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LSOF(8)			    System Manager's Manual		       LSOF(8)



NAME
       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof [ -?abChlnNOPRtUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D
       D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k
       ]  [  +|-L  [l]	]  [  +|-m  m  ]  [  +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ] [ +|-r
       [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x
       [fl] ] [ -z [z] ] [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof  revision 4.82 lists on its standard output file information about
       files opened by processes for the following UNIX dialects:

	    AIX 5.3
	    Apple Darwin 9 (Mac OS X 10.5)
	    FreeBSD 4.9 for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 7.[012] and 8.0 for AMD64-based systems
	    Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 9 and 10

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page  for  information  on
       how to obtain the latest lsof revision.)

       An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file,
       a character special file, an executing text  reference,	a  library,  a
       stream  or  a  network  file  (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain
       socket.)	 A specific file or all the files in  a	 file  system  may  be
       selected by path.

       Instead	of  a  formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be
       parsed by other programs.  See the -F, option description, and the OUT-
       PUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat
       mode.  In repeat mode it will produce output, delay,  then  repeat  the
       output  operation  until stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  See
       the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files	 belonging  to
       all active processes.

       If  any	list  request option is specified, other list requests must be
       specifically requested - e.g., if -U is specified for  the  listing  of
       UNIX  socket  files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is also speci-
       fied; or if a user list is specified with the -u	 option,  UNIX	domain
       socket  files,  belonging  to  users  not  in the list, won't be listed
       unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated  are	ORed  -	 i.e.,
       specifying  the	-i option without an address and the -ufoo option pro-
       duces a listing of all network files OR files  belonging	 to  processes
       owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the -u
	  option;

       2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p option;

       3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID),  specified	 with  the  -g
	  option;

       4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

       5) the  (`^')  negated  TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified with
	  the -s [p:s] option.

       Since they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or AND-
       ing and take effect before any other selection criteria are applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.	 For example, specify-
       ing -a, -U, and -ufoo produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that
       belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution:	 the  -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed;
       it can't be used to cause ANDing of selected pairs of selection options
       by  placing it between them, even though its placement there is accept-
       able.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the  ANDing  of	all  selection
       options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, net-
       work addresses, process	identifiers,  user  identifiers,  zone	names,
       security	 contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before
       the result participates	in  ANDing.   Thus,  for  example,  specifying
       -i@aaa.bbb,  -i@ccc.ddd,	 -a,  and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of
       files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND	 have  network
       connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options	may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the
       option set ``-a -b -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However,	 since	values
       are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s, -S, -T, -x
       and -z.	when you have no values for them be careful that the following
       character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and
       -n options, or it might represent the n field identifier character fol-
       lowing  the  -F option.	When ambiguity is possible, start a new option
       with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.	If the next option is  a  file
       name,  follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F --
       name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of  options.
       Options that don't take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i
       - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may
       be  stated  as  ``+Mi''	and  the  group means the same as the separate
       options.	 Be careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the
       group  does  take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g.,
       +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h	These  two  equivalent	options	 select	 a usage (help) output
		list.  Lsof displays a shortened form of this output  when  it
		detects	 an  error in the options supplied to it, after it has
		displayed messages explaining each  error.   (Escape  the  `?'
		character as your shell requires.)

       -a	This  option  causes  list  selection  options to be ANDed, as
		described above.

       -A A	This option is available on systems configured for  AFS	 whose
		AFS kernel code is implemented via dynamic modules.  It allows
		the lsof user to specify A as  an  alternate  name  list  file
		where  the  kernel  addresses  of the dynamic modules might be
		found.	See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
		for more information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and
		how they affect lsof.

       -b	This option causes lsof to avoid kernel functions  that	 might
		block - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

		See  the  BLOCKS  AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sec-
		tions for information on using this option.

       -c c	This option selects the listing of files for processes execut-
		ing  the command that begins with the characters of c.	Multi-
		ple commands may be  specified,	 using	multiple  -c  options.
		They  are  joined in a single ORed set before participating in
		AND option selection.

		If c begins with a `^', then the following characters  specify
		a command name whose processes are to be ignored (excluded.)

		If  c  begins  and  ends  with	a  slash ('/'), the characters
		between the slashes are interpreted as a  regular  expression.
		Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted
		to prevent their interpretation by  the	 shell.	  The  closing
		slash may be followed by these modifiers:

		     b	  the regular expression is a basic one.
		     i	  ignore the case of letters.
		     x	  the regular expression is an extended one
			  (default).

		See  the  lsof	FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		more information on basic and extended regular expressions.

		The simple command specification is  tested  first.   If  that
		test fails, the command regular expression is applied.	If the
		simple command test succeeds, the command  regular  expression
		test  isn't  made.   This may result in ``no command found for
		regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       +c w	This option defines the maximum number of  initial  characters
		of the name, supplied by the UNIX dialect, of the UNIX command
		associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.
		(The lsof default is nine.)

		Note  that  many  UNIX dialects do not supply all command name
		characters to lsof in the files and structures from which lsof
		obtains	 command  name.	  Often	 dialects  limit the number of
		characters supplied in	those  sources.	  For  example,	 Linux
		2.4.27	and  Solaris  9	 both  limit command name length to 16
		characters.

		If w is zero ('0'), all command characters supplied to lsof by
		the UNIX dialect will be printed.

		If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'',
		it will be raised to that length.

       -C	This option disables the reporting of any path name components
		from  the kernel's name cache.	See the KERNEL NAME CACHE sec-
		tion for more information.

       +d s	This option causes lsof to search for all  open	 instances  of
		directory  s  and the files and directories it contains at its
		top level.  This option does NOT descend the  directory	 tree,
		rooted	at  s.	 The  +D  D  option  may  be used to request a
		full-descent directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

		Processing of the +d option does  not  follow  symbolic	 links
		within s unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
		does it search for open files on file system mount  points  on
		subdirectories	of  s  unless  the  -x or -x  f option is also
		specified.

		Note: the authority of the user of this option	limits	it  to
		searching  for	files  that the user has permission to examine
		with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s	This option specifies a list  of  file	descriptors  (FDs)  to
		exclude	 from  or  include  in	the  output listing.  The file
		descriptors are specified in the comma-separated set s - e.g.,
		``cwd,1,3'',  ``^6,^2''.   (There  should  be no spaces in the
		set.)

		The list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set	 begin
		with  `^'.   It	 is  an inclusion list if no entry begins with
		`^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

		A file descriptor number range may be in the set  as  long  as
		neither	 member	 is  empty,  both members are numbers, and the
		ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g.,  ``0-7''
		or  ``3-10''.	Ranges	may be specified for exclusion if they
		have the  `^'  prefix  -  e.g.,	 ``^0-7''  excludes  all  file
		descriptors 0 through 7.

		Multiple  file	descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed
		set before participating in AND option selection.

		When there are exclusion and inclusion	members	 in  the  set,
		lsof  reports  them as errors and exits with a non-zero return
		code.

		See the description of File Descriptor (FD) output  values  in
		the  OUTPUT  section  for  more information on file descriptor
		names.

       +D D	This option causes lsof to search for all  open	 instances  of
		directory  D  and all the files and directories it contains to
		its complete depth.

		Processing of the +D option does  not  follow  symbolic	 links
		within D unless the -x or -x  l option is also specified.  Nor
		does it search for open files on file system mount  points  on
		subdirectories	of  D  unless  the  -x or -x  f option is also
		specified.

		Note: the authority of the user of this option	limits	it  to
		searching  for	files  that the user has permission to examine
		with the system stat(2) function.

		Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and  require
		a large amount of dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it
		must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at  D,  calling
		stat(2)	 for  each  file and directory, building a list of all
		the files it finds, and searching that list for a  match  with
		every  open  file.  When directory D is large, these steps can
		take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D	This option directs lsof's use of the device cache file.   The
		use  of	 this  option is sometimes restricted.	See the DEVICE
		CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow	 it  for  more
		information on this option.

		-D  must be followed by a function letter; the function letter
		may optionally be followed by a path  name.   Lsof  recognizes
		these function letters:

		     ? - report device cache file paths
		     b - build the device cache file
		     i - ignore the device cache file
		     r - read the device cache file
		     u - read and update the device cache file

		The  b,	 r,  and  u functions, accompanied by a path name, are
		sometimes restricted.  When these  functions  are  restricted,
		they  will not appear in the description of the -D option that
		accompanies -h or -?  option output.   See  the	 DEVICE	 CACHE
		FILE section and the sections that follow it for more informa-
		tion on these functions and when they're restricted.

		The ?  function reports the read-only  and  write  paths  that
		lsof can use for the device cache file, the names of any envi-
		ronment variables whose values lsof will examine when  forming
		the  device  cache  file path, and the format for the personal
		device cache file path.	 (Escape the  `?'  character  as  your
		shell requires.)

		When  available,  the b, r, and u functions may be followed by
		the  device  cache  file's  path.   The	 standard  default  is
		.lsof_hostname	in the home directory of the real user ID that
		executes lsof, but this could have been changed when lsof  was
		configured  and	 compiled.   (The  output  of  the  -h	and -?
		options show the current default prefix	 -  e.g.,  ``.lsof''.)
		The  suffix,  hostname,	 is  the first component of the host's
		name returned by gethostname(2).

		When available, the b function directs lsof  to	 build	a  new
		device cache file at the default or specified path.

		The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache
		file and obtain its information about devices via direct calls
		to the kernel.

		The  r	function  directs lsof to read the device cache at the
		default or specified path, but prevents it from creating a new
		device	cache  file  when  none	 exists or the existing one is
		improperly structured.	The r function, when specified without
		a  path name, prevents lsof from updating an incorrect or out-
		dated device cache file, or creating a new one in  its	place.
		The  r function is always available when it is specified with-
		out a path name argument; it may be restricted by the  permis-
		sions of the lsof process.

		When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device
		cache file at the default or specified path, if possible,  and
		to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device cache
		file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-e s	exempts the file system whose path name is s from  being  sub-
		jected	to  kernel  function  calls  that might block.	The +e
		option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and most  readlink(2)	kernel
		function  calls.   The	-e  option  exempts  only  stat(2) and
		lstat(2) kernel function calls.	 Multiple file systems may  be
		specified  with separate +|-e specifications and each may have
		readlink(2) calls exempted or not.

		This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

		CAUTION: this option can easily be mis-applied to  other  than
		the  file system of interest, because it uses path name rather
		than the more reliable device and inode numbers.  (Device  and
		inode  numbers	are  acquired  via  the	 potentially  blocking
		stat(2) kernel call and are thus not available,	 but  see  the
		+|-m  m	 option as a possible alternative way to supply device
		numbers.)

		Use this option with great care and  fully  specify  the  path
		name  of  the file system to be exempted.  Consider, for exam-
		ple, that specifying ``-e /'' would exempt all	file  systems,
		since all their paths begin with a `/'.

		When  open  files on exempted file systems are reported, it is
		not possible to obtain all their information.  Therefore, some
		information  columns  will  be	blank, the characters ``UNKN''
		preface the values in the  TYPE	 column,  and  the  applicable
		exemption  option  is  added  in parentheses to the end of the
		NAME column.  Some device number  information  might  be  made
		available via the +|-m m option.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
		f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be inter-
		preted.	 When followed by c, f, g, G, or n in any  combination
		it  specifies that the listing of kernel file structure infor-
		mation is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

		Normally a path name argument is taken to  be  a  file	system
		name  if  it  matches  a mounted-on directory name reported by
		mount(8), or if it represents a block  device,	named  in  the
		mount  output  and  associated	with a mounted directory name.
		When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to
		be  file  system names, and lsof will complain if any are not.
		This can be useful, for example, when  the  file  system  name
		(mounted-on  device)  isn't  a block device.  This happens for
		some CD-ROM file systems.

		When -f is specified by itself, all path name  arguments  will
		be  taken  to be simple files.	Thus, for example, the ``-f --
		/'' arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a  `/'
		path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

		Be  careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated and
		aren't followed by a character (e.g., of the file or file sys-
		tem  name)  that  might be taken as a parameter.  For example,
		use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

		     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
		     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

		The  listing  of  information  from  kernel  file  structures,
		requested  with the +f [cfgGn] option form, is normally inhib-
		ited, and is not available in whole or part for some  dialects
		- e.g., /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.	 When the pre-
		fix to f is a plus sign (`+'), these characters	 request  file
		structure information:

		     c	  file structure use count (not Linux)
		     f	  file structure address (not Linux)
		     g	  file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
		     G	  file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
		     n	  file structure node address (not Linux)

		When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the
		listing of the indicated values.

		File  structure	 addresses,  use  counts,  flags,   and	  node
		addresses  may	be used to detect more readily identical files
		inherited by child processes and identical  files  in  use  by
		different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by out-
		put columns holding the values and listed to identify  identi-
		cal  file use, or lsof field output can be parsed by an AWK or
		Perl post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f	This option specifies a character list, f,  that  selects  the
		fields to be output for processing by another program, and the
		character that terminates each output field.  Each field to be
		output	is  specified with a single character in f.  The field
		terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed  to  NUL	(000).
		See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of
		the field  identification  characters  and  the	 field	output
		process.

		When the field selection character list is empty, all standard
		fields are selected (except the	 raw  device  field,  security
		context	 and  zone field for compatibility reasons) and the NL
		field terminator is used.

		When the field selection character list contains only  a  zero
		(`0'),	all  fields  are selected (except the raw device field
		for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
		used.

		Other combinations of fields and their associated field termi-
		nator character must be set with explicit  entries  in	f,  as
		described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

		When  a field selection character identifies an item lsof does
		not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R -  specifica-
		tion of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
		listing of the item.

		When the field selection character list	 contains  the	single
		character  `?',	 lsof  will  display  a help list of the field
		identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as  your
		shell requires.)

       -g [s]	This  option  excludes or selects the listing of files for the
		processes whose optional process group	IDentification	(PGID)
		numbers	 are  in  the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or
		``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

		PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation)  represent	exclu-
		sions.

		Multiple  PGID	numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
		participating in AND option selection.	However,  PGID	exclu-
		sions  are  applied  without  ORing  or ANDing and take effect
		before other selection criteria are applied.

		The -g option also enables the output display of PGID numbers.
		When specified without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]	This option selects the listing of files any of whose Internet
		address matches the address specified in i.  If no address  is
		specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and
		x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

		If -i4 or -i6 is specified with	 no  following	address,  only
		files  of  the	indicated  IP  version, IPv4 or IPv6, are dis-
		played.	 (An IPv6  specification  may  be  used	 only  if  the
		dialects   supports   IPv6,   as  indicated  by	 ``[46]''  and
		``IPv[46]'' in lsof's -h or -?	output.)  Sequentially	speci-
		fying  -i4,  followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i, and
		vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is	 the  same  as
		specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

		Multiple  addresses  (up  to  a limit of 100) may be specified
		with multiple -i options.  (A  port  number  or	 service  name
		range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
		ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

		An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in	square
		brackets are optional.):

		[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

		where:
		     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
			  that applies to the following address.
			  '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
			  dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
			  '6' is specified, the following address
			  applies to all IP versions.
		     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
		     hostname is an Internet host name.	 Unless a
			  specific IP version is specified, open
			  network files associated with host names
			  of all versions will be selected.
		     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
			  dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
			  colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
			  UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
			  version is selected, only its numeric
			  addresses may be specified.
		     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
			  or a list of them.
		     port is a port number, or a list of them.

		IPv6  options  may  be	used only if the UNIX dialect supports
		IPv6.  To see if the dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and spec-
		ify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
		of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and	``IPv[46]'',  IPv6  is
		supported.

		IPv4  host names and addresses may not be specified if network
		file selection is limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host	 names
		and  addresses	may not be specified if network file selection
		is limited to IPv4 with -i  4.	 When  an  open	 IPv4  network
		file's	address	 is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's
		type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be  selected
		by '6', not '4'.

		At  least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR hostname
		, hostaddr, or service - must be supplied.  The `@' character,
		leading	 the host specification, is always required; as is the
		`:', leading the port specification.  Specify either  hostname
		or  hostaddr.  Specify either service name list or port number
		list.  If a service name list is specified, the	 protocol  may
		also  need  to	be  specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port
		numbers for the service name are different.  Use  any  case  -
		lower or upper - for protocol.

		Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose
		entries are  separated	by  commas  and	 whose	numeric	 range
		entries	 are separated by minus signs.	There may be no embed-
		ded spaces, and all service names must belong to the specified
		protocol.   Since  service  names  may	contain embedded minus
		signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a service	 name;
		it can be a port number, however.

		Here are some sample addresses:

		     -i6 - IPv6 only
		     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
		     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
		     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
			  3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
		     UDP:who - UDP who service port
		     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
		     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
			  service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
		     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
		     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -k k	This  option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in place of
		/vmunix, /mach, etc.  This option is not available  under  AIX
		on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l	This  option  inhibits	the  conversion	 of user ID numbers to
		login names.  It is also useful	 when  login  name  lookup  is
		working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This  option  enables  (`+')  or disables (`-') the listing of
		file link counts, where they are available - e.g., they aren't
		available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

		When  +L  is  specified	 without  a following number, all link
		counts will be listed.	When -L is specified (the default), no
		link counts will be listed.

		When  +L  is  followed	by  a number, only files having a link
		count less than that number will be listed.   (No  number  may
		follow	-L.)   A specification of the form ``+L1'' will select
		open files that have been unlinked.  A	specification  of  the
		form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on
		the specified file system.

		For other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and  a
		post-processing script or program.

       +|-m m	This option specifies an alternate kernel memory file or acti-
		vates mount table supplement processing.

		The option form -m m specifies a kernel	 memory	 file,	m,  in
		place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem - e.g., a crash dump file.

		The  option  form  +m requests that a mount supplement file be
		written to the standard output file.  All  other  options  are
		silently ignored.

		There  will  be	 a  line in the mount supplement file for each
		mounted file system, containing the mounted file system direc-
		tory,  followed by a single space, followed by the device num-
		ber in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

		     / 0x801

		Lsof can use the mount supplement file to get  device  numbers
		for  file  systems  when  it  can't  get  them	via stat(2) or
		lstat(2).

		The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

		Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for  all  sup-
		ported dialects.  Check the output of lsof's -h or -?  options
		to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M	Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper regis-
		trations  for  local  TCP, UDP and UDPLITE ports.  The default
		reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the  HASPMAPEN-
		ABLED  #define in the dialect's machine.h header file; lsof is
		distributed with the HASPMAPENABLED  #define  deactivated,  so
		portmapper  reporting  is  disabled  by	 default  and  must be
		requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or  -?	  option  will
		report	the  default  mode.  Disabling portmapper registration
		when it is  already  disabled  or  enabling  it	 when  already
		enabled is acceptable.

		When  portmapper  registration reporting is enabled, lsof dis-
		plays the portmapper registration (if any) for local TCP,  UDP
		or  UDPLITE ports in square brackets immediately following the
		port numbers or	 service  names	 -  e.g.,  ``:1234[name]''  or
		``:name[100083]''.  The registration information may be a name
		or number, depending on what the registering program  supplied
		to the portmapper when it registered the port.

		When  portmapper  registration	reporting is enabled, lsof may
		run a little more slowly or even become blocked when access to
		the  portmapper	 becomes  congested  or	 stopped.  Reverse the
		reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration report-
		ing is slowing or blocking lsof.

		For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof consid-
		ers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port local if: it is	found  in  the
		local  part  of	 its  containing kernel structure; or if it is
		located in the foreign part of its containing kernel structure
		and  the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or
		if it is located in the foreign part of its containing	kernel
		structure  and the foreign Internet address is INADDR_LOOPBACK
		(127.0.0.1).  This rule may  make  lsof	 ignore	 some  foreign
		ports  on  machines  with multiple interfaces when the foreign
		Internet address is on a different interface  from  the	 local
		one.

		See  the  lsof	FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		further	 discussion  of	 portmapper   registration   reporting
		issues.

       -n	This option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host
		names for network files.  Inhibiting conversion may make  lsof
		run  faster.   It  is also useful when host name lookup is not
		working properly.

       -N	This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o	This option directs lsof to display file offset at all	times.
		It  causes  the	 SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to
		OFFSET.	 Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't	 obtain	 accu-
		rate  or  consistent  file  offset information from its kernel
		data sources, sometimes just for  particular  kinds  of	 files
		(e.g.,	socket	files.)	 Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section
		gives its location.)  for more information.

		The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't  both
		be  specified.	When neither is specified, lsof displays what-
		ever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
		the type of the file.

       -o o	This  option  defines  the  number of decimal digits (o) to be
		printed after the ``0t'' for a file offset before the form  is
		switched to ``0x...''.	An o value of zero (unlimited) directs
		lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

		This option does NOT direct lsof  to  display  offset  at  all
		times;	specify	 -o  (without  a  trailing number) to do that.
		This option only specifies the number of digits	 after	``0t''
		in  either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.	 Thus,
		for example, to direct lsof to display	offset	at  all	 times
		with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

		     -o -o 10
		or
		     -oo10

		The  default number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally
		8, but may have been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the
		description  of	 the -o o option in the output of the -h or -?
		option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O	This option directs lsof to bypass the	strategy  it  uses  to
		avoid  being  blocked  by some kernel operations - i.e., doing
		them in forked child processes.	 See the BLOCKS	 AND  TIMEOUTS
		and  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS sections for more information on
		kernel operations that may block lsof.

		While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it
		may also cause lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to
		a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s	This option excludes or selects the listing of files  for  the
		processes  whose optional process IDentification (PID) numbers
		are  in	 the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,	  ``123''   or
		``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

		PID  numbers  that  begin with `^' (negation) represent exclu-
		sions.

		Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a  single  ORed  set
		before	participating  in  AND option selection.  However, PID
		exclusions are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect
		before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P	This  option  inhibits	the conversion of port numbers to port
		names for network files.  Inhibiting the conversion  may  make
		lsof  run  a  little faster.  It is also useful when port name
		lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
		This option puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof  lists  open
		files  as selected by other options, delays t seconds (default
		fifteen), then	repeats	 the  listing,	delaying  and  listing
		repetitively  until stopped by a condition defined by the pre-
		fix to the option.

		If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.	 Lsof must  be
		terminated with an interrupt or quit signal.

		If  the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle no
		open files are listed - and of course  when  lsof  is  stopped
		with  an  interrupt  or	 quit  signal.	 When repeat mode ends
		because no files are listed, the process  exit	code  will  be
		zero  if  any  open  files were ever listed; one, if none were
		ever listed.

		Lsof marks the end of each listing:  if	 field	output	is  in
		progress  (the	-F,  option  has  been specified), the default
		marker is `m'; otherwise the default marker  is	 ``========''.
		The marker is followed by a NL character.

		The  optional  "m<fmt>"	 argument  specifies  a format for the
		marker line.  The <fmt> characters following  `m'  are	inter-
		preted	as a format specification to the strftime(3) function,
		when both it and the localtime(3) function  are	 available  in
		the  dialect's	C library.  Consult the strftime(3) documenta-
		tion for what may appear in its	 format	 specification.	  Note
		that  when field output is requested with the -F option, <fmt>
		cannot contain the NL format, ``%n''.	Note  also  that  when
		<fmt>  contains	 spaces	 or  other  characters that affect the
		shell's interpretation of  arguments,  <fmt>  must  be	quoted
		appropriately.

		Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more effi-
		cient to use this mode than to call lsof repetitively  from  a
		shell script, for example.

		To use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with spec-
		ification of other lsof selection options, so  the  amount  of
		kernel	memory	access	lsof  does  will be kept to a minimum.
		Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c,  -g,  -p,
		-u - are the most efficient selectors.

		Repeat	mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the
		-F, option description) and a supervising awk or Perl  script,
		or a C program.

       -R	This  option directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentifi-
		cation number in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s alone directs lsof to display file size at  all  times.   It
		causes the SIZE/OFF output column title to be changed to SIZE.
		If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

		When followed by a protocol name (p), either  TCP  or  UDP,  a
		colon  (`:')  and  a comma-separated protocol state name list,
		the option causes open TCP and UDP files  to  be  excluded  if
		their  state name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a `^'; or
		included if their name(s) are not preceded by a `^'.

		When an inclusion list is defined,  only  network  files  with
		state  names  in  the list will be present in the lsof output.
		Thus, specifying one state name means that only network	 files
		with that lone state name will be listed.

		Case  is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but there
		may be no spaces and the colon (`:') separating	 the  protocol
		name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

		If  only  TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by
		the specified exclusions and inclusions, the -i option must be
		specified,  too.   If only a single protocol's files are to be
		listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

		For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN,
		use:

		     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

		Or,  for  example,  to	list network files with all UDP states
		except Idle, use:

		     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

		State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not  possible  to
		provide	 a  complete  list.   Some common TCP state names are:
		CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT,  SYN_RCDV,
		ESTABLISHED,   CLOSE_WAIT,   FIN_WAIT1,	  CLOSING,   LAST_ACK,
		FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two common	UDP  state  names  are
		Unbound and Idle.

		See  the  lsof	FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for
		more information on how to use protocol	 state	exclusion  and
		inclusion, including examples.

		The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option
		(without a following protocol and state name list)  are	 mutu-
		ally exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is
		specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset -  is
		appropriate and available for the type of file.

		Since  some  types  of	files don't have true sizes - sockets,
		FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof displays for their sizes the content
		amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]	This  option  specifies an optional time-out seconds value for
		kernel functions - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2)  -  that
		might  otherwise  deadlock.   The  minimum  for	 t is two; the
		default, fifteen; when no value is specified, the  default  is
		used.

		See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]	This  option  controls	the reporting of some TCP/TPI informa-
		tion, also  reported  by  netstat(1),  following  the  network
		addresses.  In normal output the information appears in paren-
		theses, each item except TCP or TPI state name identified by a
		keyword,  followed  by	`=', separated from others by a single
		space:

		     <TCP or TPI state name>
		     QR=<read queue length>
		     QS=<send queue length>
		     SO=<socket options and values>
		     SS=<socket states>
		     TF=<TCP flags and values>
		     WR=<window read length>
		     WW=<window write length>

		Not all values are reported for all UNIX dialects.  Items val-
		ues (when available) are reported after the item name and '='.

		When  the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER
		PROGRAMS.)  each item appears as a field with  a  `T'  leading
		character.

		-T  with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI informa-
		tion reporting.

		-T with following characters selects the reporting of specific
		TCP/TPI information:

		     f	  selects reporting of socket options,
			  states and values, and TCP flags and
			  values.
		     q	  selects queue length reporting.
		     s	  selects connection state reporting.
		     w	  selects window size reporting.

		Not  all selections are enabled for some UNIX dialects.	 State
		may be selected for all dialects and is reported  by  default.
		The  -h	 or  -?	  help output for the -T option will show what
		selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

		When -T is used to select information - i.e., it  is  followed
		by  one or more selection characters - the displaying of state
		is disabled by default, and it	must  be  explicitly  selected
		again  in  the characters following -T.	 (In effect, then, the
		default is equivalent to -Ts.)	For example, if queue  lengths
		and state are desired, use -Tqs.

		Socket	options,  socket states, some socket values, TCP flags
		and one TCP value may be reported (when available in the  UNIX
		dialect)  in  the form of the names that commonly appear after
		SO_, so_, SS_, TCP_  and TF_ in the dialect's header  files  -
		most	 often	   <sys/socket.h>,    <sys/socketvar.h>	   and
		<netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for the mean-
		ing of the flags, options, states and values.

		``SO=''	 precedes  socket  options and values; ``SS='', socket
		states; and ``TF='', TCP flags and values.

		If a flag or option has a value, the value will follow an  '='
		and   the   name   --  e.g.,  ``SO=LINGER=5'',	``SO=QLIM=5'',
		``TF=MSS=512''.	 The following seven values may be reported:

		     Name
		     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

		     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
		     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
		     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
		     PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
		     QLEN      established listen queue connections
		     QLIM      established listen queue limit
		     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
		     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

		Details on what socket options and values, socket states,  and
		TCP  flags  and	 values	 may  be displayed for particular UNIX
		dialects may be found in the answer to the ``Why doesn't  lsof
		report socket options, socket states, and TCP flags and values
		for my dialect?'' and ``Why doesn't lsof  report  the  partial
		listen	queue connection count for my dialect?''  questions in
		the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t	This option specifies that lsof should	produce	 terse	output
		with  process  identifiers  only and no header - e.g., so that
		the output may be piped to kill(1).  This option  selects  the
		-w option.

       -u s	This  option  selects  the listing of files for the user whose
		login names or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated  set
		s  - e.g., ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spa-
		ces in the set.)

		Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single
		ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

		If  a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a
		negation - i.e., files of processes owned by the login name or
		user ID will never be listed.  A negated login name or user ID
		selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections;  it
		is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes
		the listing of the files of  the  process.   For  example,  to
		direct	lsof to exclude the listing of files belonging to root
		processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U	This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v	This option selects the listing of lsof	 version  information,
		including:  revision  number;  when  the  lsof binary was con-
		structed; who constructed the binary and where;	 the  name  of
		the  compiler  used  to construct the lsof binary; the version
		number of the compiler when readily  available;	 the  compiler
		and loader flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system
		information, typically the output of uname's -a option.

       -V	This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to
		list  and failed to find - command names, file names, Internet
		addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs,  PGIDs,  and
		UIDs.

		When  other  options  are  ANDed  to  search  options, or com-
		pile-time options restrict the listing of some files, lsof may
		not  report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed
		option or compile-time option prevents the listing of the open
		file containing the located search item.

		For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report
		a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar'' and  may  not
		list  any,  if	none  have a file descriptor number of 999.  A
		similar situation arises when HASSECURITY  and	HASNOSOCKSECU-
		RITY  are defined at compile time and they prevent the listing
		of open files.

       +|-w	Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression  of	 warning  mes-
		sages.

		The  lsof builder may choose to have warning messages disabled
		or enabled by default.	The default warning message  state  is
		indicated  in  the  output of the -h or -?  option.  Disabling
		warning messages when they are already	disabled  or  enabling
		them when already enabled is acceptable.

		The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x  [fl] This  option  may  accompany  the  +d and +D options to direct
		their processing to cross over symbolic links and|or file sys-
		tem  mount points encountered when scanning the directory (+d)
		or directory tree (+D).

		If -x is specified by itself without  a	 following  parameter,
		cross-over  processing	of both symbolic links and file system
		mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified with-
		out a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

		The  optional  'f'  parameter  enables file system mount point
		cross-over processing; 'l', symbolic link cross-over  process-
		ing.

		The  -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d
		or +D option.

       -X	This is a dialect-specific option.

	   AIX:
		This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of
		executed text file and shared library references.

		WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function,
		its use on a  busy  AIX	 system	 might	cause  an  application
		process	 to  hang  so completely that it can neither be killed
		nor stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of
		its  happening,	 but  I think there is a remote possibility it
		could happen.

		By default use of readx() is disabled.	On AIX	5L  and	 above
		lsof  may  need	 setuid-root permission to perform the actions
		this option requests.

		The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be  restricted
		to  processes  whose real UID is root.	If that has been done,
		the -X option will not appear in the -h	 or  -?	  help	output
		unless	the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
		lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by  default
		it will appear in the help output.

		When  AIX  readx()  use	 is  disabled, lsof may not be able to
		report information for all text and  loader  file  references,
		but  it	 may  also  avoid exacerbating an AIX kernel directory
		search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

		The readx() function, used by lsof or  any  other  program  to
		access some sections of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the
		Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the kernel's  dir_search()
		function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy
		of a file system directory has been zeroed.  Another  applica-
		tion  process, distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search
		the  directory	-  e.g.,  by  using  open(2)   -   can	 cause
		dir_search()  to  loop	forever,  thus hanging the application
		process.

		Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ  section	gives  its  location.)
		and the 00README file of the lsof distribution for a more com-
		plete description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its  APAR,  and
		methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

	   Linux:
		This  Linux  option  requests  that lsof skip the reporting of
		information on all open TCP, UDP and  UDPLITE  IPv4  and  IPv6
		files.

		This  Linux  option  is	 most  useful  when  the system has an
		extremely large number of open TCP, UDP and UDPLITE files, the
		processing  of	whose  information  in	the /proc/net/tcp* and
		/proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long  time,  and	 whose
		reporting is not of interest.

		Use  this option with care and only when you are sure that the
		information you want lsof to  display  isn't  associated  with
		open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

	   Solaris 10 and above:
		This  Solaris  10  and	above option requests the reporting of
		cached paths for files that have been deleted - i.e.,  removed
		with rm(1) or unlink(2).

		The  cached  path  is followed by the string `` (deleted)'' to
		indicate that the path by which the file was opened  has  been
		deleted.

		Because	 intervening  changes made to the path - i.e., renames
		with mv(1) or rename(2) - are not recorded in the cached path,
		what  lsof  reports  is	 only  the  path by which the file was
		opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]	specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to  be
		handled.

		Without	 a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option speci-
		fies that zone names are to be listed in the ZONE output  col-
		umn.

		The  -z option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes
		lsof to list only open files for processes in that zone.  Mul-
		tiple  -z z option and argument pairs may be specified to form
		a list of named zones.	Any open file of any process in any of
		the  zones  will be listed, subject to other conditions speci-
		fied by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]	specifies how SELinux security contexts	 are  to  be  handled.
		This  option and 'Z' field output character support are inhib-
		ited when SELinux is disabled in  the  running	Linux  kernel.
		See  OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z'
		field output character.

		Without a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option	speci-
		fies  that  security  contexts	are  to be listed in the SECU-
		RITY-CONTEXT output column.

		The -Z option may be followed by a wildcard  security  context
		name,  Z.   That  causes lsof to list only open files for pro-
		cesses in that security context.  Multiple  -Z	Z  option  and
		argument  pairs	 may  be  specified to form a list of security
		contexts.  Any open file of any process in any of the security
		contexts will be listed, subject to other conditions specified
		by other options and arguments.	 Note that Z can be  A:B:C  or
		*:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to match against the A:B:C context.

       --	The  double minus sign option is a marker that signals the end
		of the keyed options.  It may be used, for example,  when  the
		first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be used
		when the absence of a value for the last keyed option must  be
		signified  by  the  presence  of a minus sign in the following
		option and before the start of the file names.

       names	These are path names of	 specific  files  to  list.   Symbolic
		links  are  resolved  before use.  The first name may be sepa-
		rated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

		If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or  the
		device	of  the file system, lsof will list all the files open
		on the file system.  To be considered a file system, the  name
		must  match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or
		match the name of a block device associated with a  mounted-on
		directory  name.  The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to
		consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file
		(-f).

		If  name  is  a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on
		directory name of a file system, it is treated just as a regu-
		lar  file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to pro-
		cesses that have it open as a file or  as  a  process-specific
		directory,  such as the root or current working directory.  To
		request that lsof look for open files inside a directory name,
		use the +d s and +D D options.

		If  a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files -
		e. g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list  all  the  associated
		multiplexed  files  on	the  device  that  are	open  -	 e.g.,
		/dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

		If a name is a UNIX domain  socket  name,  lsof	 will  usually
		search for it by the characters of the name alone - exactly as
		it is specified and is recorded in the	kernel	socket	struc-
		ture.	(See  the next paragraph for an exception to that rule
		for Linux.)  Specifying a relative path - e.g.,	 ./file	 -  in
		place  of  the	file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't
		work because lsof must match the characters you	 specify  with
		what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket structures.

		If a name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof
		is able to search for it  by  its  device  and	inode  number,
		allowing  name	to be a relative path.	The case requires that
		the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be
		used  by  the  process	that  created the socket, and hence be
		stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires  that  lsof
		be  able  to  obtain  the  device and node numbers of both the
		absolute  path	in  /proc/net/unix  and	 name  via  successful
		stat(2)	 system	 calls.	  When	those conditions are met, lsof
		will be able to search for the UNIX domain  socket  when  some
		path to it is is specified in name.  Thus, for example, if the
		path is /dev/log, and an lsof search  is  initiated  when  the
		working directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

		If  a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files
		whose device and inode match that of the specified path name.

		If you have also specified the -b option, the only  names  you
		may safely specify are file systems for which your mount table
		supplies alternate device numbers.  See	 the  AVOIDING	KERNEL
		BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more informa-
		tion.

		Multiple file names are joined in a  single  ORed  set	before
		participating in AND option selection.

AFS
       Lsof  supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS
       versions):

	    AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
	    HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
	    Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
	    Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It may recognize AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has
       not  been  tested there.	 Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof may
       recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have difficulties	recog-
       nizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported
       dialects when AFS kernel support is  implemented	 via  dynamic  modules
       whose  addresses	 do not appear in the kernel's variable name list.  In
       that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity  of  AFS  files,  and
       might  not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that is
       needed for calculating AFS volume node numbers.	When lsof  can't  com-
       pute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A	A  option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof
       for specifying the name list file where dynamic module kernel addresses
       may  be found.  When this option is available, it will be listed in the
       lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more infor-
       mation  about  dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof
       options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name
       cache  operations,  lsof	 can't	identify  path name components for AFS
       files.

SECURITY
       Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.   First,  its
       default	compilation mode allows anyone to list all open files with it.
       Second, by default it creates a user-readable and user-writable	device
       cache  file  in	the  home  directory of the real user ID that executes
       lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may  be  dis-
       abled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alter-
       nate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is  controlled	 by  the  com-
       pile-time  HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY
       is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open	files.
       The  non-root  user may list only open files of processes with the same
       user IDentification number as the real  user  ID	 number	 of  the  lsof
       process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However,	 if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone
       may list open socket files, provided they  are  selected	 with  the  -i
       option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help  output,  presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the
       status of the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the 00README file of the lsof  distribution
       for  information on building lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSE-
       CURITY options enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file
       is  controlled  by  the	compile-time HASDCACHE option.	See the DEVICE
       CACHE FILE section and the sections that follow it for details  on  how
       its  path  is  formed.	For security considerations it is important to
       note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user  ID	 under
       which  lsof  is executed is root, the device cache file will be written
       in root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.   When  HASDCACHE  is  not
       defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When  HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response
       to the -h, -D?, or -?  options, will provide device cache file handling
       information.   When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h or -?  output will
       have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature  -  enabling
       it improves the performance of lsof by reducing the startup overhead of
       examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the discussion  of
       it  in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the lsof FAQ (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE	 CACHE
       FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with
       the -k and -m options, lsof checks the user's authority	to  read  them
       with  access(2).	  This	is  intended to prevent whatever special power
       lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally
       accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This  section  describes the information lsof lists for each open file.
       See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on
       output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit charac-
       ters.  Non-printable characters are printed in one of three forms:  the
       C  ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control character `^' form (e.g., ``^@''); or
       hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space is  non-print-
       able in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For  some  dialects  -  if  HASSETLOCALE	 is  defined  in the dialect's
       machine.h header file - lsof will print the extended 8  bit  characters
       of  a  language	locale.	  The lsof process must be supplied a language
       locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents a known
       language	 locale in which the extended characters are considered print-
       able by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the  extended  characters
       non-printable  and prints them according to its rules for non-printable
       characters, stated above.  Consult your dialect's setlocale(3) man page
       for  the names of other environment variables that may be used in place
       of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers	 wide  charac-
       ters  -	e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSETLOCALE and HASWIDECHAR are defined in
       the dialect's machine.h header  file,  and  when	 a  suitable  language
       locale has been defined in the appropriate environment variable for the
       lsof process.  Wide characters are printable under those conditions  if
       iswprint(3)  reports  them  to  be.  If HASSETLOCALE, HASWIDECHAR and a
       suitable language locale aren't defined, or if iswprint(3) reports wide
       characters  that	 aren't	 printable, lsof considers the wide characters
       non-printable and prints each of their 8 bits according	to  its	 rules
       for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult	the  answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guarantee-
       ing  that  each column is a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each
       column is separated from its predecessor by at least one space.

       COMMAND	  contains the first nine characters of the name of  the  UNIX
		  command  associated with the process.	 If a non-zero w value
		  is specified to the +c w option,  the	 column	 contains  the
		  first	 w  characters of the name of the UNIX command associ-
		  ated with the process up to the limit of characters supplied
		  to lsof by the UNIX dialect.	(See the description of the +c
		  w command or the lsof FAQ for	 more  information.   The  FAQ
		  section gives its location.)

		  If  w	 is  less  than the length of the column title, ``COM-
		  MAND'', it will be raised to that length.

		  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the  col-
		  umn contains all the characters of the name of the UNIX com-
		  mand associated with the process.

		  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in  its
		  structures  are  displayed  in field output when the command
		  name descriptor (`c') is  specified.	 See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
		  OTHER	 COMMANDS  section  for information on selecting field
		  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID	  is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       ZONE	  is the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be
		  selected with the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
		  is  the  SELinux  security  context.	 This  column  must be
		  selected with the -Z option.	Note that  the	-Z  option  is
		  inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux ker-
		  nel.

       PPID	  is the Parent Process IDentification number of the  process.
		  It is only displayed when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID	  is  the  process group IDentification number associated with
		  the process.	It is only displayed when the  -g  option  has
		  been specified.

       USER	  is  the user ID number or login name of the user to whom the
		  process belongs, usually the	same  as  reported  by	ps(1).
		  However,  on	Linux USER is the user ID number or login that
		  owns the directory in /proc  where  lsof  finds  information
		  about	 the process.  Usually that is the same value reported
		  by ps(1), but may differ when the process  has  changed  its
		  effective  user  ID.	 (See  the  -l	option description for
		  information on when a user ID number or login name  is  dis-
		  played.)

       FD	  is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

		       cwd  current working directory;
		       Lnn  library references (AIX);
		       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
		       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
		       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
		       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
		       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
		       mem  memory-mapped file;
		       mmap memory-mapped device;
		       pd   parent directory;
		       rtd  root directory;
		       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
		       txt  program text (code and data);
		       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

		  FD  is  followed  by one of these characters, describing the
		  mode under which the file is open:

		       r for read access;
		       w for write access;
		       u for read and write access;
		       space if mode unknown and no lock
			    character follows;
		       `-' if mode unknown and lock
			    character follows.

		  The mode character is followed by one of these lock  charac-
		  ters, describing the type of lock applied to the file:

		       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
		       r for read lock on part of the file;
		       R for a read lock on the entire file;
		       w for a write lock on part of the file;
		       W for a write lock on the entire file;
		       u for a read and write lock of any length;
		       U for a lock of unknown type;
		       x  for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part	of the
		  file;
		       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on  the	entire
		  file;
		       space if there is no lock.

		  See  the  LOCKS  section  for	 more  information on the lock
		  information character.

		  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for	 pars-
		  ing in post-processing scripts.

       TYPE	  is  the  type	 of  the node associated with the file - e.g.,
		  GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

		  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

		  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network	file  -	 even  if  its
		  address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6 address;

		  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

		  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

		  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

		  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

		  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

		  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

		  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

		  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

		  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

		  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

		  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

		  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

		  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

		  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

		  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

		  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

		  or  ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't
		  be opened -- the directory path appears in the NAME  column,
		  followed by an error message;

		  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

		  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

		  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

		  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

		  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

		  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

		  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

		  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

		  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

		  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

		  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

		  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

		  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

		  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

		  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

		  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

		  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

		  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

		  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

		  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

		  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

		  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

		  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

		  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

		  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

		  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

		  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

		  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

		  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

		  or  ``POLP''	for  an	 old format /proc light weight process
		  file;

		  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

		  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

		  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

		  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

		  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

		  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

		  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

		  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

		  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

		  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

		  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

		  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

		  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

		  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

		  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

		  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

		  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

		  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

		  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of  unknown
		  type;

		  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

		  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

		  or  the  four	 type  number octets if the corresponding name
		  isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f  has  been
		  specified to +f;

       FCT	  contains  the	 file  reference  count	 from  the kernel file
		  structure when c has been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f,	 this  field  contains
		  the  contents	 of  the  f_flag[s]  member of the kernel file
		  structure and the kernel's per-process open file  flags  (if
		  available);  `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal;
		  `g', as short-hand names; two lists may  be  displayed  with
		  entries  separated by commas, the lists separated by a semi-
		  colon (`;'); the first list may contain short-hand names for
		  f_flag[s] values from the following table:

		       AIO	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
		       AP	 append
		       ASYN	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
		       BAS	 block, test, and set in use
		       BKIU	 block if in use
		       BL	 use block offsets
		       BSK	 block seek
		       CA	 copy avoid
		       CIO	 concurrent I/O
		       CLON	 clone
		       CLRD	 CL read
		       CR	 create
		       DF	 defer
		       DFI	 defer IND
		       DFLU	 data flush
		       DIR	 direct
		       DLY	 delay
		       DOCL	 do clone
		       DSYN	 data-only integrity
		       DTY	 must be a directory
		       EVO	 event only
		       EX	 open for exec
		       EXCL	 exclusive open
		       FSYN	 synchronous writes
		       GCDF	 defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GCMK	 mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GTTY	 accessed via /dev/tty
		       HUP	 HUP in progress
		       KERN	 kernel
		       KIOC	 kernel-issued ioctl
		       LCK	 has lock
		       LG	 large file
		       MBLK	 stream message block
		       MK	 mark
		       MNT	 mount
		       MSYN	 multiplex synchronization
		       NATM	 don't update atime
		       NB	 non-blocking I/O
		       NBDR	 no BDRM check
		       NBIO	 SYSV non-blocking I/O
		       NBF	 n-buffering in effect
		       NC	 no cache
		       ND	 no delay
		       NDSY	 no data synchronization
		       NET	 network
		       NFLK	 don't follow links
		       NMFS	 NM file system
		       NOTO	 disable background stop
		       NSH	 no share
		       NTTY	 no controlling TTY
		       OLRM	 OLR mirror
		       PAIO	 POSIX asynchronous I/O
		       PP	 POSIX pipe
		       R	 read
		       RC	 file and record locking cache
		       REV	 revoked
		       RSH	 shared read
		       RSYN	 read synchronization
		       RW	 read and write access
		       SL	 shared lock
		       SNAP	 cooked snapshot
		       SOCK	 socket
		       SQSH	 Sequent shared set on open
		       SQSV	 Sequent SVM set on open
		       SQR	 Sequent set repair on open
		       SQS1	 Sequent full shared open
		       SQS2	 Sequent partial shared open
		       STPI	 stop I/O
		       SWR	 synchronous read
		       SYN	 file integrity while writing
		       TCPM	 avoid TCP collision
		       TR	 truncate
		       W	 write
		       WKUP	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       WTG	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       VH	 vhangup pending
		       VTXT	 virtual text
		       XL	 exclusive lock

		  this	list of names was derived from F* #define's in dialect
		  header  files	  <fcntl.h>,   <linux</fs.h>,	<sys/fcntl.c>,
		  <sys/fcntlcom.h>,  and  <sys/file.h>;	 see the lsof.h header
		  file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
		  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

		  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand
		  names for kernel per-process open file flags from  this  ta-
		  ble:

		       ALLC	 allocated
		       BR	 the file has been read
		       BHUP	 activity stopped by SIGHUP
		       BW	 the file has been written
		       CLSG	 closing
		       CX	 close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
		       LCK	 lock was applied
		       MP	 memory-mapped
		       OPIP	 open pending - in progress
		       RSVW	 reserved wait
		       SHMT	 UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
		       USE	 in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID	  (or  INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique identi-
		  fier for the file node (usually the kernel  vnode  or	 inode
		  address, but also occasionally a concatenation of device and
		  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE	  contains the device numbers,	separated  by  commas,	for  a
		  character  special, block special, regular, directory or NFS
		  file;

		  or ``memory'' for a memory  file  system  node  under	 Tru64
		  UNIX;

		  or  the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket
		  stream;

		  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file  (The
		  kernel  reference  address may be used for FIFO's, for exam-
		  ple.);

		  or the base address or device name of a Linux	 AX.25	socket
		  device.

		  Usually  only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel
		  addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
		  is the size of the file or the  file	offset	in  bytes.   A
		  value	 is  displayed in this column only if it is available.
		  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropri-
		  ate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

		  On  some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consis-
		  tent file offset information from its kernel	data  sources,
		  sometimes  just  for particular kinds of files (e.g., socket
		  files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g.,
		  sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays for their sizes the
		  content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer  descriptors
		  (e.g.,  socket  buffer  size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)
		  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives  its  location.)
		  for more information.

		  The  file  size  is displayed in decimal; the offset is nor-
		  mally displayed in decimal with a leading ``0t'' if it  con-
		  tains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ``0x''
		  if it is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult  the	 -o  o	option
		  description  for information on when 8 might default to some
		  other value.)

		  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an  offset  when
		  the  column may contain both a size and an offset (i.e., its
		  title is SIZE/OFF).

		  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file
		  offset (or nothing if no offset is available) and labels the
		  column OFFSET.  The offset  always  begins  with  ``0t''  or
		  ``0x'' as described above.

		  The  lsof  user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x''
		  with the -o o option.	  Consult  its	description  for  more
		  information.

		  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file
		  size (or nothing if no size is  available)  and  labels  the
		  column  SIZE.	 The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive;
		  they can't both be specified.

		  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't	reside
		  on a disk device - lsof will display appropriate information
		  about the current size or position of	 the  file  if	it  is
		  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK	  contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE	  is the node number of a local file;

		  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

		  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

		  or ``STR'' for a stream;

		  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME	  is  the name of the mount point and file system on which the
		  file resides;

		  or the name of a file specified in the names	option	(after
		  any symbolic links have been resolved);

		  or the name of a character special or block special device;

		  or  the  local  and  remote  Internet addresses of a network
		  file; the local host name or IP  number  is  followed	 by  a
		  colon	 (':'),	 the  port,  ``->'',  and  the two-part remote
		  address; IP addresses may be reported as numbers  or	names,
		  depending  on	 the +|-M, -n, and -P options; colon-separated
		  IPv6	numbers	 are  enclosed	in   square   brackets;	  IPv4
		  INADDR_ANY  and  IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and
		  zero port numbers are represented by an  asterisk  ('*');  a
		  UDP  destination  address  may  be followed by the amount of
		  time elapsed since the last packet was sent to the  destina-
		  tion;	 TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be followed
		  by  TCP/TPI  information  in	parentheses  -	state	(e.g.,
		  ``(ESTABLISHED)'',  ``(Unbound)''),  queue sizes, and window
		  sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to what net-
		  stat(1)  reports;  see  the  -T  option  description	or the
		  description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT  FOR  OTHER  PRO-
		  GRAMS	 for more information on state, queue size, and window
		  size;

		  or the address or name of a  UNIX  domain  socket,  possibly
		  including a stream clone device name, a file system object's
		  path name, local and foreign kernel addresses,  socket  pair
		  information, and a bound vnode address;

		  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

		  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

		  or  a	 stream	 character device name, followed by ``->'' and
		  the stream name or a list of stream module names,  separated
		  by ``->'';

		  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and
		  module names, separated by ``->'';

		  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as  many  components
		  of the path name as lsof can find in the kernel's name cache
		  for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for
		  more information.);

		  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination
		  address;

		  or ``COMMON:'', followed by  the  vnode  device  information
		  structure's device name, for a Solaris common vnode;

		  or  the  address family, followed by a slash (`/'), followed
		  by fourteen comma-separated  bytes  of  a  non-Internet  raw
		  socket address;

		  or  the  HP-UX  x.25	local address, followed by the virtual
		  connection number (if any), followed by the  remote  address
		  (if any);

		  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically
		  terminal files that have been	 flagged  with	the  TIOCNOTTY
		  ioctl and closed by daemons;

		  or ``rd=<offset>'' and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of the
		  read and write offsets of a FIFO;

		  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones  of
		  the /dev/event device, where n is the minor device number of
		  the file;

		  or ``(socketpair: n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or  10  UNIX
		  domain  socket,  created by the socketpair(3N) network func-
		  tion;

		  or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have  a  protocol
		  block	 associated  with  them,  optionally  followed	by ``,
		  CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has  been  disabled,
		  or  ``,  CANTRCVMORE''  if  receiving on the socket has been
		  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

		  or the local and remote addresses of a Linux IPX socket file
		  in  the  form <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses
		  by the transmit and receive queue sizes, and the  connection
		  state;

		  or  ``dgram''	 or ``stream'' for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and
		  above in-kernel UNIX domain sockets,	followed  by  a	 colon
		  (':')	 and  the  local path name when available, followed by
		  ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address  in
		  hexadecimal when available.

       For  dialects  that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file
       to  be  attached	 to  another   with   fattach(3C),   lsof   will   add
       ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)''	   to	 the	NAME   column.
       <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction>
       will  be	 ``<-''	 if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose
       address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode  address  of
       this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omit-
       ted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

       Lsof may add two parenthetical  notes  to  the  NAME  column  for  open
       Solaris	10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof considers the path name of question-
       able accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option  has  been  specified
       and  lsof  detects the open file's path name has been deleted.  Consult
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for	more  informa-
       tion on these NAME column additions.

LOCKS
       Lsof  can't  adequately	report	the  wide variety of UNIX dialect file
       locks in a single character.  What it reports in a single character  is
       a  compromise  between  the  information it finds in the kernel and the
       limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof
       only  reports  the  status of the first lock it encounters.  If it is a
       byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported in lower case
       -  i.e.,	 `r',  `w',  or	 `x'  -	 rather than the upper case equivalent
       reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks	held  by  local	 processes  on
       local  files.   When  a local process sets a lock on a remotely mounted
       (e.g., NFS) file, the remote  server  host  usually  records  the  lock
       state.	One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and in
       all versions above 2.4,	the  Solaris  kernel  records  information  on
       remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof  has  trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the
       BUGS section of this manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When  the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable
       for processing by another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a  C
       program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a
       leading character and terminated by a NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0
       (zero) field identifier character is specified.)	 The data of the field
       follows	immediately  after  the	 field	identification	character  and
       extends to the field terminator.

       It  is  possible	 to think of field output as process and file sets.  A
       process set begins with a field whose identifier is  `p'	 (for  process
       IDentifier  (PID)).   It extends to the beginning of the next PID field
       or the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever	 comes
       first.	Included  in the process set are fields that identify the com-
       mand, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, and the  user  ID
       (UID) number or login name.

       A  file	set  begins  with  a  field  whose identifier is `f' (for file
       descriptor).  It is followed by lines that describe the	file's	access
       mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode, protocol, name and
       stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the next  file  or
       process set, whichever comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero)
       field identifier character, lsof ends each process and file set with  a
       NL (012) character.

       Lsof  always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields
       may be declared optionally in the field identifier character list  that
       follows	the -F option.	When a field selection character identifies an
       item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - spec-
       ification  of  the  field  character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be
       parsed - e.g., if the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be
       difficult to identify file sets.	 To help you  avoid  this  difficulty,
       lsof  supports  the -F option; it selects the output of all fields with
       NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output  of  all	fields
       with  NUL  terminators).	  For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0
       select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof  will  produce.	The  single  character
       listed first is the field identifier.

	    a	 file access mode
	    c	 process command name (all characters from proc or
		 user structure)
	    C	 file structure share count
	    d	 file's device character code
	    D	 file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    f	 file descriptor
	    F	 file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    G	 file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
	    i	 file's inode number
	    k	 link count
	    l	 file's lock status
	    L	 process login name
	    m	 marker between repeated output
	    n	 file name, comment, Internet address
	    N	 node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
	    o	 file's offset (decimal)
	    p	 process ID (always selected)
	    g	 process group ID
	    P	 protocol name
	    r	 raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    R	 parent process ID
	    s	 file's size (decimal)
	    S	 file's stream identification
	    t	 file's type
	    T	 TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
		 `=' is part of the prefix):
		     QR=<read queue size>
		     QS=<send queue size>
		     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
		     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
		     ST=<connection state>
		     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
		     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
		 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
		   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
		   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
		   requested.)
	    u	 process user ID
	    z	 Solaris 10 and higher zone name
	    Z	 SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
	    0	 use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
	    1-9	 dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
		 of -F? identifies the information to be found
		 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can	 get  on-line  help  information on these characters and their
       descriptions by specifying the -F?  option pair.	 (Escape the `?' char-
       acter as your shell requires.)  Additional information on field content
       can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As an example, ``-F pcfn'' will select the process  ID  (`p'),  command
       name (`c'), file descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL
       field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same output with a
       NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn't  produce  all  fields for every process or file set, only
       those that are available.  Some fields  are  mutually  exclusive:  file
       device  characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode num-
       ber and protocol name; file name and stream identification;  file  size
       and  offset.   One or the other member of these mutually exclusive sets
       will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.	 The 0	(zero)
       field  identifier character may be specified to change the field termi-
       nator character to a NUL (000).	A NUL  terminator  may	be  easier  to
       process	with  xargs  (1),  for example, or with programs whose quoting
       mechanisms may not easily cope with the	range  of  characters  in  the
       field  output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends each
       process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are
       included	 in  the  lsof	distribution.	The  first is a C header file,
       lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identification char-
       acters,	indexes	 for  storing them in a table, and explanation strings
       that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that  process	field  output,
       written	in  awk,  Perl	4, and Perl 5.	They're located in the scripts
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The  test
       suite  is  written  in  C and uses field output to validate the correct
       operation of lsof.  The library can be found in the tests/LTlib.c  file
       of  the	lsof  distribution.   The  library  uses  the  first  aid, the
       lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof can be blocked by some kernel functions that it uses  -  lstat(2),
       readlink(2),  and  stat(2).  These functions are stalled in the kernel,
       for example, when the hosts  where  mounted  NFS	 file  systems	reside
       become inaccessible.

       Lsof  attempts  to  break these blocks with timers and child processes,
       but the techniques are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does  manage  to
       break  a	 block,	 it  will report the break with an error message.  The
       messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or  -?   option,
       and it may be changed with the -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two
       seconds, but you should avoid small values, since slow  system  respon-
       siveness	 can  cause  short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and perhaps
       stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system
       information,  it	 normally  continues,  although	 with less information
       available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers  and	 child
       processes  when using the kernel functions that might block by specify-
       ing the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start	up  with  less
       overhead,  it  exposes  lsof  completely	 to the kernel situations that
       might block it.	Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel  functions
       that would block.  Some cautions apply.

       First,  using  this  option  usually  requires  that your system supply
       alternate device numbers in place of the device numbers that lsof would
       normally	 obtain	 with  the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions.  See
       the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on  alternate
       device numbers.

       Second,	you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file
       system names.  This is because lsof needs to know the device and	 inode
       numbers	of  files  listed  with	 names in the lsof options, and the -b
       option prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover,  since  lsof  only
       has device numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its abil-
       ity to locate files on file systems depends completely  on  the	avail-
       ability	and  accuracy  of the alternates.  If no alternates are avail-
       able, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able to  locate  files  on
       the named file systems.

       Third,  if  the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains
       from your system's mount table are symbolic links, lsof won't  be  able
       to  resolve  the	 links.	  This is because the -b option causes lsof to
       avoid the kernel readlink(2)  function  it  uses	 to  resolve  symbolic
       links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when
       it needs to use the kernel functions that the -b option directs	it  to
       avoid.	You  can  suppress these messages by specifying the -w option,
       but if you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers  reported  in
       the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On  some	 dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get
       information about a mounted file system via the	lstat(2)  and  stat(2)
       kernel  functions,  or  because	you  specified the -b option, lsof can
       obtain some of the information it needs - the device number and	possi-
       bly  the	 file system type - from the system mount table.  When that is
       possible, lsof will report the device number  it	 obtained.   (You  can
       suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You  can	 assist	 this process if your mount table is supported with an
       /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by	adding
       a  ``dev=xxxx''	field  for  mount points that do not have one in their
       options strings.	 Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e.,  some
       mount  tables like recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts are
       read-only and can't be modified.

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the	+m  and	 +m  m
       options, provided they are supported by your dialect.  Check the output
       of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the  +m  and  +m  m  options  are
       available.

       The  ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the file
       system's device number.	(Consult the st_dev field of the output of the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values for your file
       systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6 /etc/mnttab	for  a
       file system remotely mounted via NFS:

	    nfs	 ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table
       file, especially for file systems that  are  mounted  from  remote  NFS
       servers.	  When	a  remote  server crashes and you want to identify its
       users by running lsof on one of its clients,  lsof  probably  won't  be
       able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file
       system.	If it can obtain the file  system's  device  number  from  the
       mount  table,  it will be able to display the files open on the crashed
       NFS server.

       Some dialects that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab	 or  /etc/mnttab  file
       for  the	 mount table may still provide an alternative device number in
       their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX, Apple Darwin, FreeBSD,
       NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.	 Lsof knows how to obtain the alterna-
       tive device number for these dialects and uses it when its  attempt  to
       lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If  you're  not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for
       file systems from its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see  if
       it reports any alternate device numbers:

	      lsof -b

       Look  for  standard  error  file warning messages that begin ``assuming
       "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache	or  use	 other	kernel
       facilities  (e.g.,  the	ADVFS  4.x  tag_to_path() function under Tru64
       UNIX) on some dialects for most file system types, excluding  AFS,  and
       extract	recently  used path name components from it.  (AFS file system
       path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS  file
       system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof  reports  the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof
       can't report all components in a path, it reports in  the  NAME	column
       the  file system name, followed by a space, two `-' characters, another
       space, and the name components it has located,  separated  by  the  `/'
       character.

       When  lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified -
       the extent to which it can report path name  components	for  the  same
       file  may  vary from cycle to cycle.  That's because other running pro-
       cesses can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name  cache  and
       replace them with others.

       Lsof's  use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can
       lead it to report incorrect components under some circumstances.	  This
       can  happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node number as a
       key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file	system
       is  reused.   If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the name cache
       entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference to  the
       wrong  entry  in	 the  cache.   The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
       location.)  has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

	    FreeBSD
	    HP-UX
	    Linux
	    NetBSD
	    NEXTSTEP
	    OpenBSD
	    OPENSTEP
	    SCO OpenServer
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare
	    Solaris
	    Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

	    AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some
       dialects, see the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining  all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2)
       functions can be time consuming.	 What's	 more,	the  information  that
       lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached /dev
       (or /devices) information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof	 where
       it's  not  needed.)  The local system administrator who builds lsof can
       control the way the device cache file path is  formed,  selecting  from
       these options:

	    Path from the -D option;
	    Path from an environment variable;
	    System-wide path;
	    Personal path (the default);
	    Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current
       state of device cache support.	The  help  output  lists  the  default
       read-mode  device  cache	 file  path  that is in effect for the current
       invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output  lists  the	read-only  and
       write  device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment
       variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file  has	been  acciden-
       tally or maliciously modified by integrity checks, including the compu-
       tation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check	 (CRC)
       sum  on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with the
       file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file
       and  create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legiti-
       mately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a	 device	 cache
       file  may  not  be  the	same  as the path to which it can legitimately
       write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device	 cache
       file,  it may choose a different path for writing it from the path from
       which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If available, the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a  new	device
       cache  file.  (It's always available when specified without a path name
       argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the  device  cache  file  may
       need  to	 be  recreated.	  Since	 lsof compares the mtime of the device
       cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev	(or  /devices)	direc-
       tory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that case
       lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device	 cache
       file.

       Whenever	 lsof writes a device cache file, it sets its ownership to the
       real UID of the executing process, and its permission  modes  to	 0600,
       this restricting its reading and writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two  permissions	 of  the  lsof executable affect its ability to access
       device cache files.  The permissions are set by the local system admin-
       istrator when lsof is installed.

       The  first  and	rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect
       when lsof is executed; its effective UID is then root, while  its  real
       (i.e.,  that  of the logged-on user) UID is not.	 The lsof distribution
       recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

	    HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
	    Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.	 It comes into	effect
       when  the  effective  group  IDentification  number  (GID)  of the lsof
       process is set to one that can access kernel  memory  devices  -	 e.g.,
       ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An  lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the per-
       mission after it has accessed the kernel memory devices.	 When it  does
       that,  lsof  can	 allow more liberal device cache path formations.  The
       lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run  set-
       gid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

	    AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
	    Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
	    FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [67].x for x86-based systems
	    FreeBSD 5.x and [67].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
		systems
	    HP-UX 11.00
	    NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
		systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
	    OPENSTEP 4.x
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
	    SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
	    Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X
       option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permis-
       sions given to the executable don't apply to the device cache file.

	    Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The  -D	option	provides limited means for specifying the device cache
       file path.  Its ?  function will report the read-only and write	device
       cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D  b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to
       request that the cache file be built in a specific location  (b[path]);
       read  but not rebuilt (r[path]); or read and rebuilt (u[path]).	The b,
       r, and u functions are restricted  under	 some  conditions.   They  are
       restricted  when	 the  lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified
       with the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted  when  the	 lsof  process
       runs setgid and lsof doesn't surrender the setgid permission.  (See the
       LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section	for  a
       list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid per-
       mission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to  read  device  information
       from the kernel with the stat(2) function and build a device cache file
       at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof  to  read  the	 device	 cache
       file,  but  not	update	it.   When a path argument accompanies -Dr, it
       names the device cache file path.  The r function is  always  available
       when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not run-
       ning setuid-root and surrenders its  setgid  permission,	 a  path  name
       argument may accompany the r function.

       When  available,	 the  u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use
       the device cache file.  If it can't read the file, or if it  finds  the
       contents	 of  the  file incorrect or outdated, it will read information
       from the kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the	device
       cache  file,  but  only	to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents  of  the
       LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable.  It avoids this choice if the lsof
       process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from
       the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  variable:  lsof will not write a device
       cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender its setgid
       permission.   (See  the	LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE
       ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't  surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The  local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment variable or change its name when  building  lsof.   Consult
       the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The  local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device
       cache file when building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed
       by  a special system administration procedure when the system is booted
       or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined,	it  is
       lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your
       local installation by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the
       output from the -h or -?	 option.

       Lsof  will  never  write	 to  the system-wide device cache file path by
       default.	 It  must  be  explicitly  named  with	a  -D  function	 in  a
       root-owned  procedure.	Once  the file has been written, the procedure
       must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read  and  owner-write,
       group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The  default  device  cache  file  path of the lsof distribution is one
       recorded in the home directory of the  real  UID	 that  executes	 lsof.
       Added  to  the  home  directory	is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the
       default.	 If a system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof
       was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof can't find  the
       system-wide  device  cache  file.   This is the only time lsof uses two
       paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base name of the  exe-
       cuting  host,  as returned by gethostname(2).  The base name is defined
       to be the characters preceding the first	 `.'   in  the	gethostname(2)
       output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no `.'.

       The  device  cache  file	 belongs  to  the  user ID and is readable and
       writable by the user ID alone - i.e., its modes are  0600.   Each  dis-
       tinct  real  user  ID on a given host that executes lsof has a distinct
       device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes	device
       cache  files  in	 an NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache
       files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents  a
       device  cache  file that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to
       write should it not exist or should its contents be incorrect  or  out-
       dated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of
       a new device cache file.

       The -D?	option will list the format specification for constructing the
       personal	 device cache file.  The conversions used in the format speci-
       fication are described in the 00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If this option is defined by the local system administrator  when  lsof
       is  built, the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable contents may be used
       to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the	 path  at  the
       place  marked by the local system administrator with the ``%p'' conver-
       sion in the HASPERSDC format specification of the  dialect's  machine.h
       header  file.   (It's  placed  right  after  the	 home directory in the
       default lsof distribution.)

       Thus, for example, if LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home direc-
       tory  is ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and
       the HASPERSDC format is the default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''),	 the  modified
       personal device cache file path is:

	    /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment	 variable  is  ignored	when  the lsof
       process is setuid-root or when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache	file  path  if
       the  lsof  process  doesn't surrender setgid permission.	 (See the LSOF
       PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list  of
       implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       If,  for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device
       cache file paths by using the LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment  variable  to
       name  it,  and  lsof  doesn't surrender its setgid permission, you will
       have to allow lsof to create device cache files at  the	standard  per-
       sonal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The  local  system  administrator may: disable this option when lsof is
       built; change the name of the environment variable from	LSOFPERSDCPATH
       to  something else; change the HASPERSDC format to include the personal
       path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component
       entirely.   Consult  the	 output of the -D?  option for the environment
       variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure
       to locate command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login
       names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V
       option  is  specified, lsof will indicate the search items it failed to
       list.

       It returns a zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able  to
       list some information about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdi-
       rectories, or get information on a file in them with stat(2), it issues
       a warning message and continues.	 That lsof will issue warning messages
       about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in its help
       output - requested with the -h or >B -?	options -  with the message:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also
       have been suppressed by the system administrator when lsof was compiled
       by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.	In this case, the out-
       put from the help options will include the message:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible device warning messages usually disappear after  lsof  has
       created a working device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For  a  more  extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the
       00QUICKSTART file of the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

	      lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

	      lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID  is
       1234, use:

	      lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming  the  UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 net-
       work files, use:

	      lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of  host
       wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

	      lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To  list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu
       (cc.purdue.edu is the default domain), use:

	      lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'',  or  user	 ID  1234,  or
       process 456, or process 123, or process 789, use:

	      lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

	      lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

	      lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

	      kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To  find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with
       the name /dev/log, use:

	      lsof /dev/log

       To find processes  with	open  files  on	 the  NFS  file	 system	 named
       /nfs/mount/point whose server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount
       table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

	      lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

	      lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

	      lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field  output  for  each	process,  file
       descriptor,  file device number, and file inode number for each file of
       each process, use:

	      lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process  running  the
       lsof command for login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

	      lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To  list	 the  current working directory of processes running a command
       that is exactly four characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character
       three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

	      lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To  find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form
       address, use:

	      lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when  the  UNIX  dialect  supports
       IPv6) by its associated numeric colon-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To  find	 an  IP	 version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports
       IPv6) by an associated numeric colon-form address that  has  a  run  of
       zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

	      lsof -i@[::1]

       To  obtain  a  repeat  mode marker line that contains the current time,
       use:

	      lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

	      lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS
       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its  search  for  open	 files,	 rapid
       changes in kernel memory may produce unpredictable results.

       When  a file has multiple record locks, the lock status character (fol-
       lowing the file descriptor) is derived from a test of  the  first  lock
       structure, not from any combination of the individual record locks that
       might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof can't search for files with restrictive access permissions by name
       unless  it  is installed with root set-UID permission.  Otherwise it is
       limited to searching for files to which its user or its	set-GID	 group
       (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping)
       depends on the UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destina-
       tion address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that
       ls(1) does.  For example, the major and minor device numbers  that  the
       lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for the directory on which CD-ROM
       files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones  that
       it  reports for the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD and	 Tru64
       UNIX  dialects,	Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4 - e.g., Free-
       BSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode number, and	 file  size  -
       are  unavailable in some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file
       system may require that the full path name be specified.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.   All
       entries	for  files  other than the current working directory, the root
       directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes  by	 name,	because	 their
       kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper device number for
       a named pipe.

       Lsof can't report fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01,  10.20,  and	 11.00
       locks  because  of  insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the
       kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section	gives  its  location.)
       for details.

       The  AIX	 SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file struc-
       tures whose type (15) isn't defined in the AIX  /usr/include/sys/file.h
       header  file.   One  way	 to  create  such  file structures is to run X
       clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based  Linux	 lsof,
       because it doesn't read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG		 defines  a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the
			 names of other variables that can be used in place of
			 LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE	 defines  the  path  to	 a device cache file.  See the
			 DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT	VARIABLE  sec-
			 tion for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH	 defines  the  middle component of a modified personal
			 device cache file path.  See  the  MODIFIED  PERSONAL
			 DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked	 questions and their answers (an FAQ) are available in
       the 00FAQ file of the lsof distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       at pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.  The URL is:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem	 kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem		 physical memory device

       /dev/swap	 system paging device

       .lsof_hostname	 lsof's	 device	 cache	file (The suffix, hostname, is
			 the first component of the host's  name  returned  by
			 gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof  was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue Univer-
       sity.  Many others have contributed to lsof.   They're  listed  in  the
       00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The latest distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the
       host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  You'll find the lsof	 distribution  in  the
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

	      ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access lsof.itap.purdue.edu
       and change to its pub/tools/unix/lsof directory, you'll be given a list
       of  some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains
       a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with  caution  -
       not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof	 executables  are  available on lsof.itap.pur-
       due.edu, but their use is discouraged - it's better that you build your
       own  from  the  sources.	  If you feel you must use a pre-compiled exe-
       cutable, please read the cautions that appear in the  README  files  of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of
       the distribution.

       More  information  on  the  lsof	 distribution  can  be	found  in  its
       README.lsof_<version> file.  If you intend to get the lsof distribution
       and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00* files
       of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Not  all	 the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to
       which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),
       gethostname(2),	 isprint(3),  kill(1),	localtime(3),  lstat(2),  mod-
       load(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), readlink(2),
       setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).



				 Revision-4.82			       LSOF(8)