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MADVISE(2)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		    MADVISE(2)

       madvise - give advice about use of memory

       #include <sys/mman.h>

       int madvise(void *addr, size_t length, int advice);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

	   Since glibc 2.19:
	   Up to and including glibc 2.19:

       The  madvise()  system call is used to give advice or directions to the
       kernel about the address range beginning at address addr and with  size
       length  bytes In most cases, the goal of such advice is to improve sys-
       tem or application performance.

       Initially, the system call supported a  set  of	"conventional"	advice
       values,	which  are  also  available  on several other implementations.
       (Note, though, that madvise()  is  not  specified  in  POSIX.)	Subse-
       quently, a number of Linux-specific advice values have been added.

   Conventional advice values
       The  advice values listed below allow an application to tell the kernel
       how it expects to use some mapped or shared memory areas, so  that  the
       kernel can choose appropriate read-ahead and caching techniques.	 These
       advice values do not influence the semantics of the application (except
       in  the case of MADV_DONTNEED), but may influence its performance.  All
       of the advice values listed here have analogs  in  the  POSIX-specified
       posix_madvise(3)	 function, and the values have the same meanings, with
       the exception of MADV_DONTNEED.

       The advice is indicated in the advice argument, which  is  one  of  the

	      No special treatment.  This is the default.

	      Expect  page references in random order.	(Hence, read ahead may
	      be less useful than normally.)

	      Expect page references in sequential order.   (Hence,  pages  in
	      the given range can be aggressively read ahead, and may be freed
	      soon after they are accessed.)

	      Expect access in the near future.	 (Hence, it might  be  a  good
	      idea to read some pages ahead.)

	      Do  not  expect access in the near future.  (For the time being,
	      the application is finished with the given range, so the	kernel
	      can free resources associated with it.)

	      After  a	successful  MADV_DONTNEED  operation, the semantics of
	      memory access in the specified region  are  changed:  subsequent
	      accesses	of pages in the range will succeed, but will result in
	      either repopulating the memory contents from the up-to-date con-
	      tents  of	 the underlying mapped file (for shared file mappings,
	      shared anonymous mappings, and shmem-based  techniques  such  as
	      System  V	 shared	 memory segments) or zero-fill-on-demand pages
	      for anonymous private mappings.

	      Note that, when applied to shared mappings, MADV_DONTNEED	 might
	      not  lead	 to  immediate freeing of the pages in the range.  The
	      kernel is free to delay freeing the pages until  an  appropriate
	      moment.  The resident set size (RSS) of the calling process will
	      be immediately reduced however.

	      MADV_DONTNEED cannot be applied to locked pages, Huge TLB pages,
	      or  VM_PFNMAP  pages.   (Pages  marked  with the kernel-internal
	      VM_PFNMAP flag are special memory areas that are not managed  by
	      the  virtual memory subsystem.  Such pages are typically created
	      by device drivers that map the pages into user space.)

   Linux-specific advice values
       The following Linux-specific advice values have no counterparts in  the
       POSIX-specified	posix_madvise(3), and may or may not have counterparts
       in the madvise() interface available on	other  implementations.	  Note
       that some of these operations change the semantics of memory accesses.

       MADV_REMOVE (since Linux 2.6.16)
	      Free up a given range of pages and its associated backing store.
	      This is equivalent to punching a hole in the corresponding  byte
	      range  of	 the  backing  store  (see  fallocate(2)).  Subsequent
	      accesses in the specified address range will see bytes  contain-
	      ing zero.

	      The  specified address range must be mapped shared and writable.
	      This flag cannot be applied to locked pages, Huge TLB pages,  or
	      VM_PFNMAP pages.

	      In  the  initial	implementation,	 only  tmpfs(5)	 is  supported
	      MADV_REMOVE; but since Linux 3.5, any filesystem which  supports
	      the   fallocate(2)   FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLE	  mode	also  supports
	      MADV_REMOVE.  Hugetlbfs will fail	 with  the  error  EINVAL  and
	      other filesystems fail with the error EOPNOTSUPP.

       MADV_DONTFORK (since Linux 2.6.16)
	      Do not make the pages in this range available to the child after
	      a fork(2).  This is useful to  prevent  copy-on-write  semantics
	      from  changing  the  physical  location  of a page if the parent
	      writes to it after a  fork(2).   (Such  page  relocations	 cause
	      problems for hardware that DMAs into the page.)

       MADV_DOFORK (since Linux 2.6.16)
	      Undo  the	 effect of MADV_DONTFORK, restoring the default behav-
	      ior, whereby a mapping is inherited across fork(2).

       MADV_HWPOISON (since Linux 2.6.32)
	      Poison the pages in the range specified by addr and  length  and
	      handle subsequent references to those pages like a hardware mem-
	      ory corruption.  This operation is available only for privileged
	      (CAP_SYS_ADMIN)  processes.   This  operation  may result in the
	      calling process receiving a SIGBUS and the page being unmapped.

	      This feature is intended for testing  of	memory	error-handling
	      code;  it	 is  available	only if the kernel was configured with

       MADV_MERGEABLE (since Linux 2.6.32)
	      Enable Kernel Samepage Merging (KSM) for the pages in the	 range
	      specified	 by addr and length.  The kernel regularly scans those
	      areas of user memory that have been marked as mergeable, looking
	      for  pages with identical content.  These are replaced by a sin-
	      gle write-protected page (which is  automatically	 copied	 if  a
	      process  later  wants  to	 update the content of the page).  KSM
	      merges only private anonymous pages (see mmap(2)).

	      The KSM feature is intended for applications that generate  many
	      instances of the same data (e.g., virtualization systems such as
	      KVM).  It can consume a lot of processing power; use with	 care.
	      See  the	Linux  kernel source file Documentation/vm/ksm.txt for
	      more details.

	      The MADV_MERGEABLE and MADV_UNMERGEABLE operations are available
	      only if the kernel was configured with CONFIG_KSM.

       MADV_UNMERGEABLE (since Linux 2.6.32)
	      Undo  the	 effect	 of an earlier MADV_MERGEABLE operation on the
	      specified address range; KSM  unmerges  whatever	pages  it  had
	      merged in the address range specified by addr and length.

       MADV_SOFT_OFFLINE (since Linux 2.6.33)
	      Soft  offline  the  pages	 in  the  range	 specified by addr and
	      length.  The memory of each page in the specified range is  pre-
	      served (i.e., when next accessed, the same content will be visi-
	      ble, but in a new physical page frame), and the original page is
	      offlined	(i.e.,	no longer used, and taken out of normal memory
	      management).  The effect of the MADV_SOFT_OFFLINE	 operation  is
	      invisible	 to (i.e., does not change the semantics of) the call-
	      ing process.

	      This feature is intended for testing  of	memory	error-handling
	      code;  it	 is  available	only if the kernel was configured with

       MADV_HUGEPAGE (since Linux 2.6.38)
	      Enable Transparent Huge Pages (THP) for pages in the range spec-
	      ified  by	 addr  and  length.  Currently, Transparent Huge Pages
	      work only with private anonymous pages (see mmap(2)).  The  ker-
	      nel will regularly scan the areas marked as huge page candidates
	      to replace them with huge pages.	The kernel will also  allocate
	      huge  pages directly when the region is naturally aligned to the
	      huge page size (see posix_memalign(2)).

	      This feature is primarily aimed at applications that  use	 large
	      mappings	of  data  and access large regions of that memory at a
	      time (e.g., virtualization systems such as QEMU).	 It  can  very
	      easily waste memory (e.g., a 2MB mapping that only ever accesses
	      1 byte will result in 2MB of wired memory	 instead  of  one  4KB
	      page).   See the Linux kernel source file Documentation/vm/tran-
	      shuge.txt for more details.

	      The MADV_HUGEPAGE and MADV_NOHUGEPAGE operations	are  available
	      only   if	  the  kernel  was  configured	with  CONFIG_TRANSPAR-

       MADV_NOHUGEPAGE (since Linux 2.6.38)
	      Ensures that memory in the address range specified by  addr  and
	      length will not be collapsed into huge pages.

       MADV_DONTDUMP (since Linux 3.4)
	      Exclude  from  a core dump those pages in the range specified by
	      addr and length.	This is useful in applications that have large
	      areas  of memory that are known not to be useful in a core dump.
	      The effect of MADV_DONTDUMP takes precedence over the  bit  mask
	      that  is	set  via  the  /proc/[pid]/coredump_filter  file  (see

       MADV_DODUMP (since Linux 3.4)
	      Undo the effect of an earlier MADV_DONTDUMP.

       MADV_FREE (since Linux 4.5)
	      The application no longer requires the pages in the range speci-
	      fied by addr and len.  The kernel can thus free these pages, but
	      the freeing could be delayed until memory pressure occurs.   For
	      each  of	the pages that has been marked to be freed but has not
	      yet been freed, the free operation will be canceled if the call-
	      er  writes  into	the page.  After a successful MADV_FREE opera-
	      tion, any stale data (i.e., dirty, unwritten pages) will be lost
	      when  the kernel frees the pages.	 However, subsequent writes to
	      pages in the range will succeed  and  then  kernel  cannot  free
	      those  dirtied  pages,  so  that	the caller can always see just
	      written data.  If there is no subsequent write, the  kernel  can
	      free  the	 pages at any time.  Once pages in the range have been
	      freed, the caller will see zero-fill-on-demand pages upon subse-
	      quent page references.

	      The MADV_FREE operation can be applied only to private anonymous
	      pages (see mmap(2)).  On a swapless system, freeing pages	 in  a
	      given range happens instantly, regardless of memory pressure.

       On  success, madvise() returns zero.  On error, it returns -1 and errno
       is set appropriately.

       EACCES advice is MADV_REMOVE, but the specified address range is not  a
	      shared writable mapping.

       EAGAIN A kernel resource was temporarily unavailable.

       EBADF  The map exists, but the area maps something that isn't a file.

       EINVAL addr is not page-aligned or length is negative.

       EINVAL advice is not a valid.

       EINVAL advice is MADV_DONTNEED or MADV_REMOVE and the specified address
	      range includes locked, Huge TLB pages, or VM_PFNMAP pages.

       EINVAL advice is MADV_MERGEABLE or MADV_UNMERGEABLE, but the kernel was
	      not configured with CONFIG_KSM.

       EIO    (for  MADV_WILLNEED)  Paging  in	this  area  would  exceed  the
	      process's maximum resident set size.

       ENOMEM (for MADV_WILLNEED) Not enough memory: paging in failed.

       ENOMEM Addresses in the specified range are not	currently  mapped,  or
	      are outside the address space of the process.

       EPERM  advice  is  MADV_HWPOISON,  but  the  caller  does  not have the
	      CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability.

       Since Linux 3.18, support for this system call is  optional,  depending
       on the setting of the CONFIG_ADVISE_SYSCALLS configuration option.

       madvise()  is  not specified by any standards.  Versions of this system
       call, implementing a wide variety of advice values, exist on many other
       implementations.	  Other	 implementations  typically implement at least
       the flags listed above under Conventional  advice  flags,  albeit  with
       some variation in semantics.

       POSIX.1-2001  describes posix_madvise(3) with constants POSIX_MADV_NOR-
       POSIX_MADV_DONTNEED,  and  so  on, with behavior close to the similarly
       named  flags  listed  above.   (POSIX.1-2008  adds  a   further	 flag,
       POSIX_MADV_NOREUSE, that has no analog in madvise().)

   Linux notes
       The  Linux  implementation  requires  that  the	address	 addr be page-
       aligned, and allows length to be zero.  If there are some parts of  the
       specified  address range that are not mapped, the Linux version of mad-
       vise() ignores them and applies the  call  to  the  rest	 (but  returns
       ENOMEM from the system call, as it should).

       getrlimit(2),  mincore(2),  mmap(2),  mprotect(2), msync(2), munmap(2),
       prctl(2), posix_madvise(3), core(5)

       This page is part of release 4.10 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of	the project, information about reporting bugs, and the
       latest	 version    of	  this	  page,	   can	   be	  found	    at

Linux				  2017-03-13			    MADVISE(2)