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ncurses(3X)							   ncurses(3X)



NAME
       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

SYNOPSIS
       #include <curses.h>

DESCRIPTION
       The  ncurses  library  routines	give  the  user a terminal-independent
       method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable	 optimization.
       This  implementation  is	 ''new	curses'' (ncurses) and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses,  which  has  been	 discontinued.
       This describes ncurses version 5.5 (patch 20060715).

       The ncurses routines emulate the curses(3X) library of System V Release
       4 UNIX, and the XPG4 curses  standard  (XSI  curses)  but  the  ncurses
       library is freely redistributable in source form.  Differences from the
       SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS	and  PORTABILITY  sec-
       tions  below  and  described  in	 detail	 in the respective EXTENSIONS,
       PORTABILITY and BUGS sections of individual man pages.

       A program using these  routines	must  be  linked  with	the  -lncurses
       option,	or  (if	 it  has  been	generated)  with the debugging library
       -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator may  also	have  installed	 these
       libraries  under	 the  names  -lcurses  and -lcurses_g.)	 The ncurses_g
       library generates trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in  the  current
       directory)  that	 describe  curses  actions.   See  also the section on
       ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS.

       The ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad  manipula-
       tion;  output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control over
       terminal and curses input and output options;  environment  query  rou-
       tines;  color  manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo capabili-
       ties; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       To initialize the routines, the routine	initscr	 or  newterm  must  be
       called  before  any  of	the  other routines that deal with windows and
       screens are used.  The routine endwin must be  called  before  exiting.
       To  get	character-at-a-time  input  without echoing (most interactive,
       screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence  should  be
       used:

	     initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

	     nonl();
	     intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
	     keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
       set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be	output.	  This
       can be done by executing the tput init command after the shell environ-
       ment variable TERM has been exported.  tset(1) is  usually  responsible
       for doing this.	[See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses  library  permits  manipulation of data structures, called
       windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays  of  charac-
       ters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default window called
       stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.	Others
       may be created with newwin.

       Note  that  curses  does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
       the panel(3X) library. This means that you can  either  use  stdscr  or
       divide  the screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all. Mix-
       ing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *.  These  data
       structures  are	manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
       in the ncurses manual pages.  Among which the most basic	 routines  are
       move  and  addch.  More general versions of these routines are included
       with names beginning with w, allowing the user  to  specify  a  window.
       The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.)

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling
       curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The  characters
       in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data)
       so that other information about the character may also be  stored  with
       each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose  contents
       need  not  be completely displayed.  See curs_pad(3X) for more informa-
       tion.

       In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video  attributes  and
       colors  may  be	supported,  causing  the characters to show up in such
       modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color  on  terminals  that
       support	such  display  enhancements.   Line  drawing characters may be
       specified to be output.	On input, curses is  also  able	 to  translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val-
       ues.  The video attributes, line drawing characters, and	 input	values
       use  names,  defined  in	 <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and
       KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the  pro-
       gram  is executing in a window environment, line and column information
       in the environment will override information read  by  terminfo.	  This
       would effect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where
       the size of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If the environment variable TERMINFO  is	 defined,  any	program	 using
       curses  checks  for  a local terminal definition before checking in the
       standard place.	For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the  com-
       piled terminal definition is found in

	     /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424.

       (The  a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However,  if	 TERMINFO  is  set  to	$HOME/myterms,
       curses first checks

	     $HOME/myterms/a/att4424,

       and if that fails, it then checks

	     /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424.

       This  is	 useful	 for developing experimental definitions or when write
       permission in /usr/share/terminfo is not available.

       The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will
       be  filled  in  by  initscr with the size of the screen.	 The constants
       TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively.

       The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr  which  is
       used  for  certain  low-level  operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The curscr can be used in only a  few  rou-
       tines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many  curses routines have two or more versions.	 The routines prefixed
       with w require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require
       a pad argument.	Those without a prefix generally use stdscr.

       The  routines  prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call
       to  move before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate y always
       refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to  the  column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The  routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y
       coordinates.  The window argument is always specified before the	 coor-
       dinates.

       In  each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected;
       win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the  value  TRUE
       or  FALSE; bf is always of type bool.  The variables ch and attrs below
       are always of type chtype.  The types WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and	chtype
       are  defined  in <curses.h>.  The type TERMINAL is defined in <term.h>.
       All other arguments are integers.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the  man-
       ual  page  on  which  it	 is  described.	 Routines flagged with '*' are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.


		     curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
		     --------------------------------------------
		     COLOR_PAIR		     curs_color(3X)
		     PAIR_NUMBER	     curs_attr(3X)
		     _nc_tracebits	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _traceattr2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechar		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracechtype2	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracedump		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracef		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     _tracemouse	     curs_trace(3X)*
		     add_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     add_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     add_wchstr		     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     addch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     addchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     addnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     addnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     addstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     addwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
		     attr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_on		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     attrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     baudrate		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     beep		     curs_beep(3X)
		     bkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)

		     bkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     bkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     bkgrndset		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     border		     curs_border(3X)
		     border_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     box		     curs_border(3X)
		     box_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     can_change_color	     curs_color(3X)
		     cbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     chgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     clear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clearok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     clrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     clrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     color_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     color_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     copywin		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     curs_set		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     curses_version	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     def_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     def_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     define_key		     define_key(3X)*
		     del_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     delay_output	     curs_util(3X)
		     delch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     deleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     delscreen		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     delwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     derwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     doupdate		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     dupwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     echo		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     echo_wchar		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     echochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     endwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     erase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     erasechar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     erasewchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     filter		     curs_util(3X)
		     flash		     curs_beep(3X)
		     flushinp		     curs_util(3X)
		     get_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     get_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     getbegyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     getbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     getcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     getch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     getmaxyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     getn_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     getnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getparyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     getstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     getsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     getwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     getyx		     curs_getyx(3X)
		     halfdelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     has_colors		     curs_color(3X)
		     has_ic		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     has_il		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     has_key		     curs_getch(3X)*
		     hline		     curs_border(3X)
		     hline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     idcok		     curs_outopts(3X)

		     idlok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     immedok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     in_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     in_wchnstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     in_wchstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     inch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     inchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     inchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     init_color		     curs_color(3X)
		     init_pair		     curs_color(3X)
		     initscr		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     innstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     innwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     ins_nwstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     ins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     ins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     insch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     insdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     insnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     insstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     instr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     intrflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     inwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     is_linetouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     is_wintouched	     curs_touch(3X)
		     isendwin		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     key_defined	     key_defined(3X)*
		     key_name		     curs_util(3X)
		     keybound		     keybound(3X)*
		     keyname		     curs_util(3X)
		     keyok		     keyok(3X)*
		     keypad		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     killchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     killwchar		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     leaveok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     longname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     mcprint		     curs_print(3X)*
		     meta		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     mouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mouseinterval	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     mousemask		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     move		     curs_move(3X)
		     mvadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvaddnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvaddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvcur		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     mvdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvderwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     mvget_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvgetn_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvhline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)

		     mvin_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     mvin_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvin_wchstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvinchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvinnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvins_nwstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     mvins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvinwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     mvscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvvline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvwadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     mvwadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     mvwaddchnstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddchstr	     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     mvwaddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwaddnwstr	     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvwaddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     mvwaddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     mvwchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     mvwdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     mvwget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     mvwget_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvwgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     mvwgetn_wstr	     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     mvwgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     mvwhline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwhline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     mvwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     mvwin_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     mvwin_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwin_wchstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     mvwinch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     mvwinchnstr	     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     mvwinnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwinnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvwins_nwstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvwins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     mvwins_wstr	     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     mvwinsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     mvwinsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     mvwinstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     mvwinwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     mvwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     mvwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     mvwvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     mvwvline_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     napms		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     newpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     newterm		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     newwin		     curs_window(3X)

		     nl			     curs_outopts(3X)
		     nocbreak		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nodelay		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noecho		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     nonl		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     noqiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     noraw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     notimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     overlay		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     overwrite		     curs_overlay(3X)
		     pair_content	     curs_color(3X)
		     pechochar		     curs_pad(3X)
		     pnoutrefresh	     curs_pad(3X)
		     prefresh		     curs_pad(3X)
		     printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     putp		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     putwin		     curs_util(3X)
		     qiflush		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     raw		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     redrawwin		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     refresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     reset_prog_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     reset_shell_mode	     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     resizeterm		     resizeterm(3X)*
		     restartterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     ripoffline		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     savetty		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     scr_dump		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_init		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_restore	     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scr_set		     curs_scr_dump(3X)
		     scrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scroll		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     scrollok		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     set_curterm	     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     set_term		     curs_initscr(3X)
		     setcchar		     curs_getcchar(3X)
		     setscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     setsyx		     curs_kernel(3X)
		     setterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     setupterm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     slk_attr		     curs_slk(3X)*
		     slk_attr_off	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_on	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attr_set	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attroff	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attron		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_attrset	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_clear		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_color		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_init		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_label		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_noutrefresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_refresh	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_restore	     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_set		     curs_slk(3X)
		     slk_touch		     curs_slk(3X)
		     standend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     standout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     start_color	     curs_color(3X)
		     subpad		     curs_pad(3X)
		     subwin		     curs_window(3X)
		     syncok		     curs_window(3X)

		     term_attrs		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     termattrs		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     termname		     curs_termattrs(3X)
		     tgetent		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetflag		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetnum		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgetstr		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tgoto		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tigetflag		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetnum		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tigetstr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     timeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     touchline		     curs_touch(3X)
		     touchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     tparm		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_termcap(3X)
		     tputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     trace		     curs_trace(3X)*
		     typeahead		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     unctrl		     curs_util(3X)
		     unget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     ungetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     ungetmouse		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     untouchwin		     curs_touch(3X)
		     use_default_colors	     default_colors(3X)*
		     use_env		     curs_util(3X)
		     use_extended_names	     curs_extend(3X)*
		     vid_attr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vid_puts		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vidattr		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vidputs		     curs_terminfo(3X)
		     vline		     curs_border(3X)
		     vline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     vw_printw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vw_scanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     vwprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     vwscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wadd_wch		     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     wadd_wchnstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     wadd_wchstr	     curs_add_wchstr(3X)
		     waddch		     curs_addch(3X)
		     waddchnstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddchstr		     curs_addchstr(3X)
		     waddnstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     waddnwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     waddstr		     curs_addstr(3X)
		     waddwstr		     curs_addwstr(3X)
		     wattr_get		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_off		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_on		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattr_set		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattroff		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattron		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wattrset		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wbkgd		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wbkgdset		     curs_bkgd(3X)
		     wbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wbkgrndset		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wborder		     curs_border(3X)
		     wborder_set	     curs_border_set(3X)
		     wchgat		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wclear		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtobot		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wclrtoeol		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wcolor_set		     curs_attr(3X)

		     wcursyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wdelch		     curs_delch(3X)
		     wdeleteln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     wecho_wchar	     curs_add_wch(3X)
		     wechochar		     curs_addch(3X)
		     wenclose		     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     werase		     curs_clear(3X)
		     wget_wch		     curs_get_wch(3X)
		     wget_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     wgetbkgrnd		     curs_bkgrnd(3X)
		     wgetch		     curs_getch(3X)
		     wgetn_wstr		     curs_get_wstr(3X)
		     wgetnstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     wgetstr		     curs_getstr(3X)
		     whline		     curs_border(3X)
		     whline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)
		     win_wch		     curs_in_wch(3X)
		     win_wchnstr	     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     win_wchstr		     curs_in_wchstr(3X)
		     winch		     curs_inch(3X)
		     winchnstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winchstr		     curs_inchstr(3X)
		     winnstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     winnwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     wins_nwstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     wins_wch		     curs_ins_wch(3X)
		     wins_wstr		     curs_ins_wstr(3X)
		     winsch		     curs_insch(3X)
		     winsdelln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsertln		     curs_deleteln(3X)
		     winsnstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winsstr		     curs_insstr(3X)
		     winstr		     curs_instr(3X)
		     winwstr		     curs_inwstr(3X)
		     wmouse_trafo	     curs_mouse(3X)*
		     wmove		     curs_move(3X)
		     wnoutrefresh	     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wprintw		     curs_printw(3X)
		     wredrawln		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wrefresh		     curs_refresh(3X)
		     wresize		     wresize(3X)*
		     wscanw		     curs_scanw(3X)
		     wscrl		     curs_scroll(3X)
		     wsetscrreg		     curs_outopts(3X)
		     wstandend		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wstandout		     curs_attr(3X)
		     wsyncdown		     curs_window(3X)
		     wsyncup		     curs_window(3X)
		     wtimeout		     curs_inopts(3X)
		     wtouchln		     curs_touch(3X)
		     wunctrl		     curs_util(3X)
		     wvline		     curs_border(3X)
		     wvline_set		     curs_border_set(3X)

RETURN VALUE
       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an  integer
       value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       All macros return  the  value  of  the  w  version,  except  setscrreg,
       wsetscrreg,  getyx,  getbegyx,  and  getmaxyx.	The  return  values of
       setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx,  getbegyx,	 and  getmaxyx	are  undefined
       (i.e.,  these  should  not be used as the right-hand side of assignment
       statements).

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

ENVIRONMENT
       The following environment symbols are useful for customizing  the  run-
       time  behavior  of  the	ncurses library.  The most important ones have
       been already discussed in detail.

       BAUDRATE
	    The debugging library checks  this	environment  symbol  when  the
	    application has redirected output to a file.  The symbol's numeric
	    value is used for the baudrate.  If no  value  is  found,  ncurses
	    uses 9600.	This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases
	    that take into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character  (i.e.,  the
	    cmdch  capability)	of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of
	    this symbol.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

       COLUMNS
	    Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications  run-
	    ning  in  a	 windowing  environment usually are able to obtain the
	    width of the window in which they are executing.  If  neither  the
	    COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses
	    uses the size which may be	specified  in  the  terminfo  database
	    (i.e., the cols capability).

	    It	is  important that your application use a correct size for the
	    screen.  This is not always possible because your application  may
	    be running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About
	    Window Size), or because you are temporarily  running  as  another
	    user.    However,  setting	COLUMNS	 and/or	 LINES	overrides  the
	    library's use of the screen size obtained from the operating  sys-
	    tem.

	    Either  COLUMNS  or	 LINES symbols may be specified independently.
	    This is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal
	    descriptions,  e.g.,  xterm	 which	commonly  specifies  a 65 line
	    screen.  For best results, lines and cols should not be  specified
	    in	a  terminal  description for terminals which are run as emula-
	    tions.

	    Use the use_env function to disable all use of  external  environ-
	    ment (including system calls) to determine the screen size.

       ESCDELAY
	    Specifies  the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will
	    await a character sequence, e.g., a	 function  key.	  The  default
	    value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough for most uses.	However, it is
	    made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

	    The most common instance where you may wish to change  this	 value
	    is	to  work  with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.	If the
	    host cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the  same
	    effect  as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly enough.
	    The library will still see a timeout.

	    Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
	    received  from  the xterm.	If your application makes heavy use of
	    multiple-clicking, you may wish to	lengthen  this	default	 value
	    because  the  timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as
	    well as the individual clicks.

	    In addition to the environment variable, this implementation  pro-
	    vides a global variable with the same name.	 Portable applications
	    should not rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in either form,  but
	    setting  the  environment variable rather than the global variable
	    does not create problems when compiling an application.

       HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory is.	 That is where it  may
	    read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:

	    $HOME/.termcap
	    $HOME/.terminfo

       LINES
	    Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See
	    COLUMNS for a detailed description.

       MOUSE_BUTTONS_123
	    This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of
	    buttons  on	 the  mouse.   OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsis-
	    tently from other platforms:

	    1 = left
	    2 = right
	    3 = middle.

	    This symbol lets you customize the	mouse.	 The  symbol  must  be
	    three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is
	    not specified, ncurses uses 132.

       NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS
	    Override the compiled-in assumption that  the  terminal's  default
	    colors  are	 white-on-black	 (see assume_default_colors(3X)).  You
	    may set the foreground and background color values with this envi-
	    ronment  variable  by  proving  a 2-element list: foreground,back-
	    ground.  For example, to tell ncurses to not assume anything about
	    the	 colors,  set this to "-1,-1".	To make it green-on-black, set
	    it to "2,0".   Any	positive  value	 from  zero  to	 the  terminfo
	    max_colors value is allowed.

       NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS
	    Ncurses  may use tabs as part of the cursor movement optimization.
	    In some cases, your terminal driver may not handle these properly.
	    Set	 this  environment  variable  to disable the feature.  You can
	    also adjust your stty settings to avoid the problem.

       NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIES
	    Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which  requires  special
	    handling  to  make highlighting and other video attributes display
	    properly.  You can suppress the highlighting  entirely  for	 these
	    terminals by setting this environment variable.

       NCURSES_NO_PADDING
	    Most  of  the  terminal  descriptions in the terminfo database are
	    written for real "hardware" terminals.  Many people	 use  terminal
	    emulators  which  run  in  a windowing environment and use curses-
	    based applications.	 Terminal emulators can duplicate all  of  the
	    important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the
	    same limitations.  The chief limitation  of	 a  hardware  terminal
	    from  the  standpoint  of  your  application  is the management of
	    dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware terminal is  interfaced
	    into  a  terminal  concentrator  (which does flow control), it (or
	    your application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns.   The
	    cheapest  solution	(no  hardware  cost) is for your program to do
	    this by pausing after operations that the  terminal	 does  slowly,
	    such as clearing the display.

	    As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
	    delay times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but
	    not want to pay the performance penalty.

	    Set	 the  NCURSES_NO_PADDING  symbol  to disable all but mandatory
	    padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part of  special  control
	    sequences such as flash.

       NCURSES_NO_SETBUF
	    Normally  ncurses enables buffered output during terminal initial-
	    ization.  This is done (as in SVr4 curses)	for  performance  rea-
	    sons.   For testing purposes, both of ncurses and certain applica-
	    tions, this feature is made optional.  Setting the NCURSES_NO_SET-
	    BUF	 variable disables output buffering, leaving the output in the
	    original (usually line buffered) mode.

       NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS
	    During initialization, the	ncurses	 library  checks  for  special
	    cases  where  VT100	 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate
	    character set capabilities) described in the terminfo are known to
	    be	missing.   Specifically,  when	running in a UTF-8 locale, the
	    Linux console emulator and the GNU screen  program	ignore	these.
	    Ncurses checks the TERM environment variable for these.  For other
	    special cases, you should set this	environment  variable.	 Doing
	    this  tells	 ncurses to use Unicode values which correspond to the
	    VT100 line-drawing glyphs.	 That  works  for  the	special	 cases
	    cited, and is likely to work for terminal emulators.

	    When  setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.
	    Setting it to zero (or to a nonnumber) disables the special	 check
	    for Linux and screen.

       NCURSES_TRACE
	    During  initialization,  the  ncurses debugging library checks the
	    NCURSES_TRACE symbol.  If it  is  defined,	to  a  numeric	value,
	    ncurses  calls  the	 trace function, using that value as the argu-
	    ment.

	    The argument values, which are defined in curses.h,	 provide  sev-
	    eral types of information.	When running with traces enabled, your
	    application will write the file trace to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes your terminal  type.   Each	 terminal  type	 is  distinct,
	    though many are similar.

       TERMCAP
	    If	the  ncurses library has been configured with termcap support,
	    ncurses will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if
	    it is not available in the terminfo database.

	    The	 TERMCAP  symbol  contains either a terminal description (with
	    newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the  informa-
	    tion  denoted  by the TERM symbol exists.  In either case, setting
	    it directs ncurses to ignore the usual place for this information,
	    e.g., /etc/termcap.

       TERMINFO
	    Overrides  the directory in which ncurses searches for your termi-
	    nal description.  This is the simplest, but not the	 only  way  to
	    change  the list of directories.  The complete list of directories
	    in order follows:

	    -  the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is  searched
	       first

	    -  the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol

	    -  $HOME/.terminfo

	    -  directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol

	    -  one or more directories whose names are configured and compiled
	       into the ncurses library, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo

       TERMINFO_DIRS
	    Specifies a list of directories to search  for  terminal  descrip-
	    tions.  The list is separated by colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semi-
	    colons on OS/2 EMX.	 All of the terminal descriptions are in  ter-
	    minfo  form, which makes a subdirectory named for the first letter
	    of the terminal names therein.

       TERMPATH
	    If TERMCAP does not hold a	file  name  then  ncurses  checks  the
	    TERMPATH  symbol.  This is a list of filenames separated by spaces
	    or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on  OS/2	EMX.   If  the
	    TERMPATH  symbol is not set, ncurses looks in the files /etc/term-
	    cap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
       the  current  user  is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
       setuid or setgid permissions: $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH,  as
       well as $HOME.

ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS
       Several different configurations are possible, depending on the config-
       ure script options used when building ncurses.  There are  a  few  main
       options	whose  effects are visible to the applications developer using
       ncurses:

       --disable-overwrite
	    The standard include for ncurses is as noted in SYNOPSIS:

	    #include <curses.h>

	    This option is used to avoid filename conflicts  when  ncurses  is
	    not the main implementation of curses of the computer.  If ncurses
	    is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a	subdi-
	    rectory, e.g.,

	    #include <ncurses/curses.h>

	    It	also  omits  a	symbolic  link	which  would  allow you to use
	    -lcurses to build executables.

       --enable-widec
	    The configure script renames the library and  (if  the  --disable-
	    overwrite  option  is  used)  puts the header files in a different
	    subdirectory.  All of the library names have  a  "w"  appended  to
	    them, i.e., instead of

	    -lncurses

	    you link with

	    -lncursesw

	    You must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED when compiling for the
	    wide-character library to use the extended (wide-character)	 func-
	    tions.   The curses.h file which is installed for the wide-charac-
	    ter library is designed to be compatible with the normal library's
	    header.   Only  the size of the WINDOW structure differs, and very
	    few applications require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.   If  the
	    headers  are  installed  allowing  overwrite,  the	wide-character
	    library's headers should be installed last, to allow  applications
	    to be built using either library from the same set of headers.

       --with-shared

       --with-normal

       --with-debug

       --with-profile
	    The	 shared and normal (static) library names differ by their suf-
	    fixes,  e.g.,  libncurses.so  and  libncurses.a.   The  debug  and
	    profiling  libraries  add  a  "_g"	and  a	"_p" to the root names
	    respectively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

       --with-trace
	    The trace function normally resides in the debug library,  but  it
	    is sometimes useful to configure this in the shared library.  Con-
	    figure scripts should check for the	 function's  existence	rather
	    than assuming it is always in the debug library.

FILES
       /usr/share/tabset
	    directory  containing  initialization files for the terminal capa-
	    bility database /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database

SEE ALSO
       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin	"curs_"	 for  detailed
       routine descriptions.

EXTENSIONS
       The  ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that
       falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file  if  the  terminal	 setup
       code  cannot  find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM.  Use of this
       feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire	 term-
       cap  compiler  in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in core
       and startup cycles.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse  events  on
       certain terminals (including xterm). See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page
       for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window resiz-
       ing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See the resizeterm(3X) and
       wresize(3X) manual pages for details.  In addition, the library may  be
       configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The  ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
       of terminals by allowing the application designer to define  additional
       key  sequences at runtime.  See the define_key(3X) key_defined(3X), and
       keyok(3X) manual pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the  capabilities  of  terminals	 which
       implement  the  ISO-6429	 SGR  39  and  SGR 49 controls, which allow an
       application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and	 back-
       ground colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is able to
       draw colored text on a background whose	color  is  set	independently,
       providing  better  control  over color contrasts.  See the default_col-
       ors(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing application  out-
       put   to	  a   printer  attached	 to  the  terminal  device.   See  the
       curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

PORTABILITY
       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level	 conformant  with  the
       XSI  Curses standard.  The EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including
       color support) is supported.

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual  differences
       between	the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY
       sections of the library man pages.

       The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is	it  present  in	 SVr4.
       See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       The  routine  slk_attr  is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
       See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval,  and  wen-
       close  relating to mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor are they
       present in SVr4.	 See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.

       The  routine  mcprint  was  not	present	  in   any   previous	curses
       implementation.	See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The  routine  wresize  is  not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
       See the wresize(3X) manual page for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in	the  capabilities  cr,
       ind,  cub1,  ff	and tab activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by NUL	sends.
       This  method  is	 slightly more expensive, but narrows the interface to
       the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the	package's  portability
       correspondingly.

NOTES
       The  header  file  <curses.h>  automatically  includes the header files
       <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>.

       If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed	 to  something
       which  is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard error.
       This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses.

AUTHORS
       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.



								   ncurses(3X)
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