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GIT-SHOW(1)			  Git Manual			   GIT-SHOW(1)

       git-show - Show various types of objects

       git show [<options>] [<object>...]

       Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).

       For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also presents
       the merge commit in a special format as produced by git diff-tree --cc.

       For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced objects.

       For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to git ls-tree with

       For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.

       The command takes options applicable to the git diff-tree command to
       control how the changes the commit introduces are shown.

       This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.

	   The names of objects to show (defaults to HEAD). For a more
	   complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
	   REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
	   Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
	   where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller,
	   reference, email, raw, format:<string> and tformat:<string>. When
	   <format> is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it, it acts
	   as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

	   See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for
	   each format. When =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

	   Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
	   configuration (see git-config(1)).

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name,
	   show a prefix that names the object uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>" (which
	   also modifies diff output, if it is displayed) option can be used
	   to specify the minimum length of the prefix.

	   This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
	   people using 80-column terminals.

	   Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates
	   --abbrev-commit, either explicit or implied by other options such
	   as "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

	   This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used

	   Commit objects record the character encoding used for the log
	   message in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell
	   the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
	   preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
	   UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are
	   outputting in X, we will output the object verbatim; this means
	   that invalid sequences in the original commit may be copied to the
	   output. Likewise, if iconv(3) fails to convert the commit, we will
	   quietly output the original object verbatim.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
	   Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to
	   fill to the next display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log
	   message before showing it in the output.  --expand-tabs is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
	   short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

	   By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
	   message by 4 spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and

	   Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when
	   showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log,
	   git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
	   --format, or --oneline option given on the command line.

	   By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
	   core.notesRef and notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding
	   environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more details.

	   With an optional <ref> argument, use the ref to find the notes to
	   display. The ref can specify the full refname when it begins with
	   refs/notes/; when it begins with notes/, refs/ and otherwise
	   refs/notes/ is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.

	   Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
	   being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
	   "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both notes from
	   "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

	   Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by
	   resetting the list of notes refs from which notes are shown.
	   Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
	   "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
	   from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
	   These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
	   options instead.

	   Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the
	   signature to gpg --verify and show the output.

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline,
       email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line.
       This line begins with "Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits are
       printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
       necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have
       limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested
       in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional
       formats by setting a pretty.<name> config option to either another
       format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       o   oneline

	       <hash> <title-line>

	   This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       o   short

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>


       o   medium

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>
	       Date:   <author-date>



       o   full

	       commit <hash>
	       Author: <author>
	       Commit: <committer>



       o   fuller

	       commit <hash>
	       Author:	   <author>
	       AuthorDate: <author-date>
	       Commit:	   <committer>
	       CommitDate: <committer-date>



       o   reference

	       <abbrev-hash> (<title-line>, <short-author-date>)

	   This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit message
	   and is the same as --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By
	   default, the date is formatted with --date=short unless another
	   --date option is explicitly specified. As with any format: with
	   format placeholders, its output is not affected by other options
	   like --decorate and --walk-reflogs.

       o   email

	       From <hash> <date>
	       From: <author>
	       Date: <author-date>
	       Subject: [PATCH] <title-line>


       o   mboxrd

	   Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with "From "
	   (preceded by zero or more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren't
	   confused as starting a new commit.

       o   raw

	   The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the
	   commit object. Notably, the hashes are displayed in full,
	   regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
	   information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts or
	   history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
	   the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown
	   e.g. with git log --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff
	   format, use --no-abbrev.

       o   format:<format-string>

	   The format:<format-string> format allows you to specify which
	   information you want to show. It works a little bit like printf
	   format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n
	   instead of \n.

	   E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n"
	   would show something like this:

	       The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
	       The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

	   The placeholders are:

	   o   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:


		   a raw %

		   print a byte from a hex code

	   o   Placeholders that affect formatting of later placeholders:

		   switch color to red

		   switch color to green

		   switch color to blue

		   reset color

		   color specification, as described under Values in the
		   "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of git-config(1). By default,
		   colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
		   color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
		   settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).
		   %C(auto,...)	 is accepted as a historical synonym for the
		   default (e.g., %C(auto,red)). Specifying %C(always,...)
		   will show the colors even when color is not otherwise
		   enabled (though consider just using --color=always to
		   enable color for the whole output, including this format
		   and anything else git might color).	auto alone (i.e.
		   %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next
		   placeholders until the color is switched again.

		   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

		   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-

		   make the next placeholder take at least N columns, padding
		   spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally truncate at
		   the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc) or the end
		   (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns. Note that
		   truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.

		   make the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns,
		   padding spaces on the right if necessary

	       %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
		   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding
		   spaces on the left

	       %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
		   similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if
		   the next placeholder takes more spaces than given and there
		   are spaces on its left, use those spaces

	       %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
		   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding both
		   sides (i.e. the text is centered)

	   o   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from the

		   commit hash

		   abbreviated commit hash

		   tree hash

		   abbreviated tree hash

		   parent hashes

		   abbreviated parent hashes

		   author name

		   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   author email

		   author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

		   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   author date (format respects --date= option)

		   author date, RFC2822 style

		   author date, relative

		   author date, UNIX timestamp

		   author date, ISO 8601-like format

		   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

		   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

		   author date, human style (like the --date=human option of

		   committer name

		   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

		   committer email

		   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1)
		   or git-blame(1))

		   committer email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

		   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap, see
		   git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   committer date (format respects --date= option)

		   committer date, RFC2822 style

		   committer date, relative

		   committer date, UNIX timestamp

		   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

		   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

		   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

		   committer date, human style (like the --date=human option
		   of git-rev-list(1))

		   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

		   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

		   human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty string for
		   undescribable commits. The describe string may be followed
		   by a colon and zero or more comma-separated options.
		   Descriptions can be inconsistent when tags are added or
		   removed at the same time.

		   o   tags[=<bool-value>]: Instead of only considering
		       annotated tags, consider lightweight tags as well.

		   o   abbrev=<number>: Instead of using the default number of
		       hexadecimal digits (which will vary according to the
		       number of objects in the repository with a default of
		       7) of the abbreviated object name, use <number> digits,
		       or as many digits as needed to form a unique object

		   o   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching the given
		       glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

		   o   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags matching the
		       given glob(7) pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/"

		   ref name given on the command line by which the commit was
		   reached (like git log --source), only works with git log



		   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename


		   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

		   commit notes

		   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

		   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad
		   signature, "U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
		   "X" for a good signature that has expired, "Y" for a good
		   signature made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature
		   made by a revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be
		   checked (e.g. missing key) and "N" for no signature

		   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

		   show the key used to sign a signed commit

		   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed

		   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was
		   used to sign a signed commit

		   show the trust level for the key used to sign a signed

		   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2
		   minutes ago}; the format follows the rules described for
		   the -g option. The portion before the @ is the refname as
		   given on the command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master
		   would yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

		   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname
		   portion is shortened for human readability (so
		   refs/heads/master becomes just master).

		   reflog identity name

		   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   reflog identity email

		   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-
		   shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

		   reflog subject

		   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by git-
		   interpret-trailers(1). The trailers string may be followed
		   by a colon and zero or more comma-separated options. If any
		   option is provided multiple times the last occurrence wins.

		   o   key=<key>: only show trailers with specified <key>.
		       Matching is done case-insensitively and trailing colon
		       is optional. If option is given multiple times trailer
		       lines matching any of the keys are shown. This option
		       automatically enables the only option so that
		       non-trailer lines in the trailer block are hidden. If
		       that is not desired it can be disabled with only=false.
		       E.g., %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines
		       with key Reviewed-by.

		   o   only[=<bool>]: select whether non-trailer lines from
		       the trailer block should be included.

		   o   separator=<sep>: specify a separator inserted between
		       trailer lines. When this option is not given each
		       trailer line is terminated with a line feed character.
		       The string <sep> may contain the literal formatting
		       codes described above. To use comma as separator one
		       must use %x2C as it would otherwise be parsed as next
		       option. E.g., %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C )
		       shows all trailer lines whose key is "Ticket" separated
		       by a comma and a space.

		   o   unfold[=<bool>]: make it behave as if
		       interpret-trailer's --unfold option was given. E.g.,
		       %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and shows all
		       trailer lines.

		   o   keyonly[=<bool>]: only show the key part of the

		   o   valueonly[=<bool>]: only show the value part of the

		   o   key_value_separator=<sep>: specify a separator inserted
		       between trailer lines. When this option is not given
		       each trailer key-value pair is separated by ": ".
		       Otherwise it shares the same semantics as
		       separator=<sep> above.

	   Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision
	   traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert
	   an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
	   git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use the "short"
	   decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the
	   command line.

       The boolean options accept an optional value [=<bool-value>]. The
       values true, false, on, off etc. are all accepted. See the "boolean"
       sub-section in "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a boolean option is
       given with no value, it's enabled.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is
       inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
       placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive
       line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only
       if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted
       immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands
       to a non-empty string.

       o   tformat:

	   The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it
	   provides "terminator" semantics instead of "separator" semantics.
	   In other words, each commit has the message terminator character
	   (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed
	   between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line
	   format will be properly terminated with a new line, just as the
	   "oneline" format does. For example:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
		 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
	       7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
		 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

	   In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is
	   interpreted as if it has tformat: in front of it. For example,
	   these two are equivalent:

	       $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
	       $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

       The options below can be used to change the way git show generates diff

       -p, -u, --patch
	   Generate patch (see section on generating patches).

       -s, --no-patch
	   Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show that show
	   the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

	   Specify diff format to be used for merge commits. Default is
	   dense-combined unless --first-parent is in use, in which case
	   first-parent is the default.

	   --diff-merges=(off|none), --no-diff-merges
	       Disable output of diffs for merge commits. Useful to override
	       implied value.

	   --diff-merges=on, --diff-merges=m, -m
	       This option makes diff output for merge commits to be shown in
	       the default format.  -m will produce the output only if -p is
	       given as well. The default format could be changed using
	       log.diffMerges configuration parameter, which default value is

	   --diff-merges=first-parent, --diff-merges=1
	       This option makes merge commits show the full diff with respect
	       to the first parent only.

	       This makes merge commits show the full diff with respect to
	       each of the parents. Separate log entry and diff is generated
	       for each parent.

	   --diff-merges=remerge, --diff-merges=r, --remerge-diff
	       With this option, two-parent merge commits are remerged to
	       create a temporary tree object -- potentially containing files
	       with conflict markers and such. A diff is then shown between
	       that temporary tree and the actual merge commit.

	       The output emitted when this option is used is subject to
	       change, and so is its interaction with other options (unless
	       explicitly documented).

	   --diff-merges=combined, --diff-merges=c, -c
	       With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the
	       differences from each of the parents to the merge result
	       simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a
	       parent and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only
	       files which were modified from all parents.  -c implies -p.

	   --diff-merges=dense-combined, --diff-merges=cc, --cc
	       With this option the output produced by --diff-merges=combined
	       is further compressed by omitting uninteresting hunks whose
	       contents in the parents have only two variants and the merge
	       result picks one of them without modification.  --cc implies

	   This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits) to list
	   the name of the file from all parents. It thus only has effect when
	   --diff-merges=[dense-]combined is in use, and is likely only useful
	   if filename changes are detected (i.e. when either rename or copy
	   detection have been requested).

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
	   Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual
	   three. Implies --patch.

	   Output to a specific file instead of stdout.

       --output-indicator-new=<char>, --output-indicator-old=<char>,
	   Specify the character used to indicate new, old or context lines in
	   the generated patch. Normally they are +, - and ' ' respectively.

	   For each commit, show a summary of changes using the raw diff
	   format. See the "RAW OUTPUT FORMAT" section of git-diff(1). This is
	   different from showing the log itself in raw format, which you can
	   achieve with --format=raw.

	   Synonym for -p --raw.

	   Show the tree objects in the diff output.

	   Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make
	   patches easier to read. This is the default.

	   Disable the indent heuristic.

	   Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

	   Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

	   Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

	   Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.

	   This option may be specified more than once.

	   If a line exists in both the source and destination, exists only
	   once, and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent
	   it from appearing as a deletion or addition in the output. It uses
	   the "patience diff" algorithm internally.

	   Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

	   default, myers
	       The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the

	       Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

	       Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

	       This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
	       low-occurrence common elements".

	   For instance, if you configured the diff.algorithm variable to a
	   non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
	   use --diff-algorithm=default option.

	   Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will be
	   used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part.
	   Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not
	   connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The
	   width of the filename part can be limited by giving another width
	   <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part can be
	   limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands
	   generating a stat graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width>
	   (does not affect git format-patch). By giving a third parameter
	   <count>, you can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
	   followed by ...  if there are more.

	   These parameters can also be set individually with
	   --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and

	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
	   file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l" if
	   it's a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding or
	   removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The information
	   is put between the filename part and the graph part. Implies

	   Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
	   decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
	   machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
	   0 0.

	   Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
	   number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted

       -X[<param1,param2,...>], --dirstat[=<param1,param2,...>]
	   Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
	   sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by
	   passing it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are
	   controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-
	   config(1)). The following parameters are available:

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
	       been removed from the source, or added to the destination. This
	       ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file. In
	       other words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
	       as other changes. This is the default behavior when no
	       parameter is given.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based
	       diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
	       binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files
	       have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
	       --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
	       rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The
	       resulting output is consistent with what you get from the other
	       --*stat options.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
	       changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat
	       analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
	       behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents
	       at all.

	       Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as
	       well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
	       percentages reported may exceed 100%. The default
	       (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the
	       noncumulative parameter.

	       An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by
	       default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of
	       the changes are not shown in the output.

	   Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
	   directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
	   files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent
	   directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

	   Synonym for --dirstat=cumulative

	   Synonym for --dirstat=files,param1,param2...

	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
	   creations, renames and mode changes.

	   Synonym for -p --stat.

	   Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.

	   Also, when --raw or --numstat has been given, do not munge
	   pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.

	   Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted
	   as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see

	   Show only names of changed files. The file names are often encoded
	   in UTF-8. For more information see the discussion about encoding in
	   the git-log(1) manual page.

	   Show only names and status of changed files. See the description of
	   the --diff-filter option on what the status letters mean. Just like
	   --name-only the file names are often encoded in UTF-8.

	   Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
	   --submodule=short the short format is used. This format just shows
	   the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range.
	   When --submodule or --submodule=log is specified, the log format is
	   used. This format lists the commits in the range like git-
	   submodule(1)summary does. When --submodule=diff is specified, the
	   diff format is used. This format shows an inline diff of the
	   changes in the submodule contents between the commit range.
	   Defaults to diff.submodule or the short format if the config option
	   is unset.

	   Show colored diff.  --color (i.e. without =<when>) is the same as
	   --color=always.  <when> can be one of always, never, or auto.

	   Turn off colored diff. It is the same as --color=never.

	   Moved lines of code are colored differently. The <mode> defaults to
	   no if the option is not given and to zebra if the option with no
	   mode is given. The mode must be one of:

	       Moved lines are not highlighted.

	       Is a synonym for zebra. This may change to a more sensible mode
	       in the future.

	       Any line that is added in one location and was removed in
	       another location will be colored with color.diff.newMoved.
	       Similarly color.diff.oldMoved will be used for removed lines
	       that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up
	       any moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to
	       determine if a block of code was moved without permutation.

	       Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters are
	       detected greedily. The detected blocks are painted using either
	       the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color. Adjacent blocks cannot be
	       told apart.

	       Blocks of moved text are detected as in blocks mode. The blocks
	       are painted using either the color.diff.{old,new}Moved color or
	       color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative. The change between the
	       two colors indicates that a new block was detected.

	       Similar to zebra, but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
	       of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
	       blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
	       dimmed_zebra is a deprecated synonym.

	   Turn off move detection. This can be used to override configuration
	   settings. It is the same as --color-moved=no.

	   This configures how whitespace is ignored when performing the move
	   detection for --color-moved. These modes can be given as a comma
	   separated list:

	       Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection.

	       Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

	       Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
	       at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
	       whitespace characters to be equivalent.

	       Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
	       differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
	       line has none.

	       Initially ignore any whitespace in the move detection, then
	       group the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
	       whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
	       other modes.

	   Do not ignore whitespace when performing move detection. This can
	   be used to override configuration settings. It is the same as

	   Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words. By
	   default, words are delimited by whitespace; see --word-diff-regex
	   below. The <mode> defaults to plain, and must be one of:

	       Highlight changed words using only colors. Implies --color.

	       Show words as [-removed-] and {+added+}. Makes no attempts to
	       escape the delimiters if they appear in the input, so the
	       output may be ambiguous.

	       Use a special line-based format intended for script
	       consumption. Added/removed/unchanged runs are printed in the
	       usual unified diff format, starting with a +/-/` ` character at
	       the beginning of the line and extending to the end of the line.
	       Newlines in the input are represented by a tilde ~ on a line of
	       its own.

	       Disable word diff again.

	   Note that despite the name of the first mode, color is used to
	   highlight the changed parts in all modes if enabled.

	   Use <regex> to decide what a word is, instead of considering runs
	   of non-whitespace to be a word. Also implies --word-diff unless it
	   was already enabled.

	   Every non-overlapping match of the <regex> is considered a word.
	   Anything between these matches is considered whitespace and
	   ignored(!) for the purposes of finding differences. You may want to
	   append |[^[:space:]] to your regular expression to make sure that
	   it matches all non-whitespace characters. A match that contains a
	   newline is silently truncated(!) at the newline.

	   For example, --word-diff-regex=.  will treat each character as a
	   word and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.

	   The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration
	   option, see gitattributes(5) or git-config(1). Giving it explicitly
	   overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
	   override configuration settings.

	   Equivalent to --word-diff=color plus (if a regex was specified)

	   Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
	   the default to do so.

	   Whether to use empty blobs as rename source.

	   Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
	   What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by
	   core.whitespace configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces
	   (including lines that consist solely of whitespaces) and a space
	   character that is immediately followed by a tab character inside
	   the initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
	   Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
	   with --exit-code.

	   Highlight whitespace errors in the context, old or new lines of the
	   diff. Multiple values are separated by comma, none resets previous
	   values, default reset the list to new and all is a shorthand for
	   old,new,context. When this option is not given, and the
	   configuration variable diff.wsErrorHighlight is not set, only
	   whitespace errors in new lines are highlighted. The whitespace
	   errors are colored with color.diff.whitespace.

	   Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and
	   post-image blob object names on the "index" line when generating
	   patch format output.

	   In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be
	   applied with git-apply. Implies --patch.

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
	   diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show the
	   shortest prefix that is at least <n> hexdigits long that uniquely
	   refers the object. In diff-patch output format, --full-index takes
	   higher precedence, i.e. if --full-index is specified, full blob
	   names will be shown regardless of --abbrev. Non default number of
	   digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
	   Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
	   This serves two purposes:

	   It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a
	   file not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
	   a very few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but
	   as a single deletion of everything old followed by a single
	   insertion of everything new, and the number m controls this aspect
	   of the -B option (defaults to 60%).	-B/70% specifies that less
	   than 30% of the original should remain in the result for Git to
	   consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
	   will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
	   context lines).

	   When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as
	   the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
	   disappeared as the source of a rename), and the number n controls
	   this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
	   that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
	   the file's size are eligible for being picked up as a possible
	   source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
	   If generating diffs, detect and report renames for each commit. For
	   following files across renames while traversing history, see
	   --follow. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
	   index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the file's
	   size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a delete/add
	   pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't changed.
	   Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction, with a
	   decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus the
	   same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
	   detection to exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
	   index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
	   Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If
	   n is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

	   For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
	   the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
	   This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
	   for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
	   large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
	   option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
	   Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
	   the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is
	   not meant to be applied with patch or git apply; this is solely for
	   people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the text after the
	   change. In addition, the output obviously lacks enough information
	   to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence the name of
	   the option.

	   When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion
	   part of a delete/create pair.

	   The -M and -C options involve some preliminary steps that can
	   detect subsets of renames/copies cheaply, followed by an exhaustive
	   fallback portion that compares all remaining unpaired destinations
	   to all relevant sources. (For renames, only remaining unpaired
	   sources are relevant; for copies, all original sources are
	   relevant.) For N sources and destinations, this exhaustive check is
	   O(N^2). This option prevents the exhaustive portion of rename/copy
	   detection from running if the number of source/destination files
	   involved exceeds the specified number. Defaults to
	   diff.renameLimit. Note that a value of 0 is treated as unlimited.

	   Select only files that are Added (A), Copied (C), Deleted (D),
	   Modified (M), Renamed (R), have their type (i.e. regular file,
	   symlink, submodule, ...) changed (T), are Unmerged (U), are Unknown
	   (X), or have had their pairing Broken (B). Any combination of the
	   filter characters (including none) can be used. When *
	   (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all paths are selected
	   if there is any file that matches other criteria in the comparison;
	   if there is no file that matches other criteria, nothing is

	   Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
	   --diff-filter=ad excludes added and deleted paths.

	   Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance, copied
	   and renamed entries cannot appear if detection for those types is

	   Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
	   specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file. Intended for
	   the scripter's use.

	   It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
	   struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
	   came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the
	   interesting block in the preimage back into -S, and keep going
	   until you get the very first version of the block.

	   Binary files are searched as well.

	   Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed lines
	   that match <regex>.

	   To illustrate the difference between -S<regex> --pickaxe-regex and
	   -G<regex>, consider a commit with the following diff in the same

	       +    return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
	       -    hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);

	   While git log -G"frotz\(nitfol" will show this commit, git log
	   -S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex will not (because the number of
	   occurrences of that string did not change).

	   Unless --text is supplied patches of binary files without a
	   textconv filter will be ignored.

	   See the pickaxe entry in gitdiffcore(7) for more information.

	   Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of the
	   specified object. Similar to -S, just the argument is different in
	   that it doesn't search for a specific string but for a specific
	   object id.

	   The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the -t
	   option in git-log to also find trees.

	   When -S or -G finds a change, show all the changes in that
	   changeset, not just the files that contain the change in <string>.

	   Treat the <string> given to -S as an extended POSIX regular
	   expression to match.

	   Control the order in which files appear in the output. This
	   overrides the diff.orderFile configuration variable (see git-
	   config(1)). To cancel diff.orderFile, use -O/dev/null.

	   The output order is determined by the order of glob patterns in
	   <orderfile>. All files with pathnames that match the first pattern
	   are output first, all files with pathnames that match the second
	   pattern (but not the first) are output next, and so on. All files
	   with pathnames that do not match any pattern are output last, as if
	   there was an implicit match-all pattern at the end of the file. If
	   multiple pathnames have the same rank (they match the same pattern
	   but no earlier patterns), their output order relative to each other
	   is the normal order.

	   <orderfile> is parsed as follows:

	   o   Blank lines are ignored, so they can be used as separators for

	   o   Lines starting with a hash ("#") are ignored, so they can be
	       used for comments. Add a backslash ("\") to the beginning of
	       the pattern if it starts with a hash.

	   o   Each other line contains a single pattern.

	   Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
	   fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
	   matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
	   components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "foo*bar"
	   matches "fooasdfbar" and "foo/bar/baz/asdf" but not "foobarx".

       --skip-to=<file>, --rotate-to=<file>
	   Discard the files before the named <file> from the output (i.e.
	   skip to), or move them to the end of the output (i.e.  rotate to).
	   These were invented primarily for use of the git difftool command,
	   and may not be very useful otherwise.

	   Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or on-disk
	   file to tree contents.

       --relative[=<path>], --no-relative
	   When run from a subdirectory of the project, it can be told to
	   exclude changes outside the directory and show pathnames relative
	   to it with this option. When you are not in a subdirectory (e.g. in
	   a bare repository), you can name which subdirectory to make the
	   output relative to by giving a <path> as an argument.
	   --no-relative can be used to countermand both diff.relative config
	   option and previous --relative.

       -a, --text
	   Treat all files as text.

	   Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.

	   Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
	   Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
	   line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
	   whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
	   Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
	   even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

	   Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

       -I<regex>, --ignore-matching-lines=<regex>
	   Ignore changes whose all lines match <regex>. This option may be
	   specified more than once.

	   Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
	   lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other. Defaults
	   to diff.interHunkContext or 0 if the config option is unset.

       -W, --function-context
	   Show whole function as context lines for each change. The function
	   names are determined in the same way as git diff works out patch
	   hunk headers (see Defining a custom hunk-header in

	   Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
	   external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
	   option with git-log(1) and friends.

	   Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
	   Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when
	   comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because
	   textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the resulting
	   diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
	   this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
	   diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff
	   plumbing commands.

	   Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
	   either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
	   Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either
	   contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the
	   commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
	   settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5).
	   When "untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when
	   they only contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for
	   modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
	   tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the
	   superproject are shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using
	   "all" hides all changes to submodules.

	   Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

	   Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

	   Do not show any source or destination prefix.

	   Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.

	   By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing
	   empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached".
	   This option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff" and
	   non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be reverted
	   with --ita-visible-in-index. Both options are experimental and
	   could be removed in future.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also

       Running git-diff(1), git-log(1), git-show(1), git-diff-index(1), git-
       diff-tree(1), or git-diff-files(1) with the -p option produces patch
       text. You can customize the creation of patch text via the
       GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS environment variables (see
       git(1)), and the diff attribute (see gitattributes(5)).

       What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
       diff format:

	1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header that looks like this:

	       diff --git a/file1 b/file2

	   The a/ and b/ filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
	   involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion, /dev/null
	   is not used in place of the a/ or b/ filenames.

	   When rename/copy is involved, file1 and file2 show the name of the
	   source file of the rename/copy and the name of the file that
	   rename/copy produces, respectively.

	2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:

	       old mode <mode>
	       new mode <mode>
	       deleted file mode <mode>
	       new file mode <mode>
	       copy from <path>
	       copy to <path>
	       rename from <path>
	       rename to <path>
	       similarity index <number>
	       dissimilarity index <number>
	       index <hash>..<hash> <mode>

	   File modes are printed as 6-digit octal numbers including the file
	   type and file permission bits.

	   Path names in extended headers do not include the a/ and b/

	   The similarity index is the percentage of unchanged lines, and the
	   dissimilarity index is the percentage of changed lines. It is a
	   rounded down integer, followed by a percent sign. The similarity
	   index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal files, while
	   100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old file made it
	   into the new one.

	   The index line includes the blob object names before and after the
	   change. The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change;
	   otherwise, separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.

	3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for the
	   configuration variable core.quotePath (see git-config(1)).

	4. All the file1 files in the output refer to files before the commit,
	   and all the file2 files refer to files after the commit. It is
	   incorrect to apply each change to each file sequentially. For
	   example, this patch will swap a and b:

	       diff --git a/a b/b
	       rename from a
	       rename to b
	       diff --git a/b b/a
	       rename from b
	       rename to a

	5. Hunk headers mention the name of the function to which the hunk
	   applies. See "Defining a custom hunk-header" in gitattributes(5)
	   for details of how to tailor to this to specific languages.

       Any diff-generating command can take the -c or --cc option to produce a
       combined diff when showing a merge. This is the default format when
       showing merges with git-diff(1) or git-show(1). Note also that you can
       give suitable --diff-merges option to any of these commands to force
       generation of diffs in specific format.

       A "combined diff" format looks like this:

	   diff --combined describe.c
	   index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
	   --- a/describe.c
	   +++ b/describe.c
	   @@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
		   return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;

	   - static void describe(char *arg)
	    -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
	   ++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
	    +	   unsigned char sha1[20];
	    +	   struct commit *cmit;
		   struct commit_list *list;
		   static int initialized = 0;
		   struct commit_name *n;

	    +	   if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
	    +		   usage(describe_usage);
	    +	   cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
	    +	   if (!cmit)
	    +		   usage(describe_usage);
		   if (!initialized) {
			   initialized = 1;

	1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like this (when
	   the -c option is used):

	       diff --combined file

	   or like this (when the --cc option is used):

	       diff --cc file

	2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines (this example
	   shows a merge with two parents):

	       index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
	       mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
	       new file mode <mode>
	       deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>

	   The mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode> line appears only if at least one of
	   the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
	   information about detected contents movement (renames and copying
	   detection) are designed to work with diff of two <tree-ish> and are
	   not used by combined diff format.

	3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header

	       --- a/file
	       +++ b/file

	   Similar to two-line header for traditional unified diff format,
	   /dev/null is used to signal created or deleted files.

	   However, if the --combined-all-paths option is provided, instead of
	   a two-line from-file/to-file you get a N+1 line from-file/to-file
	   header, where N is the number of parents in the merge commit

	       --- a/file
	       --- a/file
	       --- a/file
	       +++ b/file

	   This extended format can be useful if rename or copy detection is
	   active, to allow you to see the original name of the file in
	   different parents.

	4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from accidentally
	   feeding it to patch -p1. Combined diff format was created for
	   review of merge commit changes, and was not meant to be applied.
	   The change is similar to the change in the extended index header:

	       @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@

	   There are (number of parents + 1) @ characters in the chunk header
	   for combined diff format.

       Unlike the traditional unified diff format, which shows two files A and
       B with a single column that has - (minus -- appears in A but removed in
       B), + (plus -- missing in A but added to B), or " " (space --
       unchanged) prefix, this format compares two or more files file1,
       file2,... with one file X, and shows how X differs from each of fileN.
       One column for each of fileN is prepended to the output line to note
       how X's line is different from it.

       A - character in the column N means that the line appears in fileN but
       it does not appear in the result. A + character in the column N means
       that the line appears in the result, and fileN does not have that line
       (in other words, the line was added, from the point of view of that

       In the above example output, the function signature was changed from
       both files (hence two - removals from both file1 and file2, plus ++ to
       mean one line that was added does not appear in either file1 or file2).
       Also eight other lines are the same from file1 but do not appear in
       file2 (hence prefixed with +).

       When shown by git diff-tree -c, it compares the parents of a merge
       commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the parents). When
       shown by git diff-files -c, it compares the two unresolved merge
       parents with the working tree file (i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our
       version", file2 is stage 3 aka "their version").

       git show v1.0.0
	   Shows the tag v1.0.0, along with the object the tags points at.

       git show v1.0.0^{tree}
	   Shows the tree pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

       git show -s --format=%s v1.0.0^{commit}
	   Shows the subject of the commit pointed to by the tag v1.0.0.

       git show next~10:Documentation/README
	   Shows the contents of the file Documentation/README as they were
	   current in the 10th last commit of the branch next.

       git show master:Makefile master:t/Makefile
	   Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head of the
	   branch master.

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       o   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of
	   bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       o   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This applies
	   to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names
	   in command line arguments, environment variables and config files
	   (.git/config (see git-config(1)), gitignore(5), gitattributes(5)
	   and gitmodules(5)).

	   Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
	   sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
	   conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII
	   path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that
	   use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However, repositories created
	   on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g.
	   Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based
	   tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
	   other encodings correctly.

       o   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
	   extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
	   ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC and
	   CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8
       on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more
       convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it. However,
       there are a few things to keep in mind.

	1. git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log
	   message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless
	   you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to
	   say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding in .git/config file, like

		       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

	   Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header. This is to help other
	   people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
	   commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.

	2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
	   header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message into
	   UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired
	   output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file,
	   like this:

		       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

	   If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
	   i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message
       when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level,
       because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 2.38.4			  05/16/2024			   GIT-SHOW(1)