely.  C was considered
	   via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree,
	   so I is !TREESAME.

	   Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that
	   does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have
	   shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
	   This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all
	   parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if
	   more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this
	   does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

		       I  A  B	N  D  O	 P  Q

	   M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B
	   were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not

	   Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to
	   talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so
	   we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
	   Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though
	   this can be changed, see --sparse below).

	   Merges are always included. However, their parent list is
	   rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not
	   included themselves. This results in

			/     /	  /   /	  /
		       I     B	 /   D	 /
			\   /	/   /	/

	   Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was
	   pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
	   rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N,
	   and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
       affects inclusion:

	   Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to
	   any parent.

	   All commits that are walked are included.

	   Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if
	   one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the
	   other sides of the merge are never walked.

	   First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history
	   with parent rewriting does (see above).

	   Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final
	   history according to the following rules:

	   o   Set C' to C.

	   o   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the
	       process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or
	       that are root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove
	       duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that we are
	       TREESAME to.

	   o   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit
	       (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it
	       remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

	   The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
	   --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

			/     /	      /
		       I     B	     D
			\   /	    /

	   Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

	   o   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the
	       other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

	   o   P's parent list similarly had I removed.	 P was then removed
	       completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

	   o   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed,
	       because it was a TREESAME root.	Q was then removed completely,
	       because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

       There is another simplification mode available:

	   Limit the displayed commits to those which are an ancestor of
	   <commit>, or which are a descendant of <commit>, or are <commit>

	   As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

			  /	\	\
			/		      \

	   A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M,
	   but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to
	   see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in the sense
	   that "what does M have that did not exist in D". The result in this
	   example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

	   When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with
	   the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to
	   view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of D,
	   i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path
	   option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

				\	\

	   We can also use --ancestry-path=D instead of --ancestry-path which
	   means the same thing when applied to the D..M range but is just
	   more explicit.

	   If we instead are interested in a given topic within this range,
	   and all commits affected by that topic, we may only want to view
	   the subset of D..M which contain that topic in their ancestry path.
	   So, using --ancestry-path=H D..M for example would result in:


	   Whereas --ancestry-path=K D..M would result in


       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a new
       example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is that
       a commit they know changed a file somehow does not appear in the file's
       simplified history. Let's demonstrate a new example and show how
       options such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in that

		    /	  / \  \  \/   /   /
		   I	 B   \	R-'`-Z'	  /
		    \	/     \/	 /
		     \ /      /\	/
		      `---X--'	`---Y--'

       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A,
       B, and X in different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z, and Y do
       not change file.txt. The merge commit M was created by resolving the
       merge conflict to include both changes from A and B and hence is not
       TREESAME to either. The merge commit R, however, was created by
       ignoring the contents of file.txt at M and taking only the contents of
       file.txt at X. Hence, R is TREESAME to X but not M. Finally, the
       natural merge resolution to create N is to take the contents of
       file.txt at R, so N is TREESAME to R but not C. The merge commits O and
       P are TREESAME to their first parents, but not to their second parents,
       Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent, so
       those edges are walked and the others are ignored. The resulting
       history graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will discover the
       commits A and B and the merge M, but also will reveal the merge commits
       O and P. With parent rewriting, the resulting graph is:

		    /	  / \  \  \/   /   /
		   I	 B   \	R-'`--'	  /
		    \	/     \/	 /
		     \ /      /\	/
		      `---X--'	`------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they did not
       actually contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a topic that
       was based on an older version of file.txt. This is a common issue in
       repositories using a workflow where many contributors work in parallel
       and merge their topic branches along a single trunk: many unrelated
       merges appear in the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P disappear
       from the results. This is because the rewritten second parents of O and
       P are reachable from their first parents. Those edges are removed and
       then the commits look like single-parent commits that are TREESAME to
       their parent. This also happens to the commit N, resulting in a history
       view as follows:

		    /	  /    \
		   I	 B	R
		    \	/      /
		     \ /      /

       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes from A,
       B, and X. We also see the carefully-resolved merge M and the
       not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is usually enough information
       to determine why the commits A and B "disappeared" from history in the
       default view. However, there are a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the
       --simplify-merges option requires walking the entire commit history
       before returning a single result. This can make the option difficult to
       use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are working
       on the same repository, it is important which merge commits introduced
       a change into an important branch. The problematic merge R above is not
       likely to be the merge commit that was used to merge into an important
       branch. Instead, the merge N was used to merge R and X into the
       important branch. This commit may have information about why the change
       X came to override the changes from A and B in its commit message.

	   In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show each
	   merge commit that is not TREESAME to its first parent but is
	   TREESAME to a later parent.

	   When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is
	   treated as if it "pulled" the change from another branch. When
	   using --show-pulls on this example (and no other options) the
	   resulting graph is:


	   Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they pulled
	   the commits X and R into the base branch, respectively. These
	   merges are the reason the commits A and B do not appear in the
	   default history.

	   When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph
	   includes all of the necessary information:

			 .-A---M--.   N
			/     /	   \ /
		       I     B	    R
			\   /	   /
			 \ /	  /

	   Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M was
	   simplified away. However, N still appears in the history as an
	   important commit because it "pulled" the change R into the main

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big
       picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are
       not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other
       words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if (1)
       they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the
       paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as
       TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
	   Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway
	   between included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection
	   ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the included commits (if it exists)
	   and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are added to the
	   excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs
	   in refs/bisect/, if

		       $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

	   outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

		       $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
		       $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

	   would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
	   introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search:
	   repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain
	   is of length one.

	   This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in
	   refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this outputs text ready
	   to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of the
	   midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected
	   number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to
	   bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be tested if
	   bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the expected number
	   of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad to
	   bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to

	   This outputs all the commit objects between the included and
	   excluded commits, ordered by their distance to the included and
	   excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used. The farthest
	   from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by

	   This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
	   test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason
	   (they may not compile for example).

	   This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case,
	   after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as
	   if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

	   Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
	   show commits in the commit timestamp order.

	   Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise
	   show commits in the author timestamp order.

	   Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid
	   showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed.

	   For example, in a commit history like this:

		       \	      \

	   where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git
	   rev-list and friends with --date-order show the commits in the
	   timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

	   With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
	   3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
	   avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed

	   Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting section
	   above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

	   Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
	   commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus means "send me all object IDs
	   which I need to download if I have the commit object bar but not

	   Print tree and blob ids in order of the commits. The tree and blob
	   ids are printed after they are first referenced by a commit.

	   Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits
	   prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1)
	   to build a "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form
	   based on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce
	   network traffic.

	   Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded
	   commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
	   --objects-edge to build "thin" packs for shallow repositories.

	   Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on
	   the command line. Note that you probably want to use --objects,

	   Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in

	   Only useful with --objects; print the names of the object IDs that
	   are found. This is the default behavior.

	   Only useful with --objects; does not print the names of the object
	   IDs that are found. This inverts --object-names. This flag allows
	   the output to be more easily parsed by commands such as git-cat-

	   Only useful with one of the --objects*; omits objects (usually
	   blobs) from the list of printed objects. The <filter-spec> may be
	   one of the following:

	   The form --filter=blob:none omits all blobs.

	   The form --filter=blob:limit=<n>[kmg] omits blobs larger than n
	   bytes or units. n may be zero. The suffixes k, m, and g can be used
	   to name units in KiB, MiB, or GiB. For example, blob:limit=1k is
	   the same as blob:limit=1024.

	   The form --filter=object:type=(tag|commit|tree|blob) omits all
	   objects which are not of the requested type.

	   The form --filter=sparse:oid=<blob-ish> uses a sparse-checkout
	   specification contained in the blob (or blob-expression) <blob-ish>
	   to omit blobs that would not be required for a sparse checkout on
	   the requested refs.

	   The form --filter=tree:<depth> omits all blobs and trees whose
	   depth from the root tree is >= <depth> (minimum depth if an object
	   is located at multiple depths in the commits traversed). <depth>=0
	   will not include any trees or blobs unless included explicitly in
	   the command-line (or standard input when --stdin is used).
	   <depth>=1 will include only the tree and blobs which are referenced
	   directly by a commit reachable from <commit> or an explicitly-given
	   object. <depth>=2 is like <depth>=1 while also including trees and
	   blobs one more level removed from an explicitly-given commit or

	   Note that the form --filter=sparse:path=<path> that wants to read
	   from an arbitrary path on the filesystem has been dropped for
	   security reasons.

	   Multiple --filter= flags can be specified to combine filters. Only
	   objects which are accepted by every filter are included.

	   The form --filter=combine:<filter1>+<filter2>+...<filterN> can also
	   be used to combined several filters, but this is harder than just
	   repeating the --filter flag and is usually not necessary. Filters
	   are joined by + and individual filters are %-encoded (i.e.
	   URL-encoded). Besides the + and % characters, the following
	   characters are reserved and also must be encoded:
	   ~!@#$^&*()[]{}\;",<>?'` as well as all characters with ASCII code
	   <= 0x20, which includes space and newline.

	   Other arbitrary characters can also be encoded. For instance,
	   combine:tree:3+blob:none and combine:tree%3A3+blob%3Anone are

	   Turn off any previous --filter= argument.

	   Filter the list of explicitly provided objects, which would
	   otherwise always be printed even if they did not match any of the
	   filters. Only useful with --filter=.

	   Only useful with --filter=; prints a list of the objects omitted by
	   the filter. Object IDs are prefixed with a "~" character.

	   A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development.
	   This option specifies how missing objects are handled.

	   The form --missing=error requests that rev-list stop with an error
	   if a missing object is encountered. This is the default action.

	   The form --missing=allow-any will allow object traversal to
	   continue if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects will
	   silently be omitted from the results.

	   The form --missing=allow-promisor is like allow-any, but will only
	   allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing
	   objects. Unexpected missing objects will raise an error.

	   The form --missing=print is like allow-any, but will also print a
	   list of the missing objects. Object IDs are prefixed with a "?"

	   (For internal use only.) Prefilter object traversal at promisor
	   boundary. This is used with partial clone. This is stronger than
	   --missing=allow-promisor because it limits the traversal, rather
	   than just silencing errors about missing objects.

	   Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
	   This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
	   unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
	   given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was
	   given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order by
	   commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph.

	   Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more
       specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
	   Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
	   where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
	   reference, email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When
	   <format> is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts
	   as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

	   See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
	   each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

	   Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
	   configuration (see git-config(1)).

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
	   show a prefix that names the object uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>" (which
	   also modifies diff output, if it is displayed) option can be used
	   to specify the minimum length of the prefix.

	   This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
	   people using 80-column terminals.

	   Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
	   --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other options such
	   as "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

	   This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used

	   Commit objects record the character encoding used for the log
	   message in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell
	   the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
	   preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
	   UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are
	   outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim; this means
	   that invalid sequences in the original commit may be copied to the
	   output. Likewise, if iconv(3) fails to convert the commit, we will
	   quietly output the original object verbatim.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
	   Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to
	   fill to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log
	   message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

	   By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
	   message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and

	   Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
	   signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

	   Synonym for --date=relative.

	   Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as
	   when using --pretty.	 log.date config variable sets a default value
	   for the log command's --date option. By default, dates are shown in
	   the original time zone (either committer's or author's). If -local
	   is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user's local time
	   zone is used instead.

	   --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2
	   hours ago". The -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

	   --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

	   --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like
	   format. The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

	   o   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

	   o   a space between time and time zone

	   o   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

	   --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in
	   strict ISO 8601 format.

	   --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format,
	   often found in email messages.

	   --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD

	   --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
	   00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an
	   offset from UTC (a + or - with four digits; the first two are
	   hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp
	   were formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local option
	   does not affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is always
	   measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying timezone value.

	   --date=human shows the timezone if the timezone does not match the
	   current time-zone, and doesn't print the whole date if that matches
	   (ie skip printing year for dates that are "this year", but also
	   skip the whole date itself if it's in the last few days and we can
	   just say what weekday it was). For older dates the hour and minute
	   is also omitted.

	   --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
	   1970). As with --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore -local
	   has no effect.

	   --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime,
	   except for %s, %z, and %Z, which are handled internally. Use
	   --date=format:%c to show the date in your system locale's preferred
	   format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of format
	   placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is

	   --date=default is the default format, and is similar to
	   --date=rfc2822, with a few exceptions:

	   o   there is no comma after the day-of-week

	   o   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

	   Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
	   separated with a NUL character.

	   Suppress the header line containing "commit" and the object ID
	   printed before the specified format. This has no effect on the
	   built-in formats; only custom formats are affected.

	   Overrides a previous --no-commit-header.

	   Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit
	   parent..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
	   Simplification above.

	   Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit
	   child..."). Also enables parent rewriting, see History
	   Simplification above.

	   Print the raw commit timestamp.

	   Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable
	   from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from
	   the right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are
	   prefixed with -.

	   For example, if you have this topology:

			    y---b---b  branch B
			   / \ /
			  /   .
			 /   / \
			o---x---a---a  branch A

	   you would get an output like this:

		       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

		       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
		       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
		       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
		       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
		       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
		       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

	   Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on
	   the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines to be
	   printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be
	   drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

	   This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

	   This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the
	   --date-order option may also be specified.

	   When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which
	   can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits do not
	   belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier in between
	   them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the string that
	   will be shown instead of the default one.

	   Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and
	   suppress all other output. When used together with --left-right,
	   instead print the counts for left and right commits, separated by a
	   tab. When used together with --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent
	   commits from these counts and print the count for equivalent
	   commits separated by a tab.

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       o   oneline

	       <hash> <title-line>

	   This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       o   short

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>


       o   medium

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>
	       Date:   <author-date>



       o   full

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>
	       Commit: <committer>



       o   fuller

	       commit <hash>
	       Author:	   <author>
	       AuthorDate: <author-date>
	       Commit:	   <committer>
	       CommitDate: <committer-date>



       o   reference

	       <abbrev-hash> (<title-line>, <short-author-date>)

	   This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit message
	   and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By
	   default, the date is formatted with --date=short unless another
	   --date option is explicitly specified. As with any format: with
	   format placeholders, its output is not affected by other options
	   like --decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       o   email

	       From <hash> <date>
	       From: <author>
	       Date: <author-date>
	       Subject: [PATCH] <title-line>


       o   mboxrd

	   Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with "From "
	   (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren't
	   confused as starting a new commit.

       o   raw

	   The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
	   commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full,
	   regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
	   information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or
	   history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
	   the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
	   e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff
	   format, use --no-abbrev.

       o   format:<format-string>

	   The format:<format-string> format allows you to specify which
	   information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf
	   format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n
	   instead of \n.

	   E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
	   would show something like this:

	       The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
	       The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

	   The placeholders are:

	   o   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:


		   a raw %

		   print a byte from a hex code

	   o   Placeholders that affect formatting of later placeholders:

		   switch color to red

		   switch color to green

		   switch color to blue

		   reset color

		   color specification, as described under Values in the
		   "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By default,
		   colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
		   color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
		   settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).
		   %C(auto,...)	 is accepted as a historical synonym for the
		   default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)
		   will show the colors even when color is not otherwise
		   enabled (though consider just using --color=always to
		   enable color for the whole output, including this format
		   and anything else git might color).	auto alone (i.e.
		   %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next
		   placeholders until the color is switched again.

		   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

		   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-

		   make the next placeholder take at least N columns, padding
		   spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally truncate at
		   the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end
		   (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns. Note that
		   truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.

		   make the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns,
		   padding spaces on the right if necessary

	       %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
		   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding
		   spaces on the left

	       %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
		   similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if
		   the next placeholder takes more spaces than given and there
		   are spaces on its left, use those spaces

	       %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
		   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding both
		   sides (i.e. the text is centered)

	   o   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from the

		   commit hash

		   abbreviated commit hash

		   tree hash

		   abbreviated tree hash

		   parent hashes

		   abbreviated parent hashes

		   author name

		   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   author email

		   author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

		   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   author date (format respects --date= option)

		   author date, RFC2822 style

		   author date, relative

		   author date, UNIX timestamp

		   author date, ISO 8601-like format

		   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

		   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

		   author date, human style (like the --date=human option of

		   committer name

		   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   committer email

		   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
		   or git-blame(1))

		   committer email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

		   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap, see
		   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   committer date (format respects --date= option)

		   committer date, RFC2822 style

		   committer date, relative

		   committer date, UNIX timestamp

		   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

		   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

		   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

		   committer date, human style (like the --date=human option
		   of git-rev-list(1))

		   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

		   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

		   human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty string for
		   undescribable commits. The describe string may be followed
		   by a colon and zero or more comma-separated options.
		   Descriptions can be inconsistent when tags are added or
		   removed at the same time.

		   o   tags[=<bool-value>]: Instead of only considering
		       annotated tags, consider lightweight tags as well.

		   o   abbrev=<number>: Instead of using the default number of
		       hexadecimal digits (which will vary according to the
		       number of objects in the repository with a default of
		       7) of the abbreviated object name, use <number> digits,
		       or as many digits as needed to form a unique object

		   o   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching the given
		       glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

		   o   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags matching the
		       given glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/"

		   ref name given on the command line by which the commit was
		   reached (like git log --source), only works with git log



		   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename


		   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

		   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

		   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
		   signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
		   "X" for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a good
		   signature made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature
		   made by a revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be
		   checked (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no signature

		   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

		   show the key used to sign a signed commit

		   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed

		   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was
		   used to sign a signed commit

		   show the trust level for the key used to sign a signed

		   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
		   minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for
		   the -g option. The portion before the @ is the refname as
		   given on the command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master
		   would yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

		   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
		   portion is shortened for human readability (so
		   refs/heads/master becomes just master).

		   reflog identity name

		   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   reflog identity email

		   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   reflog subject

		   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by git-
		   interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be followed
		   by a colon and zero or more comma-separated options. If any
		   option is provided multiple times the last occurrence wins.

		   o   key=<key>: only show trailers with specified <key>.
		       Matching is done case-insensitively and trailing colon
		       is optional. If option is given multiple times trailer
		       lines matching any of the keys are shown. This option
		       automatically enables the only option so that
		       non-trailer lines in the trailer block are hidden. If
		       that is not desired it can be disabled with only=false.
		       E.g., %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines
		       with key Reviewed-by.

		   o   only[=<bool>]: select whether non-trailer lines from
		       the trailer block should be included.

		   o   separator=<sep>: specify a separator inserted between
		       trailer lines. When this option is not given each
		       trailer line is terminated with a line feed character.
		       The string <sep> may contain the literal formatting
		       codes described above. To use comma as separator one
		       must use %x2C as it would otherwise be parsed as next
		       option. E.g., %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C )
		       shows all trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated
		       by a comma and a space.

		   o   unfold[=<bool>]: make it behave as if
		       interpret-trailer's --unfold option was given. E.g.,
		       %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and shows all
		       trailer lines.

		   o   keyonly[=<bool>]: only show the key part of the

		   o   valueonly[=<bool>]: only show the value part of the

		   o   key_value_separator=<sep>: specify a separator inserted
		       between trailer lines. When this option is not given
		       each trailer key-value pair is separated by ": ".
		       Otherwise it shares the same semantics as
		       separator=<sep> above.

	   Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
	   traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
	   an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
	   git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short"
	   decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the
	   command line.

       The boolean options accept an optional value [=<bool-value>]. The
       values true, false, on, off etc. are all accepted. See the "boolean"
       sub-section in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a boolean option is
       given with no value, it's enabled.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only
       if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

	   The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
	   provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
	   In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
	   (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
	   between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
	   format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
	   "oneline" format does. For example:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
		 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
	       7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
		 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

	   In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
	   interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
	   these two are equivalent:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
	       $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

       o   Print the list of commits reachable from the current branch.

	       git rev-list HEAD

       o   Print the list of commits on this branch, but not present in the
	   upstream branch.

	       git rev-list @{upstream}..HEAD

       o   Format commits with their author and commit message (see also the
	   porcelain git-log(1)).

	       git rev-list --format=medium HEAD

       o   Format commits along with their diffs (see also the porcelain git-
	   log(1), which can do this in a single process).

	       git rev-list HEAD |
	       git diff-tree --stdin --format=medium -p

       o   Print the list of commits on the current branch that touched any
	   file in the Documentation directory.

	       git rev-list HEAD -- Documentation/

       o   Print the list of commits authored by you in the past year, on any
	   branch, tag, or other ref.

	       git rev-list --author=you@example.com --since=1.year.ago --all

       o   Print the list of objects reachable from the current branch (i.e.,
	   all commits and the blobs and trees they contain).

	       git rev-list --objects HEAD

       o   Compare the disk size of all reachable objects, versus those
	   reachable from reflogs, versus the total packed size. This can tell
	   you whether running git repack -ad might reduce the repository size
	   (by dropping unreachable objects), and whether expiring reflogs
	   might help.

	       # reachable objects
	       git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all
	       # plus reflogs
	       git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all --reflog
	       # total disk size used
	       du -c .git/objects/pack/*.pack .git/objects/??/*
	       # alternative to du: add up "size" and "size-pack" fields
	       git count-objects -v

       o   Report the disk size of each branch, not including objects used by
	   the current branch. This can find outliers that are contributing to
	   a bloated repository size (e.g., because somebody accidentally
	   committed large build artifacts).

	       git for-each-ref --format='%(refname)' |
	       while read branch
		       size=$(git rev-list --disk-usage --objects HEAD..$branch)
		       echo "$size $branch"
	       done |
	       sort -n

       o   Compare the on-disk size of branches in one group of refs,
	   excluding another. If you co-mingle objects from multiple remotes
	   in a single repository, this can show which remotes are
	   contributing to the repository size (taking the size of origin as a

	       git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --remotes=$suspect --not --remotes=origin

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.38.4			  05/16/2024		       GIT-REV-LIST(1)