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GIT-SVN(1)			  Git Manual			    GIT-SVN(1)

       git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and

       git svn <command> [<options>] [<arguments>]

       git svn is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git.
       It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a
       Git repository.

       git svn can track a standard Subversion repository, following the
       common "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option. It
       can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b
       options (see options to init below, and also the clone command).

       Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods),
       the Git repository can be updated from Subversion by the fetch command
       and Subversion updated from Git by the dcommit command.

	   Initializes an empty Git repository with additional metadata
	   directories for git svn. The Subversion URL may be specified as a
	   command-line argument, or as full URL arguments to -T/-t/-b.
	   Optionally, the target directory to operate on can be specified as
	   a second argument. Normally this command initializes the current

	   -T<trunk_subdir>, --trunk=<trunk_subdir>, -t<tags_subdir>,
	   --tags=<tags_subdir>, -b<branches_subdir>,
	   --branches=<branches_subdir>, -s, --stdlayout
	       These are optional command-line options for init. Each of these
	       flags can point to a relative repository path
	       (--tags=project/tags) or a full url
	       (--tags=https://foo.org/project/tags). You can specify more
	       than one --tags and/or --branches options, in case your
	       Subversion repository places tags or branches under multiple
	       paths. The option --stdlayout is a shorthand way of setting
	       trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths, which is the
	       Subversion default. If any of the other options are given as
	       well, they take precedence.

	       Set the noMetadata option in the [svn-remote] config. This
	       option is not recommended, please read the svn.noMetadata
	       section of this manpage before using this option.

	       Set the useSvmProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       Set the useSvnsyncProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       Set the rewriteRoot option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       Set the rewriteUUID option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http,
	       https, and plain svn), specify the username. For other
	       transports (e.g.	 svn+ssh://), you must include the username in
	       the URL, e.g.  svn+ssh://foo@svn.bar.com/project

	       This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended to the
	       names of remotes if trunk/branches/tags are specified. The
	       prefix does not automatically include a trailing slash, so be
	       sure you include one in the argument if that is what you want.
	       If --branches/-b is specified, the prefix must include a
	       trailing slash. Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is
	       strongly encouraged in any case, as your SVN-tracking refs will
	       then be located at "refs/remotes/$prefix/", which is compatible
	       with Git's own remote-tracking ref layout
	       (refs/remotes/$remote/). Setting a prefix is also useful if you
	       wish to track multiple projects that share a common repository.
	       By default, the prefix is set to origin/.

		   Before Git v2.0, the default prefix was "" (no prefix).
		   This meant that SVN-tracking refs were put at
		   "refs/remotes/*", which is incompatible with how Git's own
		   remote-tracking refs are organized. If you still want the
		   old default, you can get it by passing --prefix "" on the
		   command line (--prefix="" may not work if your Perl's
		   Getopt::Long is < v2.37).

	       When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be
	       preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of

	       When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be
	       preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of

	       When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be
	       preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of

	       When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
	       --branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to connect
	       to the root (or highest allowed level) of the Subversion
	       repository. This default allows better tracking of history if
	       entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause
	       issues on repositories where read access restrictions are in
	       place. Passing --no-minimize-url will allow git svn to accept
	       URLs as-is without attempting to connect to a higher level
	       directory. This option is off by default when only one
	       URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).

	   Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are
	   tracking. The name of the [svn-remote "..."] section in the
	   $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional command-line

	   This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
	   $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in the FILES section below for

	       Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC.
	       This makes git log (even without --date=local) show the same
	       times that svn log would in the local time zone.

	       This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion
	       repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git
	       repository to be able to interoperate with someone else's local
	       Git repository, either don't use this option or you should both
	       use it in the same local time zone.

	       Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.

	       Ignore refs for branches or tags matching the Perl regular
	       expression. A "negative look-ahead assertion" like
	       ^refs/remotes/origin/(?!tags/wanted-tag|wanted-branch).*$ can
	       be used to allow only certain refs.

		   config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-refs

	       If the ignore-refs configuration key is set, and the
	       command-line option is also given, both regular expressions
	       will be used.

	       This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
	       cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN.
	       The --ignore-paths option should match for every fetch
	       (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase,
	       etc) on a given repository.

		   config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths

	       If the ignore-paths configuration key is set, and the
	       command-line option is also given, both regular expressions
	       will be used.


	       Skip "doc*" directory for every fetch


	       Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories


	       This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
	       cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from
	       SVN. The --include-paths option should match for every fetch
	       (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase,
	       etc) on a given repository.  --ignore-paths takes precedence
	       over --include-paths.

		   config key: svn-remote.<name>.include-paths

	       Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion
	       history. The default is 100. For very large Subversion
	       repositories, larger values may be needed for clone/fetch to
	       complete in reasonable time. But overly large values may lead
	       to higher memory usage and request timeouts.

	   Runs init and fetch. It will automatically create a directory based
	   on the basename of the URL passed to it; or if a second argument is
	   passed; it will create a directory and work within that. It accepts
	   all arguments that the init and fetch commands accept; with the
	   exception of --fetch-all and --parent. After a repository is
	   cloned, the fetch command will be able to update revisions without
	   affecting the working tree; and the rebase command will be able to
	   update the working tree with the latest changes.

	       Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for each
	       empty directory fetched from Subversion. This includes
	       directories that become empty by removing all entries in the
	       Subversion repository (but not the directory itself). The
	       placeholder files are also tracked and removed when no longer

	       Set the name of placeholder files created by
	       --preserve-empty-dirs. Default: ".gitignore"

	   This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD and
	   rebases the current (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.

	   This works similarly to svn update or git pull except that it
	   preserves linear history with git rebase instead of git merge for
	   ease of dcommitting with git svn.

	   This accepts all options that git svn fetch and git rebase accept.
	   However, --fetch-all only fetches from the current [svn-remote],
	   and not all [svn-remote] definitions.

	   Like git rebase; this requires that the working tree be clean and
	   have no uncommitted changes.

	   This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
	   $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in the FILES section below for

	   -l, --local
	       Do not fetch remotely; only run git rebase against the last
	       fetched commit from the upstream SVN.

	   Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN
	   repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or not
	   there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create a revision
	   in SVN for each commit in Git.

	   When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name) is
	   specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified
	   branch, not on the current branch.

	   Use of dcommit is preferred to set-tree (below).

	       After committing, do not rebase or reset.

	   --commit-url <URL>
	       Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to
	       allow existing git svn repositories created with one transport
	       method (e.g.  svn:// or http:// for anonymous read) to be
	       reused if a user is later given access to an alternate
	       transport method (e.g.  svn+ssh:// or https://) for commit.

		   config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
		   config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)

	       Note that the SVN URL of the commiturl config key includes the
	       SVN branch. If you rather want to set the commit URL for an
	       entire SVN repository use svn-remote.<name>.pushurl instead.

	       Using this option for any other purpose (don't ask) is very
	       strongly discouraged.

	       Add the given merge information during the dcommit (e.g.
	       --mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10"). All svn server versions can
	       store this information (as a property), and svn clients
	       starting from version 1.5 can make use of it. To specify merge
	       information from multiple branches, use a single space
	       character between the branches (--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10

		   config key: svn.pushmergeinfo

	       This option will cause git-svn to attempt to automatically
	       populate the svn:mergeinfo property in the SVN repository when
	       possible. Currently, this can only be done when dcommitting
	       non-fast-forward merges where all parents but the first have
	       already been pushed into SVN.

	       Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually be
	       sent to SVN. For each patch, one may answer "yes" (accept this
	       patch), "no" (discard this patch), "all" (accept all patches),
	       or "quit".

	       git svn dcommit returns immediately if answer is "no" or
	       "quit", without committing anything to SVN.

	   Create a branch in the SVN repository.

	   -m, --message
	       Allows to specify the commit message.

	   -t, --tag
	       Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the
	       branches_subdir specified during git svn init.

	   -d<path>, --destination=<path>
	       If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the
	       init or clone command, you must provide the location of the
	       branch (or tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository.
	       <path> specifies which path to use to create the branch or tag
	       and should match the pattern on the left-hand side of one of
	       the configured branches or tags refspecs. You can see these
	       refspecs with the commands

		   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
		   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags

	       where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by
	       the -R option to init (or "svn" by default).

	       Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option
	       overrides the username configuration property.

	       Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion
	       repository. This is useful in cases where the source SVN
	       repository is read-only. This option overrides configuration
	       property commiturl.

		   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl

	       Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the
	       parameter --parents on svn cp commands and is useful for
	       non-standard repository layouts.

	   Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for branch

	   This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn users
	   refer to -r/--revision numbers.

	   The following features from `svn log' are supported:

	   -r <n>[:<n>], --revision=<n>[:<n>]
	       is supported, non-numeric args are not: HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV,
	       etc ...

	   -v, --verbose
	       it's not completely compatible with the --verbose output in svn
	       log, but reasonably close.

	       is NOT the same as --max-count, doesn't count merged/excluded


	   New features:

	       shows the Git commit sha1, as well

	       our version of --pretty=oneline

	       SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The
	       regular svn client converts the UTC time to the local time (or
	       based on the TZ= environment). This command has the same
	   Any other arguments are passed directly to git log

	   Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
	   The output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of
	   `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command, local
	   uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored; the version of
	   the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown arguments are
	   passed directly to git blame.

	       Produce output in the same format as git blame, but with SVN
	       revision numbers instead of Git commit hashes. In this mode,
	       changes that haven't been committed to SVN (including local
	       working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.

	   When given an SVN revision number of the form rN, returns the
	   corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
	   tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a
	   tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.

	   -B, --before
	       Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead
	       find the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN
	       repository (on the current branch) at the specified revision.

	   -A, --after
	       Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there
	       is not an exact match return the closest match searching
	       forward in the history.

	   You should consider using dcommit instead of this command. Commit
	   specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on your
	   imported fetch data being up to date. This makes absolutely no
	   attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it simply
	   overwrites files with those specified in the tree or commit. All
	   merging is assumed to have taken place independently of git svn

	   Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and
	   creates matching .gitignore files. The resulting files are staged
	   to be committed, but are not committed. Use -r/--revision to refer
	   to a specific revision.

	   Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on directories.
	   The output is suitable for appending to the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude

	   Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track
	   based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
	   Empty directories are automatically recreated when using "git svn
	   clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended for use after
	   commands like "git checkout" or "git reset". (See the
	   svn-remote.<name>.automkdirs config file option for more

	   Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the command-line.
	   This command does not rely on being inside a git svn init-ed
	   repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the original
	   tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the URL of the
	   target Subversion repository. The final argument (URL) may be
	   omitted if you are working from a git svn-aware repository (that
	   has been init-ed with git svn). The -r<revision> option is required
	   for this.

	   The commit message is supplied either directly with the -m or -F
	   option, or indirectly from the tag or commit when the second
	   tree-ish denotes such an object, or it is requested by invoking an
	   editor (see --edit option below).

	   -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
	       Use the given msg as the commit message. This option disables
	       the --edit option.

	   -F <filename>, --file=<filename>
	       Take the commit message from the given file. This option
	       disables the --edit option.

	   Shows information about a file or directory similar to what `svn
	   info' provides. Does not currently support a -r/--revision
	   argument. Use the --url option to output only the value of the URL:

	   Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a
	   given file or directory. Use -r/--revision to refer to a specific
	   Subversion revision.

	   Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a
	   file. A specific revision can be specified with -r/--revision.

	   Sets the Subversion property given as the first argument, to the
	   value given as the second argument for the file given as the third


	       git svn propset svn:keywords "FreeBSD=%H" devel/py-tipper/Makefile

	   This will set the property svn:keywords to FreeBSD=%H for the file

	   Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/--revision to specify a
	   specific revision.

	   Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files and remove
	   $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/index files.

	   Undoes the effects of fetch back to the specified revision. This
	   allows you to re-fetch an SVN revision. Normally the contents of an
	   SVN revision should never change and reset should not be necessary.
	   However, if SVN permissions change, or if you alter your
	   --ignore-paths option, a fetch may fail with "not found in commit"
	   (file not previously visible) or "checksum mismatch" (missed a
	   modification). If the problem file cannot be ignored forever (with
	   --ignore-paths) the only way to repair the repo is to use reset.

	   Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see
	   $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in the FILES section below for
	   details). Follow reset with a fetch and then git reset or git
	   rebase to move local branches onto the new tree.

	   -r <n>, --revision=<n>
	       Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions
	       are discarded.

	   -p, --parent
	       Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest
	       parent instead.

	       Assume you have local changes in "master", but you need to
	       refetch "r2".

		       r1---r2---r3 remotes/git-svn
				    A---B master

	       Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused
	       "r2" to be incomplete in the first place. Then:

		   git svn reset -r2 -p
		   git svn fetch

		       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
			  r2---r3---A---B master

	       Then fixup "master" with git rebase. Do NOT use git merge or
	       your history will not be compatible with a future dcommit!

		   git rebase --onto remotes/git-svn A^ master

		       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
				    A'--B' master

	   Only used with the init command. These are passed directly to git

       -r <arg>, --revision <arg>
	   Used with the fetch command.

	   This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history to be
	   supported. $NUMBER, $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges),
	   $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.

	   This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch; but
	   is generally not recommended because history will be skipped and

       -, --stdin
	   Only used with the set-tree command.

	   Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse order.
	   Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so git rev-list
	   --pretty=oneline output can be used.

	   Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

	   Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
	   behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not removed
	   by default if there are no files left in them. Git cannot version
	   empty directories. Enabling this flag will make the commit to SVN
	   act like Git.

	       config key: svn.rmdir

       -e, --edit
	   Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

	   Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by
	   default for objects that are commits, and forced on when committing
	   tree objects.

	       config key: svn.edit

       -l<num>, --find-copies-harder
	   Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

	   They are both passed directly to git diff-tree; see git-diff-
	   tree(1) for more information.

	       config key: svn.l
	       config key: svn.findcopiesharder

       -A<filename>, --authors-file=<filename>
	   Syntax is compatible with the file used by git cvsimport but an
	   empty email address can be supplied with <>:

		       loginname = Joe User <user@example.com>

	   If this option is specified and git svn encounters an SVN committer
	   name that does not exist in the authors-file, git svn will abort
	   operation. The user will then have to add the appropriate entry.
	   Re-running the previous git svn command after the authors-file is
	   modified should continue operation.

	       config key: svn.authorsfile

	   If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that does
	   not exist in the authors file, the given file is executed with the
	   committer name as the first argument. The program is expected to
	   return a single line of the form "Name <email>" or "Name <>", which
	   will be treated as if included in the authors file.

	   Due to historical reasons a relative filename is first searched
	   relative to the current directory for init and clone and relative
	   to the root of the working tree for fetch. If filename is not
	   found, it is searched like any other command in $PATH.

	       config key: svn.authorsProg

       -q, --quiet
	   Make git svn less verbose. Specify a second time to make it even
	   less verbose.

       -m, --merge, -s<strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>, -p, --rebase-merges
	   These are only used with the dcommit and rebase commands.

	   Passed directly to git rebase when using dcommit if a git reset
	   cannot be used (see dcommit).

       -n, --dry-run
	   This can be used with the dcommit, rebase, branch and tag commands.

	   For dcommit, print out the series of Git arguments that would show
	   which diffs would be committed to SVN.

	   For rebase, display the local branch associated with the upstream
	   svn repository associated with the current branch and the URL of
	   svn repository that will be fetched from.

	   For branch and tag, display the urls that will be used for copying
	   when creating the branch or tag.

	   When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of fetch, rebase, or
	   dcommit operations), look for the first From: line or Signed-off-by
	   trailer in the log message and use that as the author string.

	       config key: svn.useLogAuthor

	   When committing to svn from Git (as part of set-tree or dcommit
	   operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a
	   From: or Signed-off-by trailer, append a From: line based on the
	   Git commit's author string. If you use this, then --use-log-author
	   will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.

	       config key: svn.addAuthorFrom

       -i<GIT_SVN_ID>, --id <GIT_SVN_ID>
	   This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This
	   allows the user to override the default refname to fetch from when
	   tracking a single URL. The log and dcommit commands no longer
	   require this switch as an argument.

       -R<remote name>, --svn-remote <remote name>
	   Specify the [svn-remote "<remote name>"] section to use, this
	   allows SVN multiple repositories to be tracked. Default: "svn"

	   This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches (using one
	   of the repository layout options --trunk, --tags, --branches,
	   --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find out where its
	   revision was copied from, and set a suitable parent in the first
	   Git commit for the branch. This is especially helpful when we're
	   tracking a directory that has been moved around within the
	   repository. If this feature is disabled, the branches created by
	   git svn will all be linear and not share any history, meaning that
	   there will be no information on where branches were branched off or
	   merged. However, following long/convoluted histories can take a
	   long time, so disabling this feature may speed up the cloning
	   process. This feature is enabled by default, use --no-follow-parent
	   to disable it.

	       config key: svn.followparent

       svn.noMetadata, svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata
	   This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.

	   This option can only be used for one-shot imports as git svn will
	   not be able to fetch again without metadata. Additionally, if you
	   lose your $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*	 files, git svn will not be
	   able to rebuild them.

	   The git svn log command will not work on repositories using this,
	   either. Using this conflicts with the useSvmProps option for
	   (hopefully) obvious reasons.

	   This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track
	   down old references to SVN revision numbers in existing
	   documentation, bug reports, and archives. If you plan to eventually
	   migrate from SVN to Git and are certain about dropping SVN history,
	   consider git-filter-repo[1] instead. filter-repo also allows
	   reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting
	   authorship info for non-"svn.authorsFile" users.

       svn.useSvmProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps
	   This allows git svn to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from
	   mirrors created using SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.

	   If an SVN revision has a property, "svm:headrev", it is likely that
	   the revision was created by SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK). The
	   property contains a repository UUID and a revision. We want to make
	   it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so introduce a
	   helper function that returns the original identity URL and UUID,
	   and use it when generating metadata in commit messages.

       svn.useSvnsyncProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvnsyncprops
	   Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users of the
	   svnsync(1) command distributed with SVN 1.4.x and later.

	   This allows users to create repositories from alternate URLs. For
	   example, an administrator could run git svn on the server locally
	   (accessing via file://) but wish to distribute the repository with
	   a public http:// or svn:// URL in the metadata so users of it will
	   see the public URL.

	   Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need to
	   remap the UUID manually. This may be useful in situations where the
	   original UUID is not available via either useSvmProps or

	   Similar to Git's remote.<name>.pushurl, this key is designed to be
	   used in cases where url points to an SVN repository via a read-only
	   transport, to provide an alternate read/write transport. It is
	   assumed that both keys point to the same repository. Unlike
	   commiturl, pushurl is a base path. If either commiturl or pushurl
	   could be used, commiturl takes precedence.

	   This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround broken
	   symlinks checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this option to
	   "false" if you track a SVN repository with many empty blobs that
	   are not symlinks. This option may be changed while git svn is
	   running and take effect on the next revision fetched. If unset, git
	   svn assumes this option to be "true".

	   This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding. It
	   can be used by windows users and by those who work in non-utf8
	   locales to avoid corrupted file names with non-ASCII characters.
	   Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl's Encode module.

	   Normally, the "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase" commands attempt
	   to recreate empty directories that are in the Subversion
	   repository. If this option is set to "false", then empty
	   directories will only be created if the "git svn mkdirs" command is
	   run explicitly. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be "true".

       Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and
       useSvmProps options all affect the metadata generated and used by git
       svn; they must be set in the configuration file before any history is
       imported and these settings should never be changed once they are set.

       Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote
       section because they affect the git-svn-id: metadata line, except for
       rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used together.

       Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project
       (ignoring tags and branches):

	   # Clone a repo (like git clone):
		   git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project/trunk
	   # Enter the newly cloned directory:
		   cd trunk
	   # You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
		   git branch
	   # Do some work and commit locally to Git:
		   git commit ...
	   # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
	   # latest changes in SVN:
		   git svn rebase
	   # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
	   # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
		   git svn dcommit
	   # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
		   git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude

       Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
       (complete with a trunk, tags and branches):

	   # Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
		   git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project --stdlayout --prefix svn/
	   # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
		   git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag --prefix svn/
	   # View all branches and tags you have cloned:
		   git branch -r
	   # Create a new branch in SVN
		   git svn branch waldo
	   # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
	   # with the appropriate name):
		   git reset --hard svn/trunk
	   # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time.  The usage
	   # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.

       The initial git svn clone can be quite time-consuming (especially for
       large Subversion repositories). If multiple people (or one person with
       multiple machines) want to use git svn to interact with the same
       Subversion repository, you can do the initial git svn clone to a
       repository on a server and have each person clone that repository with
       git clone:

	   # Do the initial import on a server
		   ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project [options...]"
	   # Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
		   mkdir project
		   cd project
		   git init
		   git remote add origin server:/pub/project
		   git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
		   git fetch
	   # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
	   # we only want to use git svn for future updates
		   git config --remove-section remote.origin
	   # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
		   git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
	   # Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and
	   # --stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/--prefix options as were used on server)
		   git svn init http://svn.example.com/project [options...]
	   # Pull the latest changes from Subversion
		   git svn rebase

       Prefer to use git svn rebase or git rebase, rather than git pull or git
       merge to synchronize unintegrated commits with a git svn branch. Doing
       so will keep the history of unintegrated commits linear with respect to
       the upstream SVN repository and allow the use of the preferred git svn
       dcommit subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.

       Originally, git svn recommended that developers pulled or merged from
       the git svn branch. This was because the author favored git svn
       set-tree B to commit a single head rather than the git svn set-tree
       A..B notation to commit multiple commits. Use of git pull or git merge
       with git svn set-tree A..B will cause non-linear history to be
       flattened when committing into SVN and this can lead to merge commits
       unexpectedly reversing previous commits in SVN.

       While git svn can track copy history (including branches and tags) for
       repositories adopting a standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge
       history that happened inside git back upstream to SVN users. Therefore
       it is advised that users keep history as linear as possible inside Git
       to ease compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).

       If git svn is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches is in
       effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one SVN branch,
       where the additional branches have names of the form branchname@nnn
       (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional branches are
       created if git svn cannot find a parent commit for the first commit in
       an SVN branch, to connect the branch to the history of the other

       Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists of a copy
       operation. git svn will read this commit to get the SVN revision the
       branch was created from. It will then try to find the Git commit that
       corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the parent of the
       branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable Git commit to
       serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons, if the SVN
       branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by git svn (e.g.
       because it is an old revision that was skipped with --revision), or if
       in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked by git svn (such as a
       branch that is not tracked at all, or a subdirectory of a tracked
       branch). In these cases, git svn will still create a Git branch, but
       instead of using an existing Git commit as the parent of the branch, it
       will read the SVN history of the directory the branch was copied from
       and create appropriate Git commits. This is indicated by the message
       "Initializing parent: <branchname>".

       Additionally, it will create a special branch named
       <branchname>@<SVN-Revision>, where <SVN-Revision> is the SVN revision
       number the branch was copied from. This branch will point to the newly
       created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted
       and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple
       such branches with an @.

       Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a
       single SVN revision.

       An example: in an SVN repository with a standard trunk/tags/branches
       layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in r.100. In r.200, trunk/sub
       is branched by copying it to branches/. git svn clone -s will then
       create a branch sub. It will also create new Git commits for r.100
       through r.199 and use these as the history of branch sub. Thus there
       will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100 to r.199 (one
       containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally, it will create
       a branch sub@200 pointing to the new parent commit of branch sub (i.e.
       the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).

       For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion, it is
       recommended that all git svn users clone, fetch and dcommit directly
       from the SVN server, and avoid all git clone/pull/merge/push operations
       between Git repositories and branches. The recommended method of
       exchanging code between Git branches and users is git format-patch and
       git am, or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.

       Running git merge or git pull is NOT recommended on a branch you plan
       to dcommit from because Subversion users cannot see any merges you've
       made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git branch that is a
       mirror of an SVN branch, dcommit may commit to the wrong branch.

       If you do merge, note the following rule: git svn dcommit will attempt
       to commit on top of the SVN commit named in

	   git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1

       You must therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch you
       want to dcommit to is the first parent of the merge. Chaos will ensue
       otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older commit on the
       same SVN branch.

       git clone does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or
       any git svn metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed
       with using git svn should use rsync for cloning, if cloning is to be
       done at all.

       Since dcommit uses rebase internally, any Git branches you git push to
       before dcommit on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref
       on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice,
       see the git-push(1) documentation for details.

       Do not use the --amend option of git-commit(1) on a change you've
       already dcommitted. It is considered bad practice to --amend commits
       you've already pushed to a remote repository for other users, and
       dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.

       When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing
       the repository layout is used (--trunk, --tags, --branches,
       --stdlayout), git svn clone will create a Git repository with
       completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
       directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a
       copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
       lead to a working copy many times larger than just the trunk. Thus for
       projects using the standard directory structure (trunk/branches/tags),
       it is recommended to clone with option --stdlayout. If the project uses
       a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not required,
       it is easiest to only clone one directory (typically trunk), without
       giving any repository layout options. If the full history with branches
       and tags is required, the options --trunk / --branches / --tags must be

       When using multiple --branches or --tags, git svn does not
       automatically handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from
       different paths have the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the
       same name). In these cases, use init to set up your Git repository
       then, before your first fetch, edit the $GIT_DIR/config file so that
       the branches and tags are associated with different name spaces. For

	   branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
	   branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*

       git svn stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the repository
       $GIT_DIR/config file. It is similar the core Git [remote] sections
       except fetch keys do not accept glob arguments; but they are instead
       handled by the branches and tags keys. Since some SVN repositories are
       oddly configured with multiple projects glob expansions such those
       listed below are allowed:

	   [svn-remote "project-a"]
		   url = http://server.org/svn
		   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
		   branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
		   branches = branches/release_*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/release_*
		   branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
		   tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Keep in mind that the * (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref (right of
       the :) must be the farthest right path component; however the remote
       wildcard may be anywhere as long as it's an independent path component
       (surrounded by / or EOL). This type of configuration is not
       automatically created by init and should be manually entered with a
       text-editor or using git config.

       Also note that only one asterisk is allowed per word. For example:

	   branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

       will match branches release, rese, re123se, however

	   branches = branches/re*s*e:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

       will produce an error.

       It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a
       comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:

	   [svn-remote "huge-project"]
		   url = http://server.org/svn
		   fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
		   branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
		   tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:

	   [svn-remote "messy-repo"]
		   url = http://server.org/svn
		   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
		   fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
		   branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
		   branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
		   tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which
       location to use using the -d or --destination flag:

	   $ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0

       Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch
       or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after
       fetching, then $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove
       (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.

	   Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit names.
	   In a repository where the noMetadata option is not set, this can be
	   rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines that are at the end of every
	   commit (see the svn.noMetadata section above for details).

	   git svn fetch and git svn rebase automatically update the rev_map
	   if it is missing or not up to date.	git svn reset automatically
	   rewinds it.

       We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled
       properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log

       Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not
       tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
       this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
       the possible corner cases (Git doesn't do it, either). Committing
       renamed and copied files is fully supported if they're similar enough
       for Git to detect them.

       In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag
       (because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a
       branch). When cloning an SVN repository, git svn cannot know if such a
       commit to a tag will happen in the future. Thus it acts conservatively
       and imports all SVN tags as branches, prefixing the tag name with


       Part of the git(1) suite

	1. git-filter-repo

Git 2.38.4			  05/16/2024			    GIT-SVN(1)