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PPPD(8)								       PPPD(8)



NAME
       pppd - Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon

SYNOPSIS
       pppd [ options ]

DESCRIPTION
       PPP  is	the protocol used for establishing internet links over dial-up
       modems, DSL connections, and many other types of point-to-point	links.
       The  pppd daemon works together with the kernel PPP driver to establish
       and maintain a PPP link with another system (called the	peer)  and  to
       negotiate  Internet  Protocol  (IP) addresses for each end of the link.
       Pppd can also authenticate the peer and/or supply authentication infor-
       mation  to  the	peer.	PPP  can  be used with other network protocols
       besides IP, but such use is becoming increasingly rare.

FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS
       ttyname
	      Use the serial port called ttyname to communicate with the peer.
	      If  ttyname  does not begin with a slash (/), the string "/dev/"
	      is prepended to ttyname to form the name of the device to	 open.
	      If  no device name is given, or if the name of the terminal con-
	      nected to the standard input is given, pppd will use that termi-
	      nal, and will not fork to put itself in the background.  A value
	      for this option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by
	      a non-privileged user.

       speed  An  option that is a decimal number is taken as the desired baud
	      rate for the serial device.   On	systems	 such  as  4.4BSD  and
	      NetBSD,  any speed can be specified.  Other systems (e.g. Linux,
	      SunOS) only support the commonly-used baud rates.

       asyncmap map
	      This option sets the Async-Control-Character-Map (ACCM) for this
	      end  of the link.	 The ACCM is a set of 32 bits, one for each of
	      the ASCII control characters with values from 0 to 31, where a 1
	      bit  indicates  that  the corresponding control character should
	      not be used in PPP packets sent to  this	system.	  The  map  is
	      encoded as a hexadecimal number (without a leading 0x) where the
	      least significant bit (00000001) represents character 0 and  the
	      most  significant	 bit (80000000) represents character 31.  Pppd
	      will ask the peer to send these characters as  a	2-byte	escape
	      sequence.	  If  multiple	asyncmap options are given, the values
	      are ORed together.  If no asyncmap option is given, the  default
	      is  zero,	 so  pppd  will ask the peer not to escape any control
	      characters.  To escape transmitted characters,  use  the	escape
	      option.

       auth   Require  the peer to authenticate itself before allowing network
	      packets to be sent or received.  This option is the  default  if
	      the  system has a default route.	If neither this option nor the
	      noauth option is specified, pppd will only allow the peer to use
	      IP  addresses to which the system does not already have a route.

       call name
	      Read additional options from the file /etc/ppp/peers/name.  This
	      file  may	 contain  privileged  options, such as noauth, even if
	      pppd is not being run by root.  The name string  may  not	 begin
	      with / or include .. as a pathname component.  The format of the
	      options file is described below.

       connect script
	      Usually there is something which needs to be done to prepare the
	      link  before the PPP protocol can be started; for instance, with
	      a dial-up modem, commands need to be sent to the modem  to  dial
	      the  appropriate phone number.  This option specifies an command
	      for pppd to execute (by passing it to a shell) before attempting
	      to  start PPP negotiation.  The chat (8) program is often useful
	      here, as it provides a way to send arbitrary strings to a	 modem
	      and  respond  to	received  characters.  A value for this option
	      from a privileged source cannot be overridden  by	 a  non-privi-
	      leged user.

       crtscts
	      Specifies	 that  pppd should set the serial port to use hardware
	      flow control using the RTS and CTS signals in the RS-232	inter-
	      face.   If  neither  the crtscts, the nocrtscts, the cdtrcts nor
	      the nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control setting
	      for  the serial port is left unchanged.  Some serial ports (such
	      as Macintosh serial ports) lack a true RTS output.  Such	serial
	      ports  use  this	mode to implement unidirectional flow control.
	      The serial port will suspend transmission when requested by  the
	      modem  (via CTS) but will be unable to request the modem to stop
	      sending to the computer. This mode retains the  ability  to  use
	      DTR as a modem control line.

       defaultroute
	      Add a default route to the system routing tables, using the peer
	      as the gateway, when IPCP negotiation is successfully completed.
	      This  entry  is removed when the PPP connection is broken.  This
	      option is privileged if the nodefaultroute option has been spec-
	      ified.

       disconnect script
	      Execute  the  command  specified	by  script, by passing it to a
	      shell, after pppd has terminated the link.  This command	could,
	      for  example, issue commands to the modem to cause it to hang up
	      if hardware modem control signals were not available.  The  dis-
	      connect  script  is not run if the modem has already hung up.  A
	      value for this option from a privileged source cannot  be	 over-
	      ridden by a non-privileged user.

       escape xx,yy,...
	      Specifies that certain characters should be escaped on transmis-
	      sion (regardless of whether the peer requests them to be escaped
	      with  its	 async	control	 character map).  The characters to be
	      escaped are specified as a list of hex numbers separated by com-
	      mas.   Note  that	 almost any character can be specified for the
	      escape option, unlike the asyncmap option which only allows con-
	      trol  characters	to be specified.  The characters which may not
	      be escaped are those with hex values 0x20 - 0x3f or 0x5e.

       file name
	      Read options from file name (the	format	is  described  below).
	      The file must be readable by the user who has invoked pppd.

       init script
	      Execute  the  command  specified	by  script, by passing it to a
	      shell, to initialize the serial line.  This script  would	 typi-
	      cally  use  the chat(8) program to configure the modem to enable
	      auto answer.  A value for this option from a  privileged	source
	      cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       lock   Specifies that pppd should create a UUCP-style lock file for the
	      serial device to ensure exclusive	 access	 to  the  device.   By
	      default, pppd will not create a lock file.

       mru n  Set the MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] value to n. Pppd will ask the
	      peer to send packets of no more than n bytes.  The  value	 of  n
	      must  be between 128 and 16384; the default is 1500.  A value of
	      296 works well on very slow links (40 bytes for TCP/IP header  +
	      256  bytes  of  data).  Note that for the IPv6 protocol, the MRU
	      must be at least 1280.

       mtu n  Set the MTU [Maximum Transmit Unit] value to n.  Unless the peer
	      requests	a smaller value via MRU negotiation, pppd will request
	      that the kernel networking code send data	 packets  of  no  more
	      than  n  bytes through the PPP network interface.	 Note that for
	      the IPv6 protocol, the MTU must be at least 1280.

       passive
	      Enables the "passive" option in the LCP.	With this option, pppd
	      will  attempt  to initiate a connection; if no reply is received
	      from the peer, pppd will then just wait passively	 for  a	 valid
	      LCP  packet from the peer, instead of exiting, as it would with-
	      out this option.

OPTIONS
       <local_IP_address>:<remote_IP_address>
	      Set the local and/or remote interface IP addresses.  Either  one
	      may  be  omitted.	 The IP addresses can be specified with a host
	      name or in  decimal  dot	notation  (e.g.	 150.234.56.78).   The
	      default  local  address  is the (first) IP address of the system
	      (unless the noipdefault option is given).	  The  remote  address
	      will  be	obtained from the peer if not specified in any option.
	      Thus, in simple cases, this option is not required.  If a	 local
	      and/or  remote  IP  address  is specified with this option, pppd
	      will not accept a different value from  the  peer	 in  the  IPCP
	      negotiation,     unless	  the	  ipcp-accept-local	and/or
	      ipcp-accept-remote options are given, respectively.

       ipv6 <local_interface_identifier>,<remote_interface_identifier>
	      Set the local and/or remote 64-bit interface identifier.	Either
	      one may be omitted. The identifier must be specified in standard
	      ascii notation of IPv6  addresses	 (e.g.	::dead:beef).  If  the
	      ipv6cp-use-ipaddr	 option	 is given, the local identifier is the
	      local IPv4 address (see above).  On  systems  which  supports  a
	      unique  persistent  id, such as EUI-48 derived from the Ethernet
	      MAC address, ipv6cp-use-persistent option can be used to replace
	      the  ipv6	 <local>,<remote>  option. Otherwise the identifier is
	      randomized.

       active-filter filter-expression
	      Specifies a packet filter to  be	applied	 to  data  packets  to
	      determine which packets are to be regarded as link activity, and
	      therefore reset the idle timer, or cause the link to be  brought
	      up  in  demand-dialling mode.  This option is useful in conjunc-
	      tion with the idle option if there are  packets  being  sent  or
	      received	regularly over the link (for example, routing informa-
	      tion packets) which would otherwise prevent the link  from  ever
	      appearing	 to  be	 idle.	 The  filter-expression	 syntax	 is as
	      described for tcpdump(1), except that qualifiers which are inap-
	      propriate for a PPP link, such as ether and arp, are not permit-
	      ted.  Generally the filter expression should be enclosed in sin-
	      gle-quotes  to  prevent  whitespace in the expression from being
	      interpreted by the shell. This option is currently  only	avail-
	      able under Linux, and requires that the kernel was configured to
	      include PPP filtering support (CONFIG_PPP_FILTER).  Note that it
	      is  possible to apply different constraints to incoming and out-
	      going packets using the inbound and outbound qualifiers.

       allow-ip address(es)
	      Allow peers to use  the  given  IP  address  or  subnet  without
	      authenticating  themselves.  The parameter is parsed as for each
	      element of the list of allowed IP addresses in the secrets files
	      (see the AUTHENTICATION section below).

       allow-number number
	      Allow  peers  to	connect	 from  the  given telephone number.  A
	      trailing '*' character will match all numbers beginning with the
	      leading part.

       bsdcomp nr,nt
	      Request  that the peer compress packets that it sends, using the
	      BSD-Compress scheme, with a maximum code size of	nr  bits,  and
	      agree  to	 compress packets sent to the peer with a maximum code
	      size of nt bits.	If nt is not specified,	 it  defaults  to  the
	      value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for
	      nr and nt; larger values give  better  compression  but  consume
	      more kernel memory for compression dictionaries.	Alternatively,
	      a value of 0 for nr or nt disables  compression  in  the	corre-
	      sponding	direction.  Use nobsdcomp or bsdcomp 0 to disable BSD-
	      Compress compression entirely.

       cdtrcts
	      Use a non-standard hardware flow control (i.e. DTR/CTS) to  con-
	      trol  the	 flow  of  data	 on  the  serial port.	If neither the
	      crtscts, the nocrtscts, the cdtrcts nor the nocdtrcts option  is
	      given,  the hardware flow control setting for the serial port is
	      left unchanged.  Some serial ports  (such	 as  Macintosh	serial
	      ports)  lack  a true RTS output. Such serial ports use this mode
	      to implement true bi-directional flow control. The sacrifice  is
	      that this flow control mode does not permit using DTR as a modem
	      control line.

       chap-interval n
	      If this option is given, pppd will rechallenge the peer every  n
	      seconds.

       chap-max-challenge n
	      Set  the	maximum	 number	 of  CHAP challenge transmissions to n
	      (default 10).

       chap-restart n
	      Set the CHAP restart interval (retransmission timeout for	 chal-
	      lenges) to n seconds (default 3).

       child-timeout n
	      When  exiting,  wait for up to n seconds for any child processes
	      (such as the command specified with the  pty  command)  to  exit
	      before  exiting.	 At  the  end of the timeout, pppd will send a
	      SIGTERM signal to any remaining child  processes	and  exit.   A
	      value  of	 0 means no timeout, that is, pppd will wait until all
	      child processes have exited.

       connect-delay n
	      Wait for up to n milliseconds after the connect script  finishes
	      for  a valid PPP packet from the peer.  At the end of this time,
	      or when a valid PPP packet is received from the peer, pppd  will
	      commence	negotiation  by	 sending  its  first  LCP packet.  The
	      default value is 1000 (1 second).	 This wait period only applies
	      if the connect or pty option is used.

       debug  Enables  connection  debugging  facilities.   If	this option is
	      given, pppd will log the contents of all control packets sent or
	      received	in  a  readable	 form.	The packets are logged through
	      syslog with facility daemon and level debug.   This  information
	      can  be directed to a file by setting up /etc/syslog.conf appro-
	      priately (see syslog.conf(5)).

       default-asyncmap
	      Disable asyncmap negotiation, forcing all control characters  to
	      be escaped for both the transmit and the receive direction.

       default-mru
	      Disable  MRU  [Maximum  Receive  Unit]  negotiation.   With this
	      option, pppd will use the default MRU value of  1500  bytes  for
	      both the transmit and receive direction.

       deflate nr,nt
	      Request  that the peer compress packets that it sends, using the
	      Deflate scheme, with a maximum window size of 2**nr  bytes,  and
	      agree to compress packets sent to the peer with a maximum window
	      size of 2**nt bytes.  If nt is not specified, it defaults to the
	      value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for
	      nr and nt; larger values give  better  compression  but  consume
	      more kernel memory for compression dictionaries.	Alternatively,
	      a value of 0 for nr or nt disables  compression  in  the	corre-
	      sponding	direction.   Use  nodeflate  or	 deflate  0 to disable
	      Deflate compression entirely.  (Note: pppd requests Deflate com-
	      pression	in  preference	to  BSD-Compress  if  the  peer can do
	      either.)

       demand Initiate the link only on demand,	 i.e.  when  data  traffic  is
	      present.	With this option, the remote IP address must be speci-
	      fied by the user on the command line  or	in  an	options	 file.
	      Pppd will initially configure the interface and enable it for IP
	      traffic without connecting to the peer.  When traffic is	avail-
	      able,  pppd  will	 connect  to the peer and perform negotiation,
	      authentication, etc.  When this is completed, pppd will commence
	      passing data packets (i.e., IP packets) across the link.

	      The demand option implies the persist option.  If this behaviour
	      is not desired,  use  the	 nopersist  option  after  the	demand
	      option.  The idle and holdoff options are also useful in conjuc-
	      tion with the demand option.

       domain d
	      Append the domain name d to the local host name for  authentica-
	      tion  purposes.	For example, if gethostname() returns the name
	      porsche,	 but   the   fully   qualified	  domain    name    is
	      porsche.Quotron.COM, you could specify domain Quotron.COM.  Pppd
	      would then use  the  name	 porsche.Quotron.COM  for  looking  up
	      secrets  in the secrets file, and as the default name to send to
	      the peer when authenticating itself to the peer.	This option is
	      privileged.

       dryrun With  the dryrun option, pppd will print out all the option val-
	      ues which have been set and then exit, after parsing the command
	      line  and	 options  files	 and  checking	the option values, but
	      before initiating the link.  The option  values  are  logged  at
	      level  info,  and	 also  printed	to  standard output unless the
	      device on standard output is the device that pppd would be using
	      to communicate with the peer.

       dump   With  the dump option, pppd will print out all the option values
	      which have been set.  This option	 is  like  the	dryrun	option
	      except that pppd proceeds as normal rather than exiting.

       endpoint <epdisc>
	      Sets the endpoint discriminator sent by the local machine to the
	      peer during multilink negotiation to <epdisc>.  The  default  is
	      to  use  the  MAC address of the first ethernet interface on the
	      system, if any, otherwise the IPv4 address corresponding to  the
	      hostname,	 if  any,  provided  it	 is  not  in  the multicast or
	      locally-assigned IP address ranges, or  the  localhost  address.
	      The endpoint discriminator can be the string null or of the form
	      type:value, where type is a decimal number or one of the strings
	      local,  IP, MAC, magic, or phone.	 The value is an IP address in
	      dotted-decimal notation for the IP type, or a string of bytes in
	      hexadecimal, separated by periods or colons for the other types.
	      For the MAC type, the value may also be the name of an  ethernet
	      or  similar  network  interface.	 This option is currently only
	      available under Linux.

       eap-interval n
	      If this option is given and pppd authenticates the peer with EAP
	      (i.e.,  is  the  server),	 pppd  will restart EAP authentication
	      every n seconds.	For EAP SRP-SHA1, see  also  the  srp-interval
	      option, which enables lightweight rechallenge.

       eap-max-rreq n
	      Set  the	maximum	 number	 of  EAP  Requests  to which pppd will
	      respond (as a client) without hearing EAP	 Success  or  Failure.
	      (Default is 20.)

       eap-max-sreq n
	      Set  the maximum number of EAP Requests that pppd will issue (as
	      a server) while attempting authentication.  (Default is 10.)

       eap-restart n
	      Set the retransmit timeout for EAP Requests  when	 acting	 as  a
	      server (authenticator).  (Default is 3 seconds.)

       eap-timeout n
	      Set the maximum time to wait for the peer to send an EAP Request
	      when acting as a client (authenticatee).	(Default  is  20  sec-
	      onds.)

       hide-password
	      When  logging  the  contents  of PAP packets, this option causes
	      pppd to exclude the password string from the log.	 This  is  the
	      default.

       holdoff n
	      Specifies how many seconds to wait before re-initiating the link
	      after it terminates.  This option only has  any  effect  if  the
	      persist  or  demand  option  is used.  The holdoff period is not
	      applied if the link was terminated because it was idle.

       idle n Specifies that pppd should disconnect if the link is idle for  n
	      seconds.	 The  link is idle when no data packets (i.e. IP pack-
	      ets) are being sent or received.	Note: it is not	 advisable  to
	      use  this	 option	 with  the  persist  option without the demand
	      option.  If the active-filter  option  is	 given,	 data  packets
	      which  are  rejected by the specified activity filter also count
	      as the link being idle.

       ipcp-accept-local
	      With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of our	 local
	      IP  address,  even  if  the local IP address was specified in an
	      option.

       ipcp-accept-remote
	      With this option, pppd  will  accept  the	 peer's	 idea  of  its
	      (remote) IP address, even if the remote IP address was specified
	      in an option.

       ipcp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPCP  configure-request	 transmissions
	      to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-failure n
	      Set  the	maximum	 number of IPCP configure-NAKs returned before
	      starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of IPCP  terminate-request	 transmissions
	      to n (default 3).

       ipcp-restart n
	      Set the IPCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n sec-
	      onds (default 3).

       ipparam string
	      Provides an extra parameter to the ip-up, ip-pre-up and  ip-down
	      scripts.	 If this option is given, the string supplied is given
	      as the 6th parameter to those scripts.

       ipv6cp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-request transmissions
	      to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-failure n
	      Set  the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-NAKs returned before
	      starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of IPv6CP terminate-request transmissions
	      to n (default 3).

       ipv6cp-restart n
	      Set  the	IPv6CP	restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n
	      seconds (default 3).

       ipx    Enable the IPXCP and IPX protocols.  This	 option	 is  presently
	      only  supported  under  Linux,  and only if your kernel has been
	      configured to include IPX support.

       ipx-network n
	      Set the IPX network number in the IPXCP configure request	 frame
	      to  n, a hexadecimal number (without a leading 0x).  There is no
	      valid default.  If this option is	 not  specified,  the  network
	      number is obtained from the peer.	 If the peer does not have the
	      network number, the IPX protocol will not be started.

       ipx-node n:m
	      Set the IPX node numbers. The two	 node  numbers	are  separated
	      from  each  other	 with a colon character. The first number n is
	      the local node number. The second number m is  the  peer's  node
	      number.  Each  node  number  is a hexadecimal number, at most 10
	      digits long. The node numbers on the ipx-network must be unique.
	      There  is no valid default. If this option is not specified then
	      the node numbers are obtained from the peer.

       ipx-router-name <string>
	      Set the name of the router. This is a string and is sent to  the
	      peer as information data.

       ipx-routing n
	      Set  the	routing	 protocol  to be received by this option. More
	      than one instance of ipx-routing may be  specified.  The	'none'
	      option (0) may be specified as the only instance of ipx-routing.
	      The values may be 0 for NONE, 2 for RIP/SAP, and 4 for NLSP.

       ipxcp-accept-local
	      Accept the peer's NAK for	 the  node  number  specified  in  the
	      ipx-node	option.	 If a node number was specified, and non-zero,
	      the default is to insist that the value be used. If you  include
	      this  option then you will permit the peer to override the entry
	      of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-network
	      Accept the peer's NAK for the network number  specified  in  the
	      ipx-network  option. If a network number was specified, and non-
	      zero, the default is to insist that the value be	used.  If  you
	      include  this  option  then you will permit the peer to override
	      the entry of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-remote
	      Use the peer's network number specified in the configure request
	      frame.  If  a  node  number  was specified for the peer and this
	      option was not specified, the peer will be  forced  to  use  the
	      value which you have specified.

       ipxcp-max-configure n
	      Set  the	maximum number of IPXCP configure request frames which
	      the system will send to n. The default is 10.

       ipxcp-max-failure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPXCP NAK frames which the local  sys-
	      tem  will	 send before it rejects the options. The default value
	      is 3.

       ipxcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum nuber of IPXCP terminate request	frames	before
	      the  local  system  considers  that the peer is not listening to
	      them. The default value is 3.

       kdebug n
	      Enable debugging code in the kernel-level PPP driver.  The argu-
	      ment values depend on the specific kernel driver, but in general
	      a value of 1 will enable general kernel debug  messages.	 (Note
	      that  these  messages  are usually only useful for debugging the
	      kernel driver itself.)  For the Linux 2.2.x kernel  driver,  the
	      value is a sum of bits: 1 to enable general debug messages, 2 to
	      request that the contents of received packets be printed, and  4
	      to  request that the contents of transmitted packets be printed.
	      On most systems, messages printed by the kernel  are  logged  by
	      syslog(1) to a file as directed in the /etc/syslog.conf configu-
	      ration file.

       ktune  Enables pppd to alter kernel  settings  as  appropriate.	 Under
	      Linux,	pppd	will	enable	 IP   forwarding   (i.e.   set
	      /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward to 1) if the  proxyarp  option  is
	      used,  and  will	enable the dynamic IP address option (i.e. set
	      /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr to 1) in demand mode if the	 local
	      address changes.

       lcp-echo-failure n
	      If  this	option is given, pppd will presume the peer to be dead
	      if n LCP echo-requests are sent without receiving	 a  valid  LCP
	      echo-reply.   If	this  happens, pppd will terminate the connec-
	      tion.  Use of this option requires  a  non-zero  value  for  the
	      lcp-echo-interval	 parameter.  This option can be used to enable
	      pppd to terminate after the physical connection has been	broken
	      (e.g.,  the  modem  has hung up) in situations where no hardware
	      modem control lines are available.

       lcp-echo-interval n
	      If this option is given, pppd  will  send	 an  LCP  echo-request
	      frame  to	 the  peer  every n seconds.  Normally the peer should
	      respond to the echo-request  by  sending	an  echo-reply.	  This
	      option  can  be  used with the lcp-echo-failure option to detect
	      that the peer is no longer connected.

       lcp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of LCP configure-request transmissions to
	      n (default 10).

       lcp-max-failure n
	      Set  the	maximum	 number	 of LCP configure-NAKs returned before
	      starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       lcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of LCP terminate-request transmissions to
	      n (default 3).

       lcp-restart n
	      Set  the LCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n sec-
	      onds (default 3).

       linkname name
	      Sets the logical name of the link to name.  Pppd will  create  a
	      file  named  ppp-name.pid	 in /var/run (or /etc/ppp on some sys-
	      tems) containing its process ID.	This can be useful  in	deter-
	      mining  which  instance of pppd is responsible for the link to a
	      given peer system.  This is a privileged option.

       local  Don't use the modem control lines.  With this option, pppd  will
	      ignore  the  state  of  the  CD (Carrier Detect) signal from the
	      modem and will not change the state of the  DTR  (Data  Terminal
	      Ready) signal.  This is the opposite of the modem option.

       logfd n
	      Send log messages to file descriptor n.  Pppd will send log mes-
	      sages to at most one file or file descriptor (as well as sending
	      the  log	messages  to  syslog),	so this option and the logfile
	      option are mutually exclusive.  The default is for pppd to  send
	      log  messages  to	 stdout (file descriptor 1), unless the serial
	      port is already open on stdout.

       logfile filename
	      Append log messages to the file filename (as well as sending the
	      log messages to syslog).	The file is opened with the privileges
	      of the user who invoked pppd, in append mode.

       login  Use the system password database	for  authenticating  the  peer
	      using  PAP,  and	record the user in the system wtmp file.  Note
	      that the peer must have an  entry	 in  the  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
	      file  as	well  as  the  system  password database to be allowed
	      access.

       maxconnect n
	      Terminate the connection when it has been available for  network
	      traffic  for  n  seconds (i.e. n seconds after the first network
	      control protocol comes up).

       maxfail n
	      Terminate after n consecutive  failed  connection	 attempts.   A
	      value of 0 means no limit.  The default value is 10.

       modem  Use  the modem control lines.  This option is the default.  With
	      this option, pppd will wait for the CD (Carrier  Detect)	signal
	      from  the	 modem	to  be asserted when opening the serial device
	      (unless a connect script is specified), and it will drop the DTR
	      (Data Terminal Ready) signal briefly when the connection is ter-
	      minated and before executing the	connect	 script.   On  Ultrix,
	      this  option  implies  hardware flow control, as for the crtscts
	      option.  This is the opposite of the local option.

       mp     Enables the use of PPP multilink; this is an alias for the 'mul-
	      tilink'  option.	 This option is currently only available under
	      Linux.

       mppe-stateful
	      Allow MPPE to  use  stateful  mode.   Stateless  mode  is	 still
	      attempted first.	The default is to disallow stateful mode.

       mpshortseq
	      Enables  the use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in multilink
	      headers, as opposed to 24-bit sequence numbers.  This option  is
	      only available under Linux, and only has any effect if multilink
	      is enabled (see the multilink option).

       mrru n Sets the Maximum Reconstructed Receive Unit to n.	 The  MRRU  is
	      the  maximum  size  for a received packet on a multilink bundle,
	      and is analogous to the MRU  for	the  individual	 links.	  This
	      option is currently only available under Linux, and only has any
	      effect if multilink is enabled (see the multilink option).

       ms-dns <addr>
	      If pppd is acting as a server  for  Microsoft  Windows  clients,
	      this  option  allows  pppd to supply one or two DNS (Domain Name
	      Server) addresses to the clients.	 The first  instance  of  this
	      option  specifies	 the  primary DNS address; the second instance
	      (if given) specifies the secondary DNS  address.	 (This	option
	      was  present  in	some  older  versions  of  pppd under the name
	      dns-addr.)

       ms-wins <addr>
	      If pppd is acting as a server for Microsoft Windows  or  "Samba"
	      clients, this option allows pppd to supply one or two WINS (Win-
	      dows Internet Name Services) server addresses  to	 the  clients.
	      The  first  instance  of	this option specifies the primary WINS
	      address; the second instance (if given) specifies the  secondary
	      WINS address.

       multilink
	      Enables the use of the PPP multilink protocol.  If the peer also
	      supports multilink, then this link can become part of  a	bundle
	      between  the local system and the peer.  If there is an existing
	      bundle to the peer, pppd will join this  link  to	 that  bundle,
	      otherwise pppd will create a new bundle.	See the MULTILINK sec-
	      tion below.  This	 option	 is  currently	only  available	 under
	      Linux.

       name name
	      Set  the name of the local system for authentication purposes to
	      name.  This is a privileged option.  With this option, pppd will
	      use  lines  in  the  secrets files which have name as the second
	      field when looking for a secret to  use  in  authenticating  the
	      peer.  In addition, unless overridden with the user option, name
	      will be used as the name to send to the peer when authenticating
	      the  local  system to the peer.  (Note that pppd does not append
	      the domain name to name.)

       noaccomp
	      Disable Address/Control compression in both directions (send and
	      receive).

       noauth Do  not require the peer to authenticate itself.	This option is
	      privileged.

       nobsdcomp
	      Disables BSD-Compress compression;  pppd	will  not  request  or
	      agree to compress packets using the BSD-Compress scheme.

       noccp  Disable  CCP  (Compression  Control Protocol) negotiation.  This
	      option should only be required if the peer  is  buggy  and  gets
	      confused by requests from pppd for CCP negotiation.

       nocrtscts
	      Disable hardware flow control (i.e. RTS/CTS) on the serial port.
	      If neither the crtscts nor the nocrtscts nor the cdtrcts nor the
	      nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control setting for
	      the serial port is left unchanged.

       nocdtrcts
	      This option is a synonym for nocrtscts. Either of these  options
	      will disable both forms of hardware flow control.

       nodefaultroute
	      Disable  the  defaultroute option.  The system administrator who
	      wishes to prevent users from creating default routes  with  pppd
	      can do so by placing this option in the /etc/ppp/options file.

       nodeflate
	      Disables	Deflate compression; pppd will not request or agree to
	      compress packets using the Deflate scheme.

       nodetach
	      Don't  detach  from  the	controlling  terminal.	 Without  this
	      option,  if a serial device other than the terminal on the stan-
	      dard input is specified, pppd will fork to become	 a  background
	      process.

       noendpoint
	      Disables pppd from sending an endpoint discriminator to the peer
	      or accepting one	from  the  peer	 (see  the  MULTILINK  section
	      below).	This  option  should  only  be required if the peer is
	      buggy.

       noip   Disable IPCP negotiation	and  IP	 communication.	  This	option
	      should  only  be required if the peer is buggy and gets confused
	      by requests from pppd for IPCP negotiation.

       noipv6 Disable IPv6CP negotiation and IPv6 communication.  This	option
	      should  only  be required if the peer is buggy and gets confused
	      by requests from pppd for IPv6CP negotiation.

       noipdefault
	      Disables the default behaviour when no local IP address is spec-
	      ified,  which is to determine (if possible) the local IP address
	      from the hostname.  With this option, the peer will have to sup-
	      ply  the	local  IP  address  during IPCP negotiation (unless it
	      specified explicitly on the command line or in an options file).

       noipx  Disable the IPXCP and IPX protocols.  This option should only be
	      required if the peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from
	      pppd for IPXCP negotiation.

       noktune
	      Opposite of the ktune option; disables pppd from changing system
	      settings.

       nolock Opposite of the lock option; specifies that pppd should not cre-
	      ate  a  UUCP-style lock file for the serial device.  This option
	      is privileged.

       nolog  Do not send log messages to a file  or  file  descriptor.	  This
	      option cancels the logfd and logfile options.

       nomagic
	      Disable magic number negotiation.	 With this option, pppd cannot
	      detect a looped-back line.  This option should only be needed if
	      the peer is buggy.

       nomp   Disables	the  use  of  PPP multilink.  This option is currently
	      only available under Linux.

       nomppe Disables MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point  Encryption).   This  is
	      the default.

       nomppe-40
	      Disable 40-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-128
	      Disable 128-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-stateful
	      Disable MPPE stateful mode.  This is the default.

       nompshortseq
	      Disables	the  use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in the PPP
	      multilink protocol, forcing the use of 24-bit sequence  numbers.
	      This  option  is	currently only available under Linux, and only
	      has any effect if multilink is enabled.

       nomultilink
	      Disables the use of PPP multilink.   This	 option	 is  currently
	      only available under Linux.

       nopcomp
	      Disable  protocol	 field	compression  negotiation  in  both the
	      receive and the transmit direction.

       nopersist
	      Exit once a connection has been made and	terminated.   This  is
	      the  default unless the persist or demand option has been speci-
	      fied.

       nopredictor1
	      Do not accept or agree to Predictor-1 compression.

       noproxyarp
	      Disable the  proxyarp  option.   The  system  administrator  who
	      wishes  to  prevent  users  from creating proxy ARP entries with
	      pppd can do so by placing this option  in	 the  /etc/ppp/options
	      file.

       notty  Normally,	 pppd  requires	 a terminal device.  With this option,
	      pppd will allocate itself a pseudo-tty master/slave pair and use
	      the slave as its terminal device.	 Pppd will create a child pro-
	      cess to act  as  a  'character  shunt'  to  transfer  characters
	      between the pseudo-tty master and its standard input and output.
	      Thus pppd will transmit characters on its	 standard  output  and
	      receive  characters  on  its standard input even if they are not
	      terminal devices.	 This option increases	the  latency  and  CPU
	      overhead	of  transferring data over the ppp interface as all of
	      the characters sent and received must flow through the character
	      shunt process.  An explicit device name may not be given if this
	      option is used.

       novj   Disable Van Jacobson style TCP/IP header compression in both the
	      transmit and the receive direction.

       novjccomp
	      Disable  the  connection-ID  compression	option in Van Jacobson
	      style TCP/IP header compression.	With this  option,  pppd  will
	      not  omit	 the  connection-ID  byte from Van Jacobson compressed
	      TCP/IP headers, nor ask the peer to do so.

       papcrypt
	      Indicates that all  secrets  in  the  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  file
	      which  are  used	for  checking  the  identity  of  the peer are
	      encrypted, and thus pppd should not  accept  a  password	which,
	      before   encryption,   is	 identical  to	the  secret  from  the
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets file.

       pap-max-authreq n
	      Set the maximum number of PAP authenticate-request transmissions
	      to n (default 10).

       pap-restart n
	      Set  the PAP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n sec-
	      onds (default 3).

       pap-timeout n
	      Set the maximum time that pppd will wait for the peer to authen-
	      ticate itself with PAP to n seconds (0 means no limit).

       pass-filter filter-expression
	      Specifies	 a packet filter to applied to data packets being sent
	      or received to determine which  packets  should  be  allowed  to
	      pass.   Packets  which  are  rejected by the filter are silently
	      discarded.  This option can be used to prevent specific  network
	      daemons  (such as routed) using up link bandwidth, or to provide
	      a very basic firewall capability.	 The filter-expression	syntax
	      is as described for tcpdump(1), except that qualifiers which are
	      inappropriate for a PPP link, such as ether  and	arp,  are  not
	      permitted.   Generally  the filter expression should be enclosed
	      in single-quotes to prevent whitespace in	 the  expression  from
	      being  interpreted  by  the  shell.  Note that it is possible to
	      apply different constraints to  incoming	and  outgoing  packets
	      using  the  inbound and outbound qualifiers. This option is cur-
	      rently only available under Linux, and requires that the	kernel
	      was configured to include PPP filtering support (CONFIG_PPP_FIL-
	      TER).

       password password-string
	      Specifies the password to use for authenticating	to  the	 peer.
	      Use  of this option is discouraged, as the password is likely to
	      be visible to other users on the system (for example,  by	 using
	      ps(1)).

       persist
	      Do  not  exit  after  a connection is terminated; instead try to
	      reopen the connection. The maxfail option still has an effect on
	      persistent connections.

       plugin filename
	      Load  the shared library object file filename as a plugin.  This
	      is a privileged option.  If filename does not  contain  a	 slash
	      (/),  pppd  will look in the /usr/lib/pppd/version directory for
	      the plugin, where version is the version	number	of  pppd  (for
	      example, 2.4.2).

       predictor1
	      Request  that  the peer compress frames that it sends using Pre-
	      dictor-1 compression, and agree to compress  transmitted	frames
	      with Predictor-1 if requested.  This option has no effect unless
	      the kernel driver supports Predictor-1 compression.

       privgroup group-name
	      Allows members of group group-name to  use  privileged  options.
	      This  is	a privileged option.  Use of this option requires care
	      as there is no guarantee that members of group-name  cannot  use
	      pppd  to	become	root  themselves.   Consider  it equivalent to
	      putting the members of group-name in the kmem or disk group.

       proxyarp
	      Add an entry to this system's ARP [Address Resolution  Protocol]
	      table  with  the IP address of the peer and the Ethernet address
	      of this system.  This will have the effect of  making  the  peer
	      appear to other systems to be on the local ethernet.

       pty script
	      Specifies	 that  the command script is to be used to communicate
	      rather than a specific  terminal	device.	  Pppd	will  allocate
	      itself  a	 pseudo-tty master/slave pair and use the slave as its
	      terminal device.	The script will be run in a child process with
	      the  pseudo-tty  master  as  its	standard input and output.  An
	      explicit device name may not be given if this  option  is	 used.
	      (Note:  if  the record option is used in conjuction with the pty
	      option, the child process will have pipes on its standard	 input
	      and output.)

       receive-all
	      With  this  option, pppd will accept all control characters from
	      the peer, including those marked in the receive asyncmap.	 With-
	      out this option, pppd will discard those characters as specified
	      in RFC1662.  This option should only be needed if	 the  peer  is
	      buggy.

       record filename
	      Specifies	 that  pppd  should  record  all  characters  sent and
	      received to a file named	filename.   This  file	is  opened  in
	      append  mode,  using  the	 user's user-ID and permissions.  This
	      option is implemented using a pseudo-tty and a process to trans-
	      fer  characters  between	the  pseudo-tty	 and  the  real serial
	      device, so it will increase the  latency	and  CPU  overhead  of
	      transferring  data  over	the ppp interface.  The characters are
	      stored in a tagged format with timestamps,  which	 can  be  dis-
	      played in readable form using the pppdump(8) program.

       remotename name
	      Set  the	assumed	 name  of the remote system for authentication
	      purposes to name.

       remotenumber number
	      Set the assumed  telephone  number  of  the  remote  system  for
	      authentication purposes to number.

       refuse-chap
	      With  this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to
	      the peer using CHAP.

       refuse-mschap
	      With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself  to
	      the peer using MS-CHAP.

       refuse-mschap-v2
	      With  this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to
	      the peer using MS-CHAPv2.

       refuse-eap
	      With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself  to
	      the peer using EAP.

       refuse-pap
	      With  this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to
	      the peer using PAP.

       require-chap
	      Require the peer to authenticate itself  using  CHAP  [Challenge
	      Handshake Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-mppe
	      Require  the  use of MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point Encryption).
	      This option disables all other compression types.	  This	option
	      enables  both  40-bit and 128-bit encryption.  In order for MPPE
	      to successfully come up, you must have authenticated with either
	      MS-CHAP  or  MS-CHAPv2.  This option is presently only supported
	      under Linux, and only if your  kernel  has  been	configured  to
	      include MPPE support.

       require-mppe-40
	      Require the use of MPPE, with 40-bit encryption.

       require-mppe-128
	      Require the use of MPPE, with 128-bit encryption.

       require-mschap
	      Require the peer to authenticate itself using MS-CHAP [Microsoft
	      Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-mschap-v2
	      Require  the  peer  to  authenticate  itself   using   MS-CHAPv2
	      [Microsoft  Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, Version
	      2] authentication.

       require-eap
	      Require the peer to authenticate itself  using  EAP  [Extensible
	      Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-pap
	      Require  the  peer  to  authenticate  itself using PAP [Password
	      Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       show-password
	      When logging the contents of PAP	packets,  this	option	causes
	      pppd to show the password string in the log message.

       silent With this option, pppd will not transmit LCP packets to initiate
	      a connection until a valid LCP packet is received from the  peer
	      (as for the 'passive' option with ancient versions of pppd).

       srp-interval n
	      If this parameter is given and pppd uses EAP SRP-SHA1 to authen-
	      ticate the peer (i.e., is the server), then pppd	will  use  the
	      optional lightweight SRP rechallenge mechanism at intervals of n
	      seconds.	This option is faster than eap-interval	 reauthentica-
	      tion  because it uses a hash-based mechanism and does not derive
	      a new session key.

       srp-pn-secret string
	      Set the long-term pseudonym-generating secret  for  the  server.
	      This  value  is  optional	 and  if set, needs to be known at the
	      server (authenticator) side only, and should  be	different  for
	      each  server  (or	 poll of identical servers).  It is used along
	      with the current date to generate a key to encrypt  and  decrypt
	      the client's identity contained in the pseudonym.

       srp-use-pseudonym
	      When  operating  as  an  EAP SRP-SHA1 client, attempt to use the
	      pseudonym stored in ~/.ppp_psuedonym first as the identity,  and
	      save  in	this  file  any	 pseudonym  offered by the peer during
	      authentication.

       sync   Use synchronous HDLC serial encoding  instead  of	 asynchronous.
	      The device used by pppd with this option must have sync support.
	      Currently supports Microgate SyncLink adapters under  Linux  and
	      FreeBSD 2.2.8 and later.

       unit num
	      Sets the ppp unit number (for a ppp0 or ppp1 etc interface name)
	      for outbound connections.

       updetach
	      With this option, pppd will detach from its controlling terminal
	      once  it has successfully established the ppp connection (to the
	      point where the first network control protocol, usually  the  IP
	      control protocol, has come up).

       usehostname
	      Enforce  the  use of the hostname (with domain name appended, if
	      given) as the name of the local system for  authentication  pur-
	      poses  (overrides the name option).  This option is not normally
	      needed since the name option is privileged.

       usepeerdns
	      Ask the peer for up to 2 DNS server  addresses.	The  addresses
	      supplied	by  the peer (if any) are passed to the /etc/ppp/ip-up
	      script in the environment variables DNS1 and DNS2, and the envi-
	      ronment variable USEPEERDNS will be set to 1.  In addition, pppd
	      will create an /var/run/ppp/resolv.conf file containing  one  or
	      two  nameserver lines with the address(es) supplied by the peer.

       user name
	      Sets the name used for authenticating the local  system  to  the
	      peer to name.

       vj-max-slots n
	      Sets the number of connection slots to be used by the Van Jacob-
	      son TCP/IP header compression and decompression code to n, which
	      must be between 2 and 16 (inclusive).

       welcome script
	      Run  the	executable or shell command specified by script before
	      initiating PPP negotiation, after the connect  script  (if  any)
	      has completed.  A value for this option from a privileged source
	      cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       xonxoff
	      Use software flow control (i.e. XON/XOFF) to control the flow of
	      data on the serial port.

OPTIONS FILES
       Options	can  be	 taken	from  files as well as the command line.  Pppd
       reads  options  from   the   files   /etc/ppp/options,	~/.ppprc   and
       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname	 (in that order) before processing the options
       on the command line.  (In fact, the command-line options are scanned to
       find  the  terminal  name before the options.ttyname file is read.)  In
       forming the name of the options.ttyname	file,  the  initial  /dev/  is
       removed	from  the  terminal  name,  and any remaining / characters are
       replaced with dots.

       An options file is parsed into a series of words, delimited by  whites-
       pace.   Whitespace  can	be included in a word by enclosing the word in
       double-quotes (").  A backslash (\) quotes the following character.   A
       hash  (#)  starts a comment, which continues until the end of the line.
       There is no restriction on using the file or  call  options  within  an
       options file.

SECURITY
       pppd provides system administrators with sufficient access control that
       PPP access to a server machine can  be  provided	 to  legitimate	 users
       without	fear of compromising the security of the server or the network
       it's on.	 This control is provided through  restrictions	 on  which  IP
       addresses  the  peer  may  use, based on its authenticated identity (if
       any), and through restrictions on which options a  non-privileged  user
       may use.	 Several of pppd's options are privileged, in particular those
       which permit potentially insecure  configurations;  these  options  are
       only accepted in files which are under the control of the system admin-
       istrator, or if pppd is being run by root.

       The default behaviour of pppd is to allow an  unauthenticated  peer  to
       use a given IP address only if the system does not already have a route
       to that IP address.  For example, a system with a permanent  connection
       to  the wider internet will normally have a default route, and thus all
       peers will have to authenticate themselves in order to set up a connec-
       tion.   On such a system, the auth option is the default.  On the other
       hand, a system where the PPP link is the only connection to the	inter-
       net will not normally have a default route, so the peer will be able to
       use almost any IP address without authenticating itself.

       As indicated above, some	 security-sensitive  options  are  privileged,
       which  means  that  they	 may not be used by an ordinary non-privileged
       user running a setuid-root pppd, either on the  command	line,  in  the
       user's ~/.ppprc file, or in an options file read using the file option.
       Privileged options may be  used	in  /etc/ppp/options  file  or	in  an
       options	file  read using the call option.  If pppd is being run by the
       root user, privileged options can be used without restriction.

       When opening the device, pppd uses either the invoking user's  user  ID
       or  the root UID (that is, 0), depending on whether the device name was
       specified by the user or the system administrator.  If the device  name
       comes from a privileged source, that is, /etc/ppp/options or an options
       file read using the call option, pppd uses full	root  privileges  when
       opening	the  device.   Thus,  by  creating  an	appropriate file under
       /etc/ppp/peers, the system administrator can allow users to establish a
       ppp  connection via a device which they would not normally have permis-
       sion to access.	Otherwise pppd uses the invoking user's real UID  when
       opening the device.

AUTHENTICATION
       Authentication  is  the process whereby one peer convinces the other of
       its identity.  This involves the first peer sending  its	 name  to  the
       other,  together	 with some kind of secret information which could only
       come from the genuine  authorized  user	of  that  name.	  In  such  an
       exchange,  we  will  call the first peer the "client" and the other the
       "server".  The client has a name by which it identifies itself  to  the
       server, and the server also has a name by which it identifies itself to
       the client.  Generally the genuine client shares some secret (or	 pass-
       word)  with  the	 server,  and  authenticates itself by proving that it
       knows that secret.  Very often, the names used for authentication  cor-
       respond	to the internet hostnames of the peers, but this is not essen-
       tial.

       At present, pppd supports three authentication protocols: the  Password
       Authentication  Protocol (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication Pro-
       tocol  (CHAP),  and  Extensible	Authentication	Protocol  (EAP).   PAP
       involves	 the  client  sending its name and a cleartext password to the
       server to authenticate itself.  In contrast, the server	initiates  the
       CHAP  authentication exchange by sending a challenge to the client (the
       challenge packet includes the server's name).  The client must  respond
       with  a response which includes its name plus a hash value derived from
       the shared secret and the challenge, in order to prove  that  it	 knows
       the  secret.  EAP supports CHAP-style authentication, and also includes
       the SRP-SHA1 mechanism, which is resistant to dictionary-based  attacks
       and does not require a cleartext password on the server side.

       The  PPP	 protocol, being symmetrical, allows both peers to require the
       other to authenticate itself.  In that case, two separate and  indepen-
       dent  authentication exchanges will occur.  The two exchanges could use
       different authentication protocols, and in principle,  different	 names
       could be used in the two exchanges.

       The default behaviour of pppd is to agree to authenticate if requested,
       and to not require authentication from the peer.	  However,  pppd  will
       not  agree  to authenticate itself with a particular protocol if it has
       no secrets which could be used to do so.

       Pppd  stores  secrets  for  use	in  authentication  in	secrets	 files
       (/etc/ppp/pap-secrets for PAP, /etc/ppp/chap-secrets for CHAP, MS-CHAP,
       MS-CHAPv2, and EAP  MD5-Challenge,  and	/etc/ppp/srp-secrets  for  EAP
       SRP-SHA1).   All secrets files have the same format.  The secrets files
       can contain secrets for pppd to use in authenticating itself  to	 other
       systems,	 as  well as secrets for pppd to use when authenticating other
       systems to itself.

       Each line in a secrets file contains one secret.	  A  given  secret  is
       specific to a particular combination of client and server - it can only
       be used by that client to authenticate itself  to  that	server.	  Thus
       each  line  in  a  secrets  file has at least 3 fields: the name of the
       client, the name of the server, and the secret.	These  fields  may  be
       followed	 by  a	list of the IP addresses that the specified client may
       use when connecting to the specified server.

       A secrets file is parsed into words as  for  a  options	file,  so  the
       client name, server name and secrets fields must each be one word, with
       any embedded spaces or other  special  characters  quoted  or  escaped.
       Note that case is significant in the client and server names and in the
       secret.

       If the secret starts with an '@', what follows is  assumed  to  be  the
       name  of	 a file from which to read the secret.	A "*" as the client or
       server name matches any name.  When selecting a secret, pppd takes  the
       best match, i.e.	 the match with the fewest wildcards.

       Any  following words on the same line are taken to be a list of accept-
       able IP addresses for that client.  If there are only 3	words  on  the
       line,  or  if  the  first word is "-", then all IP addresses are disal-
       lowed.  To allow any address, use "*".  A word starting with "!"	 indi-
       cates  that the specified address is not acceptable.  An address may be
       followed by "/" and a number n, to indicate a whole  subnet,  i.e.  all
       addresses which have the same value in the most significant n bits.  In
       this form, the address may be followed by a plus sign ("+") to indicate
       that  one  address from the subnet is authorized, based on the ppp net-
       work interface unit number in use.  In this case, the host part of  the
       address will be set to the unit number plus one.

       Thus  a	secrets	 file  contains both secrets for use in authenticating
       other hosts, plus secrets which we use for authenticating ourselves  to
       others.	 When  pppd  is	 authenticating	 the peer (checking the peer's
       identity), it chooses a secret with the peer's name in the first	 field
       and  the name of the local system in the second field.  The name of the
       local system defaults to the hostname, with the domain name appended if
       the  domain  option  is	used.  This default can be overridden with the
       name option, except when the usehostname	 option	 is  used.   (For  EAP
       SRP-SHA1,  see the srp-entry(8) utility for generating proper validator
       entries to be used in the "secret" field.)

       When pppd is choosing a secret to use in authenticating itself  to  the
       peer,  it  first	 determines  what  name it is going to use to identify
       itself to the peer.  This name can be specified by the  user  with  the
       user option.  If this option is not used, the name defaults to the name
       of the local system, determined as described in the previous paragraph.
       Then  pppd looks for a secret with this name in the first field and the
       peer's name in the second field.	 Pppd will know the name of  the  peer
       if CHAP or EAP authentication is being used, because the peer will have
       sent it in the challenge packet.	 However, if PAP is being  used,  pppd
       will  have  to  determine the peer's name from the options specified by
       the user.  The user can specify	the  peer's  name  directly  with  the
       remotename  option.   Otherwise, if the remote IP address was specified
       by a name (rather than in numeric form), that name will be used as  the
       peer's name.  Failing that, pppd will use the null string as the peer's
       name.

       When authenticating the peer with PAP, the supplied password  is	 first
       compared	 with  the  secret  from  the  secrets	file.  If the password
       doesn't match the secret, the password is encrypted using  crypt()  and
       checked	against the secret again.  Thus secrets for authenticating the
       peer can be stored in encrypted	form  if  desired.   If	 the  papcrypt
       option  is  given,  the	first (unencrypted) comparison is omitted, for
       better security.

       Furthermore, if the login option was specified, the username and	 pass-
       word  are also checked against the system password database.  Thus, the
       system administrator can set up	the  pap-secrets  file	to  allow  PPP
       access  only  to certain users, and to restrict the set of IP addresses
       that each user can use.	Typically, when using the  login  option,  the
       secret  in /etc/ppp/pap-secrets would be "", which will match any pass-
       word supplied by the peer.  This avoids	the  need  to  have  the  same
       secret in two places.

       Authentication  must  be	 satisfactorily	 completed before IPCP (or any
       other Network Control  Protocol)	 can  be  started.   If	 the  peer  is
       required	 to  authenticate itself, and fails to do so, pppd will termi-
       nated the link (by closing LCP).	 If IPCP negotiates an unacceptable IP
       address	for the remote host, IPCP will be closed.  IP packets can only
       be sent or received when IPCP is open.

       In some cases it is desirable to allow some hosts which can't authenti-
       cate  themselves	 to  connect  and  use	one  of a restricted set of IP
       addresses, even when the local host generally requires  authentication.
       If  the	peer refuses to authenticate itself when requested, pppd takes
       that as equivalent to authenticating with PAP using  the	 empty	string
       for  the	 username  and	password.   Thus,  by  adding  a  line	to the
       pap-secrets file which specifies the empty string for  the  client  and
       password,  it  is  possible  to	allow restricted access to hosts which
       refuse to authenticate themselves.

ROUTING
       When IPCP negotiation is completed successfully, pppd will  inform  the
       kernel  of  the	local  and  remote IP addresses for the ppp interface.
       This is sufficient to create a host route to  the  remote  end  of  the
       link,  which  will enable the peers to exchange IP packets.  Communica-
       tion with other machines generally  requires  further  modification  to
       routing	tables	and/or	ARP  (Address Resolution Protocol) tables.  In
       most cases the defaultroute and/or proxyarp options are sufficient  for
       this,  but  in  some  cases  further  intervention  is  required.   The
       /etc/ppp/ip-up script can be used for this.

       Sometimes it is desirable to add a default  route  through  the	remote
       host, as in the case of a machine whose only connection to the Internet
       is through the ppp interface.  The defaultroute option causes  pppd  to
       create  such a default route when IPCP comes up, and delete it when the
       link is terminated.

       In some cases it is desirable to use proxy ARP, for example on a server
       machine	connected  to a LAN, in order to allow other hosts to communi-
       cate with the remote host.  The proxyarp option causes pppd to look for
       a network interface on the same subnet as the remote host (an interface
       supporting broadcast and ARP, which is up and not a  point-to-point  or
       loopback interface).  If found, pppd creates a permanent, published ARP
       entry with the IP address of the remote host and the  hardware  address
       of the network interface found.

       When the demand option is used, the interface IP addresses have already
       been set at the point when IPCP comes up.  If pppd has not been able to
       negotiate  the  same  addresses that it used to configure the interface
       (for example when the peer is an	 ISP  that  uses  dynamic  IP  address
       assignment), pppd has to change the interface IP addresses to the nego-
       tiated addresses.  This may disrupt existing connections, and  the  use
       of  demand dialling with peers that do dynamic IP address assignment is
       not recommended.

MULTILINK
       Multilink PPP provides the capability to combine two or more PPP	 links
       between	a  pair of machines into a single 'bundle', which appears as a
       single virtual PPP link which has the combined bandwidth of  the	 indi-
       vidual  links.  Currently, multilink PPP is only supported under Linux.

       Pppd detects that the link it is controlling is connected to  the  same
       peer  as	 another  link using the peer's endpoint discriminator and the
       authenticated identity of the peer (if it authenticates	itself).   The
       endpoint discriminator is a block of data which is hopefully unique for
       each peer.  Several types of  data  can	be  used,  including  locally-
       assigned	 strings  of  bytes,  IP  addresses,  MAC  addresses, randomly
       strings of bytes, or E-164 phone numbers.  The  endpoint	 discriminator
       sent to the peer by pppd can be set using the endpoint option.

       In  some circumstances the peer may send no endpoint discriminator or a
       non-unique value.  The bundle option adds  an  extra  string  which  is
       added  to  the peer's endpoint discriminator and authenticated identity
       when matching up links to be joined together in a bundle.   The	bundle
       option  can also be used to allow the establishment of multiple bundles
       between the local system and the peer.  Pppd uses  a  TDB  database  in
       /var/run/pppd2.tdb to match up links.

       Assuming that multilink is enabled and the peer is willing to negotiate
       multilink, then when pppd is invoked to bring up the first link to  the
       peer,  it  will	detect that no other link is connected to the peer and
       create a new bundle, that is, another ppp network interface unit.  When
       another	pppd  is invoked to bring up another link to the peer, it will
       detect the existing bundle and join its link to it.

       If the first link terminates (for example, because of  a	 hangup	 or  a
       received	 LCP  terminate-request)  the  bundle  is not destroyed unless
       there are no other links remaining in the bundle.  Rather than exiting,
       the  first  pppd keeps running after its link terminates, until all the
       links in the bundle have terminated.  If	 the  first  pppd  receives  a
       SIGTERM	or SIGINT signal, it will destroy the bundle and send a SIGHUP
       to the pppd processes for each of the links  in	the  bundle.   If  the
       first pppd receives a SIGHUP signal, it will terminate its link but not
       the bundle.

       Note: demand mode is not currently supported with multilink.

EXAMPLES
       The following examples assume that the /etc/ppp/options	file  contains
       the  auth  option  (as  in the default /etc/ppp/options file in the ppp
       distribution).

       Probably the most common use of pppd is to dial out to  an  ISP.	  This
       can be done with a command such as

	      pppd call isp

       where the /etc/ppp/peers/isp file is set up by the system administrator
       to contain something like this:

	      ttyS0 19200 crtscts
	      connect '/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/chat-isp'
	      noauth

       In this example, we are using chat to  dial  the	 ISP's	modem  and  go
       through	any  logon sequence required.  The /etc/ppp/chat-isp file con-
       tains the script used by chat; it could for example  contain  something
       like this:

	      ABORT "NO CARRIER"
	      ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
	      ABORT "ERROR"
	      ABORT "NO ANSWER"
	      ABORT "BUSY"
	      ABORT "Username/Password Incorrect"
	      "" "at"
	      OK "at&d0&c1"
	      OK "atdt2468135"
	      "name:" "^Umyuserid"
	      "word:" "\qmypassword"
	      "ispts" "\q^Uppp"
	      "~-^Uppp-~"

       See the chat(8) man page for details of chat scripts.

       Pppd  can  also be used to provide a dial-in ppp service for users.  If
       the users already have login accounts, the simplest way to set  up  the
       ppp  service  is to let the users log in to their accounts and run pppd
       (installed setuid-root) with a command such as

	      pppd proxyarp

       To allow a user to use the PPP facilities, you need to allocate	an  IP
       address	 for   that   user's   machine	 and   create	an   entry  in
       /etc/ppp/pap-secrets,  /etc/ppp/chap-secrets,  or  /etc/ppp/srp-secrets
       (depending on which authentication method the PPP implementation on the
       user's machine supports), so that the user's machine  can  authenticate
       itself.	 For  example, if Joe has a machine called "joespc" that is to
       be allowed to dial in to the machine called "server"  and  use  the  IP
       address	 joespc.my.net,	  you	would	add  an	 entry	like  this  to
       /etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets:

	      joespc	server	  "joe's secret" joespc.my.net

       (See srp-entry(8) for a means  to  generate  the	 server's  entry  when
       SRP-SHA1	 is  in use.)  Alternatively, you can create a username called
       (for example) "ppp", whose login shell is pppd and whose home directory
       is  /etc/ppp.   Options to be used when pppd is run this way can be put
       in /etc/ppp/.ppprc.

       If your serial connection is any more complicated than a piece of wire,
       you  may need to arrange for some control characters to be escaped.  In
       particular, it is often useful to escape XON (^Q) and XOFF (^S),	 using
       asyncmap	 a0000.	  If  the  path includes a telnet, you probably should
       escape ^] as well (asyncmap 200a0000).  If the path includes an rlogin,
       you  will  need to use the escape ff option on the end which is running
       the rlogin client, since many rlogin implementations are not  transpar-
       ent; they will remove the sequence [0xff, 0xff, 0x73, 0x73, followed by
       any 8 bytes] from the stream.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Messages are sent to  the  syslog  daemon  using	 facility  LOG_DAEMON.
       (This  can  be  overridden  by  recompiling pppd with the macro LOG_PPP
       defined as the desired facility.)  See the syslog(8) documentation  for
       details	of  where  the syslog daemon will write the messages.  On most
       systems, the syslog daemon uses the /etc/syslog.conf  file  to  specify
       the destination(s) for syslog messages.	You may need to edit that file
       to suit.

       The debug option causes the contents of all  control  packets  sent  or
       received	 to be logged, that is, all LCP, PAP, CHAP, EAP, or IPCP pack-
       ets.  This can be useful if the PPP negotiation does not succeed or  if
       authentication  fails.	If  debugging  is enabled at compile time, the
       debug option also causes other debugging messages to be logged.

       Debugging can also be enabled or disabled by sending a  SIGUSR1	signal
       to the pppd process.  This signal acts as a toggle.

EXIT STATUS
       The  exit  status  of  pppd  is	set  to indicate whether any error was
       detected, or the reason for the link being terminated.  The values used
       are:

       0      Pppd  has detached, or otherwise the connection was successfully
	      established and terminated at the peer's request.

       1      An immediately fatal error of some kind  occurred,  such	as  an
	      essential system call failing, or running out of virtual memory.

       2      An error was detected in processing the options given,  such  as
	      two mutually exclusive options being used.

       3      Pppd is not setuid-root and the invoking user is not root.

       4      The  kernel  does	 not  support PPP, for example, the PPP kernel
	      driver is not included or cannot be loaded.

       5      Pppd terminated because it was sent a SIGINT, SIGTERM or	SIGHUP
	      signal.

       6      The serial port could not be locked.

       7      The serial port could not be opened.

       8      The connect script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       9      The  command  specified  as the argument to the pty option could
	      not be run.

       10     The PPP negotiation failed, that is, it didn't reach  the	 point
	      where at least one network protocol (e.g. IP) was running.

       11     The peer system failed (or refused) to authenticate itself.

       12     The  link was established successfully and terminated because it
	      was idle.

       13     The link was established successfully and terminated because the
	      connect time limit was reached.

       14     Callback	was  negotiated	 and  an  incoming  call should arrive
	      shortly.

       15     The link was terminated because the peer is  not	responding  to
	      echo requests.

       16     The link was terminated by the modem hanging up.

       17     The PPP negotiation failed because serial loopback was detected.

       18     The init script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       19     We failed to authenticate ourselves to the peer.

SCRIPTS
       Pppd invokes scripts at various stages in its processing which  can  be
       used  to perform site-specific ancillary processing.  These scripts are
       usually shell scripts, but could	 be  executable	 code  files  instead.
       Pppd  does not wait for the scripts to finish (except for the ip-pre-up
       script).	 The scripts are executed as root (with the real and effective
       user-id	set  to	 0), so that they can do things such as update routing
       tables or run privileged daemons.  Be  careful  that  the  contents  of
       these  scripts do not compromise your system's security.	 Pppd runs the
       scripts with standard input, output and error redirected to  /dev/null,
       and with an environment that is empty except for some environment vari-
       ables that give information about the link.  The environment  variables
       that pppd sets are:

       DEVICE The name of the serial tty device being used.

       IFNAME The name of the network interface being used.

       IPLOCAL
	      The  IP address for the local end of the link.  This is only set
	      when IPCP has come up.

       IPREMOTE
	      The IP address for the remote end of the link.  This is only set
	      when IPCP has come up.

       PEERNAME
	      The  authenticated  name	of  the peer.  This is only set if the
	      peer authenticates itself.

       SPEED  The baud rate of the tty device.

       ORIG_UID
	      The real user-id of the user who invoked pppd.

       PPPLOGNAME
	      The username of the real user-id	that  invoked  pppd.  This  is
	      always set.

       For  the	 ip-down  and  auth-down scripts, pppd also sets the following
       variables giving statistics for the connection:

       CONNECT_TIME
	      The number of seconds from  when	the  PPP  negotiation  started
	      until the connection was terminated.

       BYTES_SENT
	      The  number of bytes sent (at the level of the serial port) dur-
	      ing the connection.

       BYTES_RCVD
	      The number of bytes received (at the level of the	 serial	 port)
	      during the connection.

       LINKNAME
	      The logical name of the link, set with the linkname option.

       DNS1   If  the peer supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is set
	      to the first DNS server address supplied.

       DNS2   If the peer supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is  set
	      to the second DNS server address supplied.

       Pppd  invokes the following scripts, if they exist.  It is not an error
       if they don't exist.

       /etc/ppp/auth-up
	      A program or script which is executed after  the	remote	system
	      successfully  authenticates  itself.   It	 is  executed with the
	      parameters

	      interface-name peer-name user-name tty-device speed

	      Note that this script  is	 not  executed	if  the	 peer  doesn't
	      authenticate itself, for example when the noauth option is used.

       /etc/ppp/auth-down
	      A program or script which is executed when the link  goes	 down,
	      if  /etc/ppp/auth-up was previously executed.  It is executed in
	      the same manner with the same parameters as /etc/ppp/auth-up.

       /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up
	      A program or script which is executed just before the  ppp  net-
	      work  interface  is  brought  up.	  It is executed with the same
	      parameters as the ip-up  script  (below).	  At  this  point  the
	      interface	 exists	 and  has  IP  addresses assigned but is still
	      down.  This can be used to add  firewall	rules  before  any  IP
	      traffic can pass through the interface.  Pppd will wait for this
	      script to finish before  bringing	 the  interface	 up,  so  this
	      script should run quickly.

       /etc/ppp/ip-up
	      A program or script which is executed when the link is available
	      for sending and receiving IP packets (that  is,  IPCP  has  come
	      up).  It is executed with the parameters

	      interface-name	   tty-device	   speed      local-IP-address
	      remote-IP-address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ip-down
	      A program or script which is executed when the link is no longer
	      available for sending and receiving IP packets.  This script can
	      be used for  undoing  the	 effects  of  the  /etc/ppp/ip-up  and
	      /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up  scripts.   It	 is invoked in the same manner
	      and with the same parameters as the ip-up script.

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-up
	      Like /etc/ppp/ip-up, except that it is executed when the link is
	      available for sending and receiving IPv6 packets. It is executed
	      with the parameters

	      interface-name   tty-device    speed    local-link-local-address
	      remote-link-local-address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-down
	      Similar  to /etc/ppp/ip-down, but it is executed when IPv6 pack-
	      ets can no longer be transmitted on the  link.  It  is  executed
	      with the same parameters as the ipv6-up script.

       /etc/ppp/ipx-up
	      A program or script which is executed when the link is available
	      for sending and receiving IPX packets (that is, IPXCP  has  come
	      up).  It is executed with the parameters

	      interface-name	   tty-device	    speed	network-number
	      local-IPX-node-address  remote-IPX-node-address  local-IPX-rout-
	      ing-protocol  remote-IPX-routing-protocol	 local-IPX-router-name
	      remote-IPX-router-name ipparam pppd-pid

	      The local-IPX-routing-protocol  and  remote-IPX-routing-protocol
	      field may be one of the following:

	      NONE	to indicate that there is no routing protocol
	      RIP	to indicate that RIP/SAP should be used
	      NLSP	to indicate that Novell NLSP should be used
	      RIP NLSP	to indicate that both RIP/SAP and NLSP should be used

       /etc/ppp/ipx-down
	      A program or script which is executed when the link is no longer
	      available for sending and receiving IPX  packets.	  This	script
	      can  be  used  for  undoing  the	effects of the /etc/ppp/ipx-up
	      script.  It is invoked in the same  manner  and  with  the  same
	      parameters as the ipx-up script.

FILES
       /var/run/pppn.pid (BSD or Linux), /etc/ppp/pppn.pid (others)
	      Process-ID for pppd process on ppp interface unit n.

       /var/run/ppp-name.pid (BSD or Linux),
	      /etc/ppp/ppp-name.pid  (others)  Process-ID for pppd process for
	      logical link name (see the linkname option).

       /var/run/pppd2.tdb
	      Database containing information about pppd processes, interfaces
	      and links, used for matching links to bundles in multilink oper-
	      ation.  May be examined by external programs to obtain  informa-
	      tion  about  running  pppd instances, the interfaces and devices
	      they    are    using,    IP    address	 assignments,	  etc.
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  Usernames,	passwords and IP addresses for
	      PAP authentication.  This file should be owned by root  and  not
	      readable or writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning
	      if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
	      Names,  secrets  and  IP	addresses  for	CHAP/MS-CHAP/MS-CHAPv2
	      authentication.	As  for /etc/ppp/pap-secrets, this file should
	      be owned by root and not readable or writable by any other user.
	      Pppd will log a warning if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets
	      Names, secrets, and IP addresses for EAP authentication.	As for
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets, this file should be owned by root and  not
	      readable or writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning
	      if this is not the case.

       ~/.ppp_pseudonym
	      Saved client-side SRP-SHA1 pseudonym.  See the srp-use-pseudonym
	      option for details.

       /etc/ppp/options
	      System  default  options	for  pppd,  read  before  user default
	      options or command-line options.

       ~/.ppprc
	      User default options, read before /etc/ppp/options.ttyname.

       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname
	      System default options for the  serial  port  being  used,  read
	      after  ~/.ppprc.	 In forming the ttyname part of this filename,
	      an initial /dev/ is stripped from the port  name	(if  present),
	      and any slashes in the remaining part are converted to dots.

       /etc/ppp/peers
	      A	 directory  containing	options files which may contain privi-
	      leged options, even if pppd was invoked by  a  user  other  than
	      root.  The system administrator can create options files in this
	      directory to permit non-privileged users	to  dial  out  without
	      requiring	 the peer to authenticate, but only to certain trusted
	      peers.

SEE ALSO
       chat(8), pppstats(8)

       RFC1144
	      Jacobson, V.  Compressing TCP/IP headers	for  low-speed	serial
	      links.  February 1990.

       RFC1321
	      Rivest, R.  The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm.  April 1992.

       RFC1332
	      McGregor,	 G.   PPP  Internet  Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP).
	      May 1992.

       RFC1334
	      Lloyd, B.; Simpson, W.A.	PPP authentication protocols.  October
	      1992.

       RFC1661
	      Simpson, W.A.  The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).	 July 1994.

       RFC1662
	      Simpson, W.A.  PPP in HDLC-like Framing.	July 1994.

       RFC2284
	      Blunk,  L.; Vollbrecht, J., PPP Extensible Authentication Proto-
	      col (EAP).  March 1998.

       RFC2472
	      Haskin, D.  IP Version 6 over PPP December 1998.

       RFC2945
	      Wu, T., The SRP Authentication and Key Exchange System September
	      2000.

       draft-ietf-pppext-eap-srp-03.txt
	      Carlson, J.; et al., EAP SRP-SHA1 Authentication Protocol.  July
	      2001.

NOTES
       Some limited degree of control can be exercised	over  a	 running  pppd
       process by sending it a signal from the list below.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
	      These signals cause pppd to terminate the link (by closing LCP),
	      restore the serial device settings, and exit.  If a connector or
	      disconnector  process  is	 currently running, pppd will send the
	      same signal to its process group, so as to terminate the connec-
	      tor or disconnector process.

       SIGHUP This  signal  causes  pppd  to  terminate	 the link, restore the
	      serial device settings, and close the  serial  device.   If  the
	      persist  or  demand  option has been specified, pppd will try to
	      reopen the serial device and start another connection (after the
	      holdoff  period).	  Otherwise pppd will exit.  If this signal is
	      received during the holdoff period, it causes pppd  to  end  the
	      holdoff period immediately.  If a connector or disconnector pro-
	      cess is running, pppd will send the same signal to  its  process
	      group.

       SIGUSR1
	      This signal toggles the state of the debug option.

       SIGUSR2
	      This signal causes pppd to renegotiate compression.  This can be
	      useful to re-enable compression after it has been disabled as  a
	      result  of  a  fatal  decompression error.  (Fatal decompression
	      errors generally indicate a bug in one or other implementation.)


AUTHORS
       Paul  Mackerras	(paulus@samba.org),  based  on	earlier	 work  by Drew
       Perkins, Brad Clements, Karl Fox, Greg Christy, and Brad Parker.


COPYRIGHT
       Pppd is copyrighted and made available under conditions	which  provide
       that  it may be copied and used in source or binary forms provided that
       the conditions listed below are met.  Portions of pppd are  covered  by
       the following copyright notices:

       Copyright   (c)	 1984-2000  Carnegie  Mellon  University.  All	rights
       reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1993-2004 Paul Mackerras. All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Pedro Roque Marques.	All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Eric Rosenquist.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1999 Tommi Komulainen.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (C) Andrew Tridgell 1999
       Copyright (c) 2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2001 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2002 Google, Inc.	All rights reserved.

       The copyright notices contain the following statements.

       Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without mod-
       ification,  are	permitted  provided  that the following conditions are
       met:

       1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
	  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

       2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
	  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
	  the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
	  distribution.

       3. The name "Carnegie Mellon University" must not be used to
	  endorse or promote products derived from this software without
	  prior written permission. For permission or any legal
	  details, please contact
	    Office of Technology Transfer
	    Carnegie Mellon University
	    5000 Forbes Avenue
	    Pittsburgh, PA  15213-3890
	    (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
	    tech-transfer@andrew.cmu.edu

       3b. The name(s) of the authors of this software must not be used to
	  endorse or promote products derived from this software without
	  prior written permission.

       4. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
	  acknowledgments:
	  "This product includes software developed by Computing Services
	   at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/)."
	  "This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras
	   <paulus@samba.org>".
	  "This product includes software developed by Pedro Roque Marques
	   <pedro_m@yahoo.com>".
	  "This product includes software developed by Tommi Komulainen
	   <Tommi.Komulainen@iki.fi>".

       CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS
       SOFTWARE,  INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FIT-
       NESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY BE  LIABLE  FOR  ANY
       SPECIAL,	 INDIRECT  OR  CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER
       RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN	AN  ACTION  OF
       CONTRACT,  NEGLIGENCE  OR  OTHER	 TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN
       CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

       THE AUTHORS OF THIS SOFTWARE DISCLAIM ALL  WARRANTIES  WITH  REGARD  TO
       THIS  SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
       FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDI-
       RECT  OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
       LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,	NEGLI-
       GENCE  OR  OTHER	 TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH
       THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.



								       PPPD(8)
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