Yolinux.com

mkisofs manpage

Search topic Section
Get manual page for the search topic
List all commands matching the search topic
List all topics in the manpage index

MKISOFS(8)							    MKISOFS(8)



NAME
       mkisofs	- create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional
       Rock Ridge attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs	is  effectively	 a  pre-mastering  program  to	 generate   an
       ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

       mkisofs	is  capable  of	 generating  the  System  Use Sharing Protocol
       records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.	  This
       is  used	 to  further describe the files in the iso9660 filesystem to a
       unix host, and provides information such as longer filenames,  uid/gid,
       posix permissions, symbolic links, block and character devices.

       If  Joliet  or  HFS  hybrid command line options are specified, mkisofs
       will create additional filesystem meta data for	Joliet	or  HFS.   The
       file  content in this case refers to the same data blocks on the media.
       It will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless  the  Joliet  or  HFS
       hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same
       files are seen as HFS files when	 accessed  from	 a  Macintosh  and  as
       ISO9660 files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands for Hierar-
       chical File System and is the native file system used on Macintosh com-
       puters.

       As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660
       for each file. These extensions provide each file  with	CREATOR,  TYPE
       and  certain  Finder  Flags when accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS
       MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory  tree,  and  generates  a
       binary image which will correspond to an ISO9660 or HFS filesystem when
       written to a block device.

       Each file written to the iso9660 filesystem must have a filename in the
       8.3  format  (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even
       if Rock Ridge is in use.	 This filename is used on systems that are not
       able  to	 make  use  of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and
       each filename in each directory must be different from the other	 file-
       names  in  the same directory.  mkisofs generally tries to form correct
       names by forcing the unix filename to  upper  case  and	truncating  as
       required, but often times this yields unsatisfactory results when there
       are cases where the  truncated  names  are  not	all  unique.   mkisofs
       assigns	weightings  to each filename, and if two names that are other-
       wise the same are found the name with the lower priority is renamed  to
       have  a	3 digit number as an extension (where the number is guaranteed
       to be unique).  An example of this  would  be  the  files  foo.bar  and
       foo.bar.~1~ - the file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as FOO000.BAR;1 and
       the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When used with various HFS options, mkisofs will attempt	 to  recognise
       files  stored  in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the
       data and resource forks as well as any relevant finder information. See
       the  HFS	 MACINTOSH  FILE  FORMATS section below for more about formats
       mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is  not  designed  to	communicate  with  the	writer
       directly.   Most	 writers have proprietary command sets which vary from
       one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized tool  to	 actu-
       ally burn the disk.

       The  cdrecord  utility  is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.
       The    latest	version	   of	 cdrecord    is	    available	  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also  you  should  know	that most cd writers are very particular about
       timing.	Once you start to burn a disc, you  cannot  let	 their	buffer
       empty  before  you  are	done,  or you will end up with a corrupt disc.
       Thus it is critical that you be able to maintain an uninterrupted  data
       stream  to  the writer for the entire time that the disc is being writ-
       ten.

       pathspec is the path of the  directory  tree  to	 be  copied  into  the
       iso9660	filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified, and mkisofs will
       merge the files found in all of the specified path components  to  form
       the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the paths at points other than the root directory, and it  is  possible
       to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than what they have in the  source  filesystem.	 This  is  easiest  to
       illustrate  with a couple of examples.	Let's start by assuming that a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in  the	 cdrom
       image.


	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will  include  the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis,
       while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.   The
       same sort of syntax can be used with directories as well.  mkisofs will
       create any directories required such that the graft points exist on the
       cdrom  image  -	the  directories  do  not need to appear in one of the
       paths.  By default, any directories that are created on	the  fly  like
       this  will  have	 permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person
       running mkisofs.	 If you wish other permissions or owners of the inter-
       mediate	 directories,	see  -uid,  -gid,  -dir-mode,  -file-mode  and
       -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs will also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled with  Cygnus'
       cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore
       most references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with Win32.


OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies the abstract file name.	 There is space	 on  the  disc
	      for  37  characters  of information.  This parameter can also be
	      set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename.  If specified  in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
	      header.  This should describe the application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.   There  is  space  on the disc for 128 characters of
	      information.  This  parameter  can  also	be  set	 in  the  file
	      .mkisofsrc  with APPI=id.	 If specified in both places, the com-
	      mand line version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin	with  a	 period.   Usually,  a
	      leading  dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain
	      MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This  options  allows lower case characters to appear in iso9660
	      filenames.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one dot to appear in iso9660 file-
	      names.  A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may  be
	      allowed separately using the -allow-leading-dots option.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies the bibliographic file name.  There is	space  on  the
	      disc  for 37 characters of information.  This parameter can also
	      be set in the file .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename.  If specified
	      in both places, the command line version is used.

       -cache-inodes
	      Cache  inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
	      mkisofs finds a hard link (a file with multiple names), then the
	      file  will  only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space
	      on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is  default	on  UNIX  like
	      operating	 systems.   Be	careful	 when  using  this option on a
	      filesystem without unique inode numbers  as  it  may  result  in
	      files containing the wrong content on CD.

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Do  not  cache  inode and device numbers.	 This option is needed
	      whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers. It  is
	      the  default  on Cygwin.	As the Microsoft operating system that
	      runs below Cygwin is not	POSIX  compliant,  it  does  not  have
	      unique  inode numbers.  Cygwin creates fake inode numbers from a
	      hash algorithm that is not 100% correct.	If mkisofs would cache
	      inodes on Cygwin, it would believe that some files are identical
	      although they are not. The result in this case  are  files  that
	      contain  the  wrong content if a significant amount of different
	      files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is  to	 be  archived.
	      This  does not happen when the -no-cache-inodes is used, but the
	      disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot detect hardlinks anymore and
	      the resulting CD image may be larger than expected.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The  pathname  must  be
	      relative	to  the source path specified to mkisofs.  This option
	      is required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD.  The boot	 image
	      must  be	exactly	 the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB
	      floppy, and mkisofs will use this size when creating the	output
	      iso9660 filesystem. It is assumed that the first 512 byte sector
	      should be read from the boot image (it is essentially  emulating
	      a	 normal	 floppy	 drive).   This will work, for example, if the
	      boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

	      If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need  to  add
	      one  of  the  options: -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.	If the
	      system should not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

	      If the -sort option has not been specified, the boot images  are
	      sorted  with  low	 priority (+2) to the beginning of the medium.
	      If you don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight	 of  0
	      for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start  with  a  new  set	of  "El Torito" boot parameters.  This
	      allows to have more than one El Torito boot on a CD.  A  maximum
	      of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a single CD.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies	 a comma separated list of boot images that are needed
	      to make a bootable CD for sparc systems.	Partition  0  is  used
	      for the ISO-9660 image, the first image file is mapped to parti-
	      tion 1.  There may be empty fields in the comma separated	 list.
	      The maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it is impossi-
	      ble to specify more than 7 partition  images.   This  option  is
	      required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems.  If the -B
	      or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the  first  sector  of
	      the  resulting  image  will  contain a Sun disk label. This disk
	      label specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image and	 slice	1  ...
	      slice  7	for the boot images that have been specified with this
	      option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of  the  additional
	      boot  images  must  contain  a  primary  boot that works for the
	      appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each of  the	images
	      usually  contains	 an ufs filesystem that is used primary kernel
	      boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the boot method found with	 SunOS
	      4.x  and SunOS 5.x.  However, it does not depend on SunOS inter-
	      nals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this rea-
	      son,  it should be usable for any OS that boots off a sparc sys-
	      tem.

	      For more information also see the NOTES section below.

	      If the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all follow-
	      ing  boot	 partitions  are  mapped to the previous partition. If
	      mkisofs is called with -G image -B ...  all boot partitions  are
	      mapped  to  the  partition  that contains the iso9660 filesystem
	      image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
	      sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
	      used when making a generic bootable CD.  The  generic_boot_image
	      will  be	placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16
	      sectors are the sectors that are located before the iso9660 pri-
	      mary  volume  descriptor.	  If this option is used together with
	      the -sparc-boot option, the Sun  disk  label  will  overlay  the
	      first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies	 that  the  boot  image	 used  to  create  "El Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a hard disk image.  The  hard  disk  image  must
	      begin  with  a  master boot record that contains a single parti-
	      tion.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies that  the  boot	 image	used  to  create  "El  Torito"
	      bootable CDs is a 'no emulation' image. The system will load and
	      execute this image without performing any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should	be  marked  as
	      not  bootable. The system will provide an emulated drive for the
	      image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emu-
	      lation "El Torito" CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies	 the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in
	      no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
	      Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies	 that  a  56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM
	      layout will be patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.  If this
	      option  is  given,  the  boot  file  is  modified	 in the source
	      filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file  cannot  be
	      easily  regenerated!   See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section
	      for a description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create  a  CDextra
	      or the image of a second session or a higher level session for a
	      multi session disk.  The option -C takes a pair of  two  numbers
	      separated	 by  a comma. The first number is the sector number of
	      the first sector in the last session of the disk that should  be
	      appended to.  The second number is the starting sector number of
	      the new session.	The expected pair of numbers may be  retrieved
	      by  calling  cdrecord  -msinfo  ...  If the -C option is used in
	      conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem
	      image that is intended to be a continuation of the previous ses-
	      sion.  If the -C option is used without the -M  option,  mkisofs
	      will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a
	      second session on a CDextra. This is a  multi  session  CD  that
	      holds  audio  data in the first session and a ISO9660 filesystem
	      in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to  be  used
	      when  making  an	"El  Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be
	      relative to the source path specified to mkisofs.	  This	option
	      is  required  to make a bootable CD.  This file will be inserted
	      into the output tree and not created in the  source  filesystem,
	      so  be  sure  the	 specified  filename does not conflict with an
	      existing file, as it will	 be  excluded.	Usually	 a  name  like
	      "boot.catalog" is chosen.

	      If  the  -sort  option  has not been specified, the boot catalog
	      sorted with low priority (+1) to the beginning  of  the  medium.
	      If  you  don't like this, you need to specify a sort weight of 0
	      for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check all filenames imported from	 old  session  for  compliance
	      with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules.  It his option is
	      not present, only names with a length > 31 are checked as	 these
	      files are a hard violation of the iso9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
	      Check  all  old  sessions	 for  compliance  with	actual mkisofs
	      iso9660 file naming rules.  This is a high level option that  is
	      a combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For
	      the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies the Copyright file name.  There is space on  the  disc
	      for  37  characters  of information.  This parameter can also be
	      set in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename.  If specified  in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them
	      in the way we see them.
	      If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660
	      standard, but it happens to work on many systems.	 Use with cau-
	      tion.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides	 the  mode  of directories used to create the image to
	      mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate	DVD-Video  compliant  UDF file system. This is done by
	      sorting the order of the content of the appropriate files and by
	      adding padding between the files if needed.  Note that the sort-
	      ing only works if the DVD-Video  filenames  include  upper  case
	      characters only.

       -f     Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When this
	      option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using  Rock
	      Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides	 the mode of regular files used to create the image to
	      mode.  Specifying this option automatically enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides	 the  gid  read	 from the source files to the value of
	      gid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output
	      more verbose but may have other effects in future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow to use graft points for filenames. If this option is used,
	      all  filenames  are  checked  for	 graft points. The filename is
	      divided at the first unescaped equal sign.  All  occurrences  of
	      '\\'   and   '='	 characters  must  be  escaped	with  '\\'  if
	      -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide glob from being seen on the ISO9660 or  Rock	 Ridge	direc-
	      tory.   glob  is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match
	      any part of the filename or path.	 Multiple globs may be hidden.
	      If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory
	      will be hidden.  In order to match a directory name,  make  sure
	      the pathname does not include a trailing '/' character.  All the
	      hidden files will still be written to the output CD image	 file.
	      Should be used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for
	      more details.

       -hide-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hidden glob
	      Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for glob.
	      This  attribute will prevent glob from being listed on DOS based
	      systems if the /A flag is not used for the listing.  glob	 is  a
	      shell  wild-card-style  pattern  that must match any part of the
	      filename or path.	 In order to match a directory name, make sure
	      the  pathname does not include a trailing '/' character.	Multi-
	      ple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden attribute as
	      above.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide  glob  from	being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a
	      shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any	 part  of  the
	      filename	or  path.   Multiple  globs  may  be  hidden.  If glob
	      matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be
	      hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the path-
	      name does not include a trailing '/' character.  All the	hidden
	      files will still be written to the output CD image file.	Should
	      be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree.  These files usu-
	      ally don't make sense in the Joliet World as they list the  real
	      name  and	 the ISO9660 name which may both be different from the
	      Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved  in  the  Rock	 Ridge
	      tree.  It seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
	      directory from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option only makes  the
	      visible tree better to understand for people who don't know what
	      this directory is for.  If you need to have no  RR_MOVED	direc-
	      tory  at	all,  you  should use the -D option. Note that in case
	      that the -D option has been specified, the resulting  filesystem
	      is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be readable on MS-
	      DOS.  See	 also  NOTES  section  for  more  information  on  the
	      RR_MOVED directory.

       -input-charset charset
	      Input  charset  that  defines  the characters used in local file
	      names.  To get a list  of	 valid	charset	 names,	 call  mkisofs
	      -input-charset  help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default
	      as charset name. The default initial values  are	cp437  on  DOS
	      based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.	 See CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
	      Rock  Ridge file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHAR-
	      ACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3 and 4.

	      With  level  1,  files may only consist of one section and file-
	      names are restricted to 8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With level 3, no	restrictions  (other  than  ISO-9660:1988)  do
	      apply.

	      With  all iso9660 levels from 1..3, all filenames are restricted
	      to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore (_). The maxi-
	      mum  filename  length is restricted to 31 characters, the direc-
	      tory nesting level is restricted	to  8  and  the	 maximum  path
	      length is limited to 255 characters.

	      Level  4	officially  does  not  exists  but  mkisofs maps it to
	      ISO-9660:1999 which is ISO-9660 version 2.

	      With level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version	number
	      and  file	 structure  version number set to 2 is emitted.	 There
	      may be more than 8 levels of directory nesting, there is no need
	      for  a  file  to	contain	 a dot and the dot has no more special
	      meaning, file names do not have  version	numbers,  the  maximum
	      length  for files and directory is raised to 207.	 If Rock Ridge
	      is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name length is reduced to 197.

	      When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced volume
	      descriptor  which	 looks	similar to a primary volume descriptor
	      but is slightly different. Be careful not to use broken software
	      to  make	ISO-9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy
	      and patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular iso9660
	      file  names.   This is primarily useful when the discs are to be
	      used on Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines.  The Joliet filenames
	      are specified in Unicode and each path component can be up to 64
	      Unicode characters long.	Note that Joliet is no standard - CD's
	      that  use	 only  Joliet  extensions  but	no standard Rock Ridge
	      extensions may usually only be used on Microsoft Win32  systems.
	      Furthermore,  the	 fact  that  the  filenames  are limited to 64
	      characters and the fact that Joliet uses the UTF-16  coding  for
	      Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow  Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This
	      breaks the Joliet specification - but appears to work. Use  with
	      caution.	The  number 103 is derived from: the maximum Directory
	      Record Length (254), minus the length of Directory Record	 (33),
	      minus  CD-ROM  XA System Use Extension Information (14), divided
	      by the UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
	      Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARAC-
	      TER SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow  full  31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 file-
	      name will be in an 8.3 format which is compatible	 with  MS-DOS,
	      even  though  the	 ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31
	      characters.  If you use this option, the disc may	 be  difficult
	      to use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy on some other
	      systems (such as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated	option	reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,  use  -allow-lead-
	      ing-dots	instead.   This option will get POSIX.1-2001 semantics
	      with mkisofs-2.02.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude glob from being written to CDROM.	 glob is a shell wild-
	      card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the
	      path  as	with  option -x).  Technically glob is matched against
	      the d->d_name part of the directory entry.  Multiple  globs  may
	      be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would  exclude  all files ending in ".o", called "core" or "foo-
	      bar" to be copied to CDROM. Note that if	you  had  a  directory
	      called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descendants) would
	      be excluded.

	      NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
	      they  are wrong.	Both now work identical and use filename glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole path matches.

       -exclude-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be exclude as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow  37 chars in iso9660 filenames.  This option forces the -N
	      option as the extra name space is taken from the space  reserved
	      for ISO-9660 version numbers.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Although a conforming application needs  to  pro-
	      vide  a  buffer  space  of at least 37 characters, disks created
	      with this option may cause a  buffer  overflow  in  the  reading
	      operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      or

       -dev device
	      Specifies	 path  to  existing  iso9660  image  to be merged. The
	      alternate form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the  same
	      syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord.	 The output of mkisofs
	      will be a new session which should get written to the end of the
	      image  specified	in  -M.	 Typically this requires multi-session
	      capability for  the  recorder  and  cdrom	 drive	that  you  are
	      attempting to write this image to.  This option may only be used
	      in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really  uses  the
	      version numbers anyway.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Mode  to	use when creating new directories in the iso fs image.
	      The default mode is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Do not include backup files files on the iso9660 filesystem.  If
	      the  -no-bak option is specified, files that contain the charac-
	      ters '~' or '#' or end in '.bak' will not be included (these are
	      typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -force-rr
	      Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
	      previous sessions.  This helps to show rotten iso9660  extension
	      records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the	 Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
	      This may help to avoid getting into trouble when	mkisofs	 finds
	      illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some space,	but  the  SunOS	 4.1.4
	      cdrom driver has a bug in reading split SL components (link_size
	      = component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

	      Note that this option has been introduced by Eric	 Youngdale  in
	      1997.   It  is questionable whether it makes sense at all.  When
	      it has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that  did
	      create  defective	 CE  signatures if a symlink contained '/../'.
	      This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't split the SL fields, but begin  a  new  Continuation  Area
	      (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and
	      Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split SL fields
	      (a '/' can be dropped).

	      Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in
	      1997.  It is questionable whether it makes sense at  all.	  When
	      it  has been introduced, mkisofs did have a serious bug that did
	      create defective CE signatures if a  symlink  contained  '/../'.
	      This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
	      is  the  name  of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image
	      should be written.  This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it
	      can  correspond  directly to the device name of the optical disc
	      writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that the output
	      can  also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in
	      which case the disk partition can be  mounted  and  examined  to
	      ensure that the premastering was done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).	If the
	      option -B is used, then there is a padding at  the  end  of  the
	      iso9660  partition  and  before the beginning of the boot parti-
	      tions.  The size of this padding is chosen  to  make  the	 first
	      boot  partition  start  on a sector number that is a multiple of
	      16.

	      The padding is needed as many  operating	systems	 (e.g.	Linux)
	      implement	 read  ahead  bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs
	      result in read errors on one or more files that are  located  at
	      the  end	of  a  track.  They are usually present when the CD is
	      written in Track at Once mode or when the	 disk  is  written  as
	      mixed mode CD where an audio track follows the data track.

	      To  avoid	 problems  with	 I/O  error  on	 the  last file on the
	      filesystem, the -pad option has been made the default.

       -no-pad
	      Do not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not  make  the
	      the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A	 file  containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames
	      to be added to the ISO9660 filesystem. This  list	 of  pathspecs
	      are  processed after any that appear on the command line. If the
	      argument is -, then the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated	option	reserved  by  POSIX.1-2001,   use   -publisher
	      instead.	 This  option  will  get  POSIX.1-2001	semantics with
	      mkisofs-2.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be  written  into  the	volume
	      header.	This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usu-
	      ally with a mailing address and phone number.  There is space on
	      the  disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter can
	      also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified  in
	      both places, the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
	      header.  This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually
	      with  a mailing address and phone number.	 There is space on the
	      disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter can also
	      be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -print-size
	      Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector  size
	      (2048  bytes)  and  exit. This option is needed for Disk At Once
	      mode and	with  some  CD-R  drives  when	piping	directly  into
	      cdrecord.	  In  this  case  it is needed to know the size of the
	      filesystem before the actual CD-creation is  done.   The	option
	      -print-size  allows to get this size from a "dry-run" before the
	      CD is actually written.  Old versions of mkisofs did write  this
	      information  (among other information) to stderr.	 As this turns
	      out to be hard to parse, the number without any  other  informa-
	      tion  is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a sim-
	      ple shell script, redirect stderr and catch the number from std-
	      out.  This may be done with:

	      cdblocks=' mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... '

	      mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This  makes  mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress output will
	      be provided.

       -R     Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock  Ridge  protocol  to
	      further describe the files on the iso9660 filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they  are	 usually  only	useful on the author's system, and not
	      useful to the client.  All the file read bits are set  true,  so
	      that  files and directories are globally readable on the client.
	      If any execute bit is set for a file, set	 all  of  the  execute
	      bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client.
	      If any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the	search
	      bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
	      All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will  be  mounted
	      read-only in any case.  If any of the special mode bits are set,
	      clear them, because file locks are not  useful  on  a  read-only
	      file  system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or gid
	      0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is  set  on  all	files.
	      This  is	a  result of the lack of file permissions on Win32 and
	      the  Cygwin  POSIX  emulation  layer.   See  also	  -uid	 -gid,
	      -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      The   option  -relaxed-filenames	allows	ISO9660	 filenames  to
	      include digits, upper case characters and all other 7 bit	 ASCII
	      characters (resp. anything except lowercase characters).
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves all files and directories into dir in the image.  This  is
	      essentially  the	same  as using -graft-points and adding dir in
	      front of every pathspec, but is easier to use.

	      dir may actually be several levels deep. It is created with  the
	      same permissions as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
	      This  option  is necessary when writing a multisession image and
	      the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
	      Using  a directory name not found in the previous session causes
	      mkisofs to abort with an error.

	      Without this option, mkisofs would not be able to	 find  unmodi-
	      fied  files  and	would  be  forced to write their data into the
	      image once more.

	      -root and -old-root are meant to be used together to  do	incre-
	      mental  backups.	 The  initial  session would e.g. use: mkisofs
	      -root backup_1 dirs.  The next incremental backup	 with  mkisofs
	      -root  backup_2  -old-root  backup_1  dirs.   would take another
	      snapshot of these directories. The first snapshot would be found
	      in  backup_1,  the  second one in backup_2, but only modified or
	      new files need to be written into the second session.

	      Without these options, new files would be	 added	and  old  ones
	      would  be	 preserved.  But  old ones would be overwritten if the
	      file was modified. Recovering the files  by  copying  the	 whole
	      directory	 back  from  CD	 would	also  restore  files that were
	      deleted intentionally. Accessing several	older  versions	 of  a
	      file  requires  support  by the operating system to choose which
	      sessions are to be mounted.

       -sort sort file
	      Sort file locations on the media. Sorting	 is  controlled	 by  a
	      file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting offset weight-
	      ing.  If the weighting is	 higher,  the  file  will  be  located
	      closer to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is lower,
	      the file will be located closer to the end of the	 media.	 There
	      must  be	only  one space or tabs character between the filename
	      and the weight and the weight must be the last characters	 on  a
	      line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to,
	      but not including the last space or tab  character  on  a	 line.
	      This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of
	      a filename.  This option does not sort the  order	 of  the  file
	      names  that  appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts the order
	      in which the file data is written to the CD image - which may be
	      useful  in  order	 to  optimize  the  data  layout  on a CD. See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is  cre-
	      ated with the -sparc-boot option.

       -split-output
	      Split the output image into several files of approximately 1 GB.
	      This helps to create  DVD	 sized	iso9660	 images	 on  operating
	      systems  without	large file support.  Cdrecord will concatenate
	      more than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.   To
	      make  -split-output  work, the -o filename option must be speci-
	      fied.  The  resulting  outout  images  will  be	named:	 file-
	      name_00,filename_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select  streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.
	      This allows you to pipe the  output  of  the  tar	 program  into
	      mkisofs  and  to create a iso9660 filesystem without the need of
	      an intermediate tar archive file.	 If this option has been spec-
	      ified, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file with the name
	      STREAM.IMG.  The maximum size of the file (with padding) is  200
	      sectors  less than the specified media size. If -no-pad has been
	      specified, the file size is 50 sectors less than	the  specified
	      media  size.   If	 the  file is smaller, then mkisofs will write
	      padding. This may take a while.

	      The option -stream-media-size creates simple iso9660 filesystems
	      only  and	 may  not  used	 together with multi-session or hybrid
	      filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
	      Specifies a comma separated list of filesystem images  that  are
	      needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note  that  partition  1 is used for the ISO-9660 image and that
	      partition 2 is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may  not  be
	      used by external partition data.	The first image file is mapped
	      to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in  the  comma	 sepa-
	      rated  list,  and	 list  entries	for  partition 1 and 2 must be
	      empty.   The  maximum  number  of	 supported  partitions	is   8
	      (although the Solaris x86 partition table could support up to 16
	      partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than  6	parti-
	      tion  images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD for
	      Solaris x86 systems.

	      If the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first	sector
	      of  the  resulting  image	 will  contain a PC fdisk label with a
	      Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at offset 512  and
	      spans  the  whole	 CD.   In  addition, for the Solaris type 0x82
	      fdisk partition, there is a SVr4 disk label at  offset  1024  in
	      the  first  sector of the CD.  This disk label specifies slice 0
	      for the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image that  is  used
	      to boot the PC and slice 1 for the iso9660 image.	 Slice 2 spans
	      the whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7	may  be	 used  for  additional
	      filesystem images that have been specified with this option.

	      A	 Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that
	      uses the	El-Torito  no-emulation	 boot  mode  and  a  secondary
	      generic boot that is in CD sectors 1..15.	 For this reason, both
	      -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set the SVr4 disk label name for the SVr4	 disk  label  that  is
	      created with the -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies	 the  system  ID.   There  is space on the disc for 32
	      characters of information.  This parameter can also  be  set  in
	      the  file	 .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.  If specified in both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM,	 which
	      can  be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help establish
	      the correct file names.  There is also  information  present  in
	      the  file	 that  indicates the major and minor numbers for block
	      and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link
	      file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
	      Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the
	      -T option.  If you are creating a multi-session image  you  must
	      use the same name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set  Unicode  conformance	 level	in the Joliet SVD. The default
	      level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include UDF support in the generated filesystem image.  UDF sup-
	      port is currently in alpha status and for this reason, it is not
	      possible to create UDF only images.   UDF	 data  structures  are
	      currently	 coupled  to  the Joliet structures, so there are many
	      pitfalls with the current implementation. There  is  no  UID/GID
	      support,	there is no POSIX permission support, there is no sup-
	      port for symlinks.  Note that UDF wastes the space  from	sector
	      ~20  to  sector  256 at the beginning of the disk in addition to
	      the spcae needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides the uid read from the source files  to	the  value  of
	      uid.   Specifying	 this  option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The option -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use	 file  version
	      numbers  from  the  filesystem.  If the option is not specified,
	      mkisofs creates a version number of 1 for all files.  File  ver-
	      sions  are  strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is the
	      default on VMS.

       -U     Allows  "Untranslated"  filenames,  completely   violating   the
	      iso9660  standards  described  above.  Forces on the -d, -l, -N,
	      -allow-leading-dots,    -relaxed-filenames,    -allow-lowercase,
	      -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It allows more than
	      one '.' character in the filename, as well as mixed  case	 file-
	      names.   This is useful on HP-UX system, where the built-in CDFS
	      filesystem does not recognize ANY extensions. Use	 with  extreme
	      caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do  not  translate  the characters '#' and '~' which are invalid
	      for iso9660 filenames.   These  characters  are  though  invalid
	      often used by Microsoft systems.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies the volume ID (volume name or  label)  to  be  written
	      into  the master block.  There is space on the disc for 32 char-
	      acters of information.  This parameter can also be  set  in  the
	      file  .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If specified in both places, the
	      command line version is used.  Note that if you assign a	volume
	      ID,  this	 is the name that will be used as the mount point used
	      by the Solaris volume management system and  the	name  that  is
	      assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32 or Apple Mac platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies the volset ID.	There is space on  the	disc  for  128
	      characters  of  information.   This parameter can also be set in
	      the file .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id.	If specified  in  both
	      places, the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets  the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the num-
	      ber of CD's that are in a CD volume set.	A volume set is a col-
	      lection  of  one	or  more  volumes,  on which a set of files is
	      recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered
	      CD's  that  are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set
	      of CD's.	Volume Sets are rather used to record a big  directory
	      tree  that  would	 not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of a
	      Volume Set contains a description of  all	 the  directories  and
	      files  that  are recorded on the volumes where the sequence num-
	      bers are less than, or equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of
	      the current volume.

	      Mkisofs currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger
	      than 1.

	      The option -volset-size must be specified	 before	 -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets  the	 volume	 set  sequence	number	to  #.	The volume set
	      sequence number is the index number of the current CD  in	 a  CD
	      set.    The   option   -volset-size  must	 be  specified	before
	      -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice on  the	 command  line,	 extra
	      debug information will be printed.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from being written to CDROM.	 path must be the com-
	      plete pathname that  results  from  concatenating	 the  pathname
	      given  as	 command  line	argument and the path relative to this
	      directory.  Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,
	      they  are wrong.	Both now work identical and use filename glob-
	      bing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or
	      the whole path matches.

       -z     Generate	special	 RRIP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.  This is only of use and interest for hosts that  support
	      transparent  decompression,  such as Linux 2.4.14 or later.  You
	      must specify the -R or -r options to enable RockRidge, and  gen-
	      erate compressed files using the mkzftree utility before running
	      mkisofs.	Note that transparent  compression  is	a  nonstandard
	      Rock  Ridge  extension.	The resulting disks are only transpar-
	      ently readable if used on Linux.	On other operating systems you
	      will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.


HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create  an  ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in
	      conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or the various double dash
	      options given below.

       -apple Create  an  ISO9660  CD  with Apple's extensions. Similar to the
	      -hfs option, except that the Apple  Extensions  to  ISO9660  are
	      added  instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.	Former mkisofs
	      versions did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if	-apple
	      was  specified.  This  versions of mkisofs does not do this any-
	      more. If you like to have Rock Ridge  attributes,	 you  need  to
	      specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
	      a file based on the filename's extension. A filename  is	mapped
	      only  if	it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See
	      the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's	 magic
	      number  (usually	the first few bytes of a file). The magic_file
	      is only used if a file is not one of the known  Apple/Unix  file
	      formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the
	      -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE  section  below  for  more
	      details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac-
	      ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
	      Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be  exactly  4  charac-
	      ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
	      formats.	See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section  below  for
	      more  about  these  formats.  However, the only way to check for
	      MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them. There-
	      fore  this  option may increase processing time. It is better to
	      use  one	or  more  double  dash	options	 given	below  if  the
	      Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will
	      be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the
	      System  Folder).	 By  default, empty Desktop files are added to
	      the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use the HFS filename as the  starting  point  for	 the  ISO9660,
	      Joliet  and  Rock	 Ridge	file names. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Mac-
	      intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate	an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table
	      is generated, but some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need an HFS
	      partition	 table	on  the CDROM to be able to recognize a hybrid
	      CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use  the	QuickTime  2.0	Autostart  feature  to
	      launch  an  application  or document. The given filename must be
	      the name of a document or application located at the  top	 level
	      of  the  CD.  The	 filename  must	 be  less  than 12 characters.
	      (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units	of  PC
	      Exchange	files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MAC-
	      INTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide glob from the HFS volume. The file or directory will	 still
	      exist  in	 the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob is a shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename
	      Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would  exclude  all files ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from
	      the HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory called "foobar"
	      it  too  (and  of course all its descendants) would be excluded.
	      The glob can also be a path name relative to the source directo-
	      ries given on the command line. Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would  exclude just the file or directory called "html" from the
	      "src" directory. Any other file or directory  called  "html"  in
	      the  tree	 will  not be excluded.	 Should be used with the -hide
	      and/or -hide-joliet options.  In	order  to  match  a  directory
	      name,  make  sure	 the  pathname does not include a trailing '/'
	      character. See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This  is  the	name  that  is
	      assigned	to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid used
	      with the -V option

       -icon-position
	      Use the icon  position  information,  if	it  exists,  from  the
	      Apple/Unix  file.	 The icons will appear in the same position as
	      they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and  size  on
	      screen,  its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small
	      Icons, etc.) are also preserved.	This option may become set  by
	      default in the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set  the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View
	      etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume.  See  README.rootinfo
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
	      PReP  boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
	      (Alpha)

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS file names
	      when  used  with	the  -mac-name option.	The default charset is
	      cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER  SETS  and
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
	      the HFS file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By  default,  mkisofs  will create an HFS volume that is locked.
	      This option leaves the volume unlocked so	 that  other  applica-
	      tions  (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS PROB-
	      LEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for  warnings  about  using  this
	      option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System
	      Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the
	      directory	 must  be the whole path name as mkisofs sees it. e.g.
	      if the given pathspec is ./cddata and  the  required  folder  is
	      called System Folder, then the whole path name is "./cddata/Sys-
	      tem Folder"  (remember  to  use  quotes  if  the	name  contains
	      spaces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
	      Override	certain parameters used to create the HFS file system.
	      Unlikely to be  used  in	normal	circumstances.	See  the  lib-
	      hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for	 AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix
	      file formats only. Searching for the other  possible  Apple/Unix
	      file  formats  is disabled, unless other double dash options are
	      given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services  for  Macintosh  files  (NT	 only)
	      (Alpha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files


CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs	processes  file	 names	in a POSIX compliant way as strings of
       8-bit characters.  To represent all codings for	all  languages,	 8-bit
       characters  are	not  sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character
       codings that need at least 21 bits to represent	all  known  languages.
       They  may  be  represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.	UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by
       Microsoft with Win32 with the disadvantage that it only supports a sub-
       set of all codes and that 16-bit characters are not compliant with  the
       POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern  UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This
       coding allows to use the complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit	 char-
       acter  is  represented by one or more 8-bit characters.	If a character
       is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and  North  America)  is
       maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.	If a character
       is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other  countries  with	limted
       character  set)	is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode
       character.  Character codes that cannot be represented as a single byte
       in  UTF-8  (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape sequences that
       map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs would not need
       to  recode  characters  in  file names.	Unfortunately, Apple uses com-
       pletely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a Unicode coding that is
       not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all	 non  UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual character that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (which is
       the name used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system in use -
       the characters in a character set will reflect the  region  or  natural
       language used by the user.

       Usually	 character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,	 codes
       0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit	ASCII  characters  and	(on  PC's  and	Mac's)
       0x80-0xff  are used for other characters.  Unfortunately even this does
       not follow ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f  for  control
       characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small
       subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the same character
       code  may  represent a different character in different character sets.
       So a file name generated, say in central Europe, may  not  display  the
       same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To  make matters more complicated, different operating systems use dif-
       ferent character sets for the region or language. For example the char-
       acter  code  for "small e with acute accent" may be character code 0x82
       on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system.  Note
       while  the  codings  used on a PC or Mac are nonstandard, Unicode codes
       this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value as the
       value used by most UNIX systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and applications will use the Uni-
       code character set as the basis for file names in a unique way, it  may
       be  necessary to specify which character set your file names use in and
       which character set the file names should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines the local character set  you  are	 using	on  your  host
	      machine.	Any character set conversions that take place will use
	      this character set as the staring point. The default input char-
	      acter  sets  are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on all
	      other systems.

	      If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents  of  the
	      input  character set will be used in the Joliet directory. Using
	      the -jcharset option is the same as using the -input-charset and
	      -J options.

       -output-charset
	      Defines  the  character  set that will be used with for the Rock
	      Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only
	      likely  to  be useful if used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using
	      mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock  Ridge  CDs.
	      If  you  are  using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it is likely that
	      the output character set will be the same as the input character
	      set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines  the  HFS	 character set used for HFS file names decoded
	      from any of the various Apple/Unix  file	formats.  Only	useful
	      when  used  with	-mac-name  option.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
	      NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS file names from
	      the  input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
	      the character set given with the -input-charset option. Defaults
	      to the input HFS character set.

       There  are  a  number  of character sets built in to mkisofs.  To get a
       listing, use mkisofs -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets can be read from file for any of the  charac-
       ter  set	 options  by giving a filename as the argument to the options.
       The given file will only be read if its name does not match one of  the
       built in character sets.

       The  format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files
       available from  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS  The  format  of
       these files is:

	    Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
	    Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
	    Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format
       or comments lines (starting with the # character) are  ignored  without
       any  warnings.  Any  missing  input code is mapped to Unicode character
       0x0000.

       Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE	 (UTF-16)  or  32  bit
       UNICODE	(UTF-32)  coding  because  this coding is not POSIX compliant.
       There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding which is compatible to
       POSIX  filenames	 and  supported	 by moder UNIX implementations such as
       Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as  the	argument  to  any  of  the  character set options. This is the
       behaviour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 file names generated from the input filenames are not  con-
       verted  from  the  input	 character set. The ISO9660 character set is a
       very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any  character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a '_'
       character.


HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file has two properties associated  with  it	 which	define
       which  application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the file
       contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually  this
       allows  a  Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the cor-
       rect application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can  be
       found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE	information  is	 stored	 in  all  the  various
       Apple/Unix encoded files.  For other files it is possible to  base  the
       CREATOR	and TYPE on the filename's extension using a mapping file (the
       -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in  the
       first  few  bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these options
       are given, then their order on the command line is  important.  If  the
       -map  option  is	 given	first,	then  a	 filename  extension  match is
       attempted before a magic number match. However, if the -magic option is
       given  first,  then a magic number match is attempted before a filename
       extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found  then  the
       default	CREATOR	 and  TYPE  for	 all regular files can be set by using
       entries in  the	.mkisofsrc  file  or  using  the  -hfs-creator	and/or
       -hfs-type  options,  otherwise  the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix'
       and 'TEXT'.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format  as  used  by
       aufs.   This file has five columns for the extension, file translation,
       CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines starting with the '#'	character  are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR	  TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The  first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be
	      mapped. The default mapping  for	any  filename  extension  that
	      doesn't match is defined with the "*" character.

	      The  Xlate  column  defines the type of text translation between
	      the Unix and Macintosh file it is ignored	 by  mkisofs,  but  is
	      kept  to	be compatible with aufs(1).  Although mkisofs does not
	      alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has it's TYPE set
	      as  'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore
	      a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

	      The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must  be  4	 characters  long  and
	      enclosed in single quotes.

	      The  comment  field is enclosed in double quotes - it is ignored
	      by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The format of the magic file is almost identical to the	magic(4)  file
       used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines for reading and decod-
       ing the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

       This file has four tab separated columns for  the  byte	offset,	 type,
       test  and  message.   Lines starting with the '#' character are comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:


       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8	    8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!	    ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in the magic(4) man page. The  only
       difference  here	 is that for each entry in the magic file, the message
       for the initial offset must be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by
       4  characters  for the TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any
       other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines  (start-
       ing with a '>') are also ignored i.e. only the initial offset lines are
       used.

       Using the -magic option may significantly increase processing  time  as
       each file has to opened and read to find it's magic number.

       In  summary,  for  all  files,  the  default  CREATOR is 'unix' and the
       default TYPE is 'TEXT'.	These can be changed by using entries  in  the
       .mkisofsrc  file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format
       has been selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values
       stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from  their  file  name
       extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option).
       If the default match is used in the mapping  file,  then	 these	values
       override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A     full     CREATOR/TYPE     database	    can	    be	   found    at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html


HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh files have two parts  called  the  Data  and  Resource	 fork.
       Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a  num-
       ber  of	attributes  associated with them - probably the most important
       are the TYPE and CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept of these  types  of
       attributes.

       e.g.  a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in
       the Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource  fork.  It
       is usually the information in the data fork that is useful across plat-
       forms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has  to
       be found to cope with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred to as the finder info).	 Unfortunately, it  seems  that	 every
       software	 package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a com-
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
	      Data fork stored	in  a  file.  Resource	fork  in  subdirectory
	      .resource with same filename as data fork. Finder info in .find-
	      erinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file  with
	      same name prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%"
	      file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/find-
	      erinfo  stored  in  subdirectory	.AppleDouble with same name as
	      data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data structures similar to above, except both forks  and	finder
	      info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data  fork  stored  in  a	 file.	Resource  fork and finder info
	      together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data	 fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Very  similar  to	 the EtherShare format, but the finder info is
	      stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
	      Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files	on  DOS	 (FAT)	disks.
	      Data  fork  stored  in  a	 file.	Resource  fork in subdirectory
	      resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info  as  one  record  in
	      file  finder.dat	(or  FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for each
	      data fork directory.

	      Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size  of  the
	      disk  that  the  PC  Exchange  files are on (or have been copied
	      from). This size is given	 by  the  -cluster-size	 option.   The
	      cluster or allocation size can be found by using the DOS utility
	      CHKDSK.

	      May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or  higher  files  (available
	      with  MacOS 8.1).	 DOS media containing PC Exchange files should
	      be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored
	      in  a  file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same
	      name. Finder info as one record in file  .HSancillary.  Separate
	      .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
	      Allows  Macintoshes  to  store Apple files on SMB servers.  Data
	      fork  stored  in	a  file.   Resource   fork   in	  subdirectory
	      resource.frk.  Uses  the	AppleDouble  format  to store resource
	      fork.

       Services for Macintosh
	      Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
	      fork  is	stored	as  "filename". Resource fork stored as a NTFS
	      stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder info is stored
	      as  a  NTFS  stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These streams
	      are normally invisible to the user.

	      Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format.	If  an
	      HFS  file	 or folder stored on the NT server contains an illegal
	      NT character in its name, then NT converts these	characters  to
	      Private  Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?
	       | also a space or period if it is the  last  character  of  the
	      file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
	      Apple' apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
	      by  the  mkisofs	NT executable. Therefore any file or directory
	      name containing these characters will be ignored - including the
	      contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
	      When  HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X on to a non-
	      HFS file system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files  are  stored  in
	      AppleDouble  format.   Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
	      stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder  info
	      also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not  really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
	      a MacOS X system. Data fork stored  in  a	 file.	Resource  fork
	      stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with	 the same name with the suffix
	      '/rsrc'. The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X  library
	      call.

	      Notes: (also see README.macosx)

	      Only works when used on MacOS X.

	      If  a  file  is found with a zero length resource fork and empty
	      finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding  -
	      therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       mkisofs	will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other
       flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists,	the  Macintosh
       filename	 is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name is
       based on the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE	NAMES  section
       below.

       When  using  the	 -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the
       optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record -  in
       much  the  same	way  as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make
       life easy, the Apple extensions are  added  at  the  beginning  of  the
       existing	 Rock  Ridge  attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you
       get the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource  fork	to  be	stored	as  an
       ISO9660	associated  file.  This is just like any normal file stored in
       the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is  set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files  are  nor-
       mally ignored by other OSs

       When  using  the	 -hfs  option,	the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder
       info, are stored in a  separate	HFS  directory,	 not  visible  on  the
       ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the same data and resource
       fork files described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use  the	-hfs  option  instead  of  the
       -apple  option,	as  the	 latter imposes the limited ISO9660 characters
       allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the	advan-
       tage  that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it may
       be possible to fit more files on a CD - important when the  total  size
       of the source files is approaching 650MB.


HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is used for the HFS part of the CD. However,  not  all  the  Apple/Unix
       encodings  store	 the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases,
       the Unix filename is used - with escaped	 special  characters.  Special
       characters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs  escapes  these  characters by using ":" followed by the character
       code as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar  scheme,
       but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If mkisofs can't find an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a	single
       character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are
       left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is
       the  HFS	 directory  separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
       file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.


       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a unique name by
       adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as
       the  starting  point  for  the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames
       using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix files without an HFS name  will
       still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If  a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on
       the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then
       this  is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However,
       as mkisofs uses the Unix name as	 the  starting	point  for  the	 other
       names,  then  the  ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN
       and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would	be  someimage.gif.bin.	 Although  the
       actual data (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS
       filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name  will  probably  be
       SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL  file,  not	the  Macintosh
       name.

       The  character  set  used to convert any HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock
       Ridge file name defaults to cp10000 (Mac	 Roman).   The	character  set
       used  can be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other built
       in HFS character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),  cp10007	(MacCyrillic),
       cp10029	(MacLatin2),  cp10079  (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurk-
       ish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character  set.  Only	the  Joliet/Rock  Ridge	 names
       derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The  existing  mkisofs  code will filter out any illegal characters for
       the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be  dealing
       directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as is.	But as
       '/' is a legal HFS filename character, the  -mac-name  option  converts
       '/' to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO9660 filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers  can
       use  Level  2  filenames, then you can use options like -allow-multidot
       without problems on a Macintosh - still take care over the  names,  for
       example	this.file.name	will  be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have
       one '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but  abcdefghi
       will  be seen as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a '.' at the end - don't know if
       this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All  filenames
       will be in upper case when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...


HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top	level)	folder
       includes a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a cus-
       tom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be  pasted  over	 the  volume's
       icon  in	 the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character)  in  the
       root folder.

       A  custom  folder  icon	is  very  similar  -  an invisible file called
       'Icon\r' exits in the folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can  use,
       is  to  format  a  blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac, paste an icon to its
       "Get Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the
       floppy using something like:

		  mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as a CAP file system by default. Then run
       mkisofs using something like:

		  mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to  copy  the
       icon  file  from the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon
       file contains a control character. e.g.

		  hmount /dev/fd0
		  hdir -a
		  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then  run  mkisofs  by
       using something like:

		  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar -
       paste an icon to folder's "Get Info" box	 and  transfer	the  resulting
       'Icon\r' file to the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

       You  may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at:
       http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]


HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A  bootable  HFS	 CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a
       bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file	can  then  be  used  with  the
       -boot-hfs-file option.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our  case)  must  contain  a
       suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For  a  partition to be bootable, it must have it's boot block set. The
       boot block is in the first two  blocks  of  a  partition.  For  a  non-
       bootable	 partition  the	 boot block is full of zeros. Normally, when a
       System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot	 block
       is  filled  with	 a number of required settings - unfortunately I don't
       know the full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow-
       ing will work OK.

       Therefore,  the	utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from
       the first HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this  is  used
       for the HFS partition created by mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
	      By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to
	      your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software
	      License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When the -boot-info-table option is given, mkisofs will modify the boot
       file specified by the -b option by inserting a 56-byte  "boot  informa-
       tion  table" at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is done in the
       source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not eas-
       ily  recreated!	This file contains pointers which may not be easily or
       reliably obtained at boot time.

       The format of this table is as follows; all  integers  are  in  section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

	 Offset	   Name		  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA of boot file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file
       starting at byte offset 64.  All	 linear	 block	addresses  (LBAs)  are
       given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs	looks  for  the	 .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working
       directory, then in the user's home directory, and then in the directory
       in which the mkisofs binary is stored.  This file is assumed to contain
       a series of lines of the form TAG=value , and in this way you can spec-
       ify  certain  options.	The  case of the tag is not significant.  Some
       fields in the volume header are not settable on the command  line,  but
       can  be	altered through this facility.	Comments may be placed in this
       file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.

       APPI   The application identifier should describe the application  that
	      will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters of information.  May be overridden  using  the  -A  command
	      line option.

       COPY   The  copyright information, often the name of a file on the disc
	      containing the copyright notice.	There is space in the disc for
	      37  characters  of  information.	 May  be  overridden using the
	      -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The abstract information, often the name of a file on  the  disc
	      containing an abstract.  There is space in the disc for 37 char-
	      acters of information.  May be overridden	 using	the  -abstract
	      command line option.

       BIBL   The  bibliographic  information, often the name of a file on the
	      disc containing a bibliography.  There is space in the disc  for
	      37  characters  of  information.	 May  be  overridden using the
	      -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually  with  a
	      mailing  address	and  phone number.  There is space on the disc
	      for 128 characters of information.  May be overridden using  the
	      -p command line option.

       PUBL   This  should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a
	      mailing address and phone number.	 There is space	 on  the  disc
	      for  128 characters of information.  May be overridden using the
	      -publisher command line option.

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of information.  May be overridden using the -sysid com-
	      mand line option.

       VOLI   The Volume Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32	 char-
	      acters  of  information.	May be overridden using the -V command
	      line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 charac-
	      ters  of	information.  May be overridden using the -volset com-
	      mand line option.

       HFS_TYPE
	      The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4  charac-
	      ters.   May  be  overridden  using  the  -hfs-type  command line
	      option.

       HFS_CREATOR
	      The default CREATOR for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 char-
	      acters.	May  be overridden using the -hfs-creator command line
	      option.

       mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults  for  many
       of these fields.	 See the file defaults.h.


EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where
       the directory cd_dir will become the root directory if the CD, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock	 Ridge	extensions  of	the  source  directory
       cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with	Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir where all files have at least read permission and all files  are
       owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To  write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a sim-
       ple iso9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
       cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions  of
       the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To  create  a  HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that con-
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving  all
       files  CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed
       in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO9660', from the	source
       directories  cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based
       on their magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
	       cd_dir another_dir

       The  following example puts different files on the CD that all have the
       name README, but have different contents when seen as  a	 ISO9660/Rock-
       Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the
       CD along with the three README files - but only one will be  seen  from
       each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
	       -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
	       -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
	       -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
	       README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
	       README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e.  the  file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and the
       other two README files will be hidden. Similarly	 for  the  Joliet  and
       ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There  are probably all sorts of strange results possible with combina-
       tions of the hide options ...


AUTHOR
       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix,  because  we
       must  generate  a complete  copy of an existing filesystem on a disk in
       the  iso9660 filesystem.	 The name mkisofs is probably a bit of a  mis-
       nomer,  since it not only creates the filesystem, but it also populates
       it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name for a  UNIX  tool  that
       creates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

       Eric  Youngdale	<ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or <eric@andante.org> wrote the
       first versions (1993 ... 1998) of the mkisofs utility.	The  copyright
       for old versions of the mkisofs utility is held by Yggdrasil Computing,
       Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote the	 SCSI  transport  library  and
       it's  adaptation	 layer to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1999)
       of the utility, this makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001 Joerg
       Schilling.

       HFS  hybrid  code  Copyright  (C) James Pearson 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,
       2001
       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie
       libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990,	 1991,
       1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs	may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to allow
       mkisofs to read the previous session  when  creating  a	multi  session
       image.

       If  mkisofs  is	creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes
       and the directory nesting level of the source  directory	 tree  is  too
       much  for  ISO-9660,  mkisofs  will do deep directory relocation.  This
       results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory of the CD.
       You cannot avoid this directory.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options
       completely follows the official Sparc CD	 boot  requirements  from  the
       Boot prom in Sun Sparc systems. Some Linux distributions for Sparc sys-
       tems use a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately is not  Sparc  CD
       boot compliant.	It is annoyingly to see that the Authors of SILO don't
       fix SILO but instead provide a completely unneeded "patch"  to  mkisofs
       that incorporates far more source than the fix for SILO would need.

BUGS
       ?      Any  files  that	have hard links to files not in the tree being
	      copied to the iso9660 filesystem will  have  an  incorrect  file
	      reference count.

       ?      Does  not	 check	for  SUSP  record(s)  in "." entry of the root
	      directory to verify the existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.

	      This problem is present when reading old sessions	 while	adding
	      data in multi-session mode.

       ?      Does  not	 properly  read relocated directories in multi-session
	      mode when adding data.

	      Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not
	      include the deep directory.

	      Repeat  by:  create first session with deep directory relocation
	      then add new session with a single dir that differs from the old
	      deep path.

       ?      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session from TRANS.TBL

       ?      Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED  in	 multi-session
	      mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.


HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I  have	had  to	 make several assumptions on how I expect the modified
       libhfs routines to work, however there may be situations that either  I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.	There-
       fore I can't guarantee that mkisofs will work as expected  (although  I
       haven't	had  a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
       however, some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case  letters,
       the  filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC"
       are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name,
       then  mkisofs  will  attempt,  where possible, to make a unique name by
       adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have _N' (N
       ==  decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above  for the method and syntax involved). It is not possible to use a
       new name for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded	file  called "oldname" is to added to the CD, then you can not
       use the command line:

	      mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs will be unable to decode	 "oldname".  However,  you  can	 graft
       Apple/Unix  encoded  files or directories as long as you do not attempt
       to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M  and  -C,
       only  files in the last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs
       can not add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However, if each session is created with the -part  option,  then  each
       session	will appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In this
       case, it is worth using the -V or -hfs-volid option to give  each  ses-
       sion  a	unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear on the
       Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not  added  to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes	may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the
       same data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the hybrid volume may
       be  significantly  larger.  As  an  HFS volume gets bigger, so does the
       allocation block size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy).
       For  a  650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD it will
       be about 70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -  although
       the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The  resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it  is  set  as	locked.	  The option -hfs-unlock will create an output
       image that is unlocked - however no changes should be made to the  con-
       tents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option -
       the  Unix  name	will  be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh
       name.

       Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a  file,	 if  a	binary
       file  has it's TYPE set as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Mac-
       intosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2  or  higher  files  (available  with
       MacOS  8.1).   DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted
       as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported -  see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It  is not possible to use the the -sparc-boot or -generic-boot options
       with the -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot options.

       mkisofs should be able to create HFS hybrid images over	4Gb,  although
       this has not been fully tested.


SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).


FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	 is   available	  as   part   of  the  cdrecord	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree	 is  available	as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools	 package  from
       ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, and/or
       mkhybrid, you may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

		 other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail  address  of  the
       list is:

		 cdwrite@lists.debian.org


MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk


       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       If you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support



Version 2.01			  14 Feb 2003			    MKISOFS(8)
YoLinux.com Home Page
YoLinux Tutorial Index
Privacy Policy | Advertise with us | Feedback Form |
Unauthorized copying or redistribution prohibited.
    Bookmark and Share