Yolinux.com

ps manpage

Search topic Section
Get manual page for the search topic
List all commands matching the search topic
List all topics in the manpage index

PS(1)			      Linux User's Manual			 PS(1)



NAME
       ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.

SYNOPSIS
       ps [options]



DESCRIPTION
       ps displays information about a selection of the active processes. If
       you want a repetitive update of the selection and the displayed
       information, use top(1) instead.

       This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:
       1   UNIX options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash.
       2   BSD options, which may be grouped and must not be used with a dash.
       3   GNU long options, which are preceded by two dashes.

       Options of different types may be freely mixed, but conflicts can
       appear. There are some synonymous options, which are functionally
       identical, due to the many standards and ps implementations that this
       ps is compatible with.

       Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux". The POSIX and UNIX
       standards require that "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user
       named "x", as well as printing all processes that would be selected by
       the -a option. If the user named "x" does not exist, this ps may
       interpret the command as "ps aux" instead and print a warning. This
       behavior is intended to aid in transitioning old scripts and habits. It
       is fragile, subject to change, and thus should not be relied upon.

       By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID
       (euid=EUID) as the current user and associated with the same terminal
       as the invoker. It displays the process ID (pid=PID), the terminal
       associated with the process (tname=TTY), the cumulated CPU time in
       [dd-]hh:mm:ss format (time=TIME), and the executable name (ucmd=CMD).
       Output is unsorted by default.

       The use of BSD-style options will add process state (stat=STAT) to the
       default display and show the command args (args=COMMAND) instead of the
       executable name. You can override this with the PS_FORMAT environment
       variable. The use of BSD-style options will also change the process
       selection to include processes on other terminals (TTYs) that are owned
       by you; alternately, this may be described as setting the selection to
       be the set of all processes filtered to exclude processes owned by
       other users or not on a terminal. These effects are not considered when
       options are described as being "identical" below, so -M will be
       considered identical to Z and so on.

       Except as described below, process selection options are additive. The
       default selection is discarded, and then the selected processes are
       added to the set of processes to be displayed. A process will thus be
       shown if it meets any of the given selection criteria.


EXAMPLES
       To see every process on the system using standard syntax:
	  ps -e
	  ps -ef
	  ps -eF
	  ps -ely

       To see every process on the system using BSD syntax:
	  ps ax
	  ps axu

       To print a process tree:
	  ps -ejH
	  ps axjf

       To get info about threads:
	  ps -eLf
	  ps axms

       To get security info:
	  ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
	  ps axZ
	  ps -eM

       To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user
       format:
	  ps -U root -u root u

       To see every process with a user-defined format:
	  ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
	  ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
	  ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

       Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
	  ps -C syslogd -o pid=

       Print only the name of PID 42:
	  ps -p 42 -o comm=



SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION
       -A	       Select all processes. Identical to -e.


       -N	       Select all processes except those that fulfill the
		       specified conditions. (negates the selection) Identical
		       to --deselect.


       T	       Select all processes associated with this terminal.
		       Identical to the t option without any argument.


       -a	       Select all processes except session leaders (see
		       getsid(2)) and processes not associated with a
		       terminal.


       a	       Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which
		       is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
		       BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
		       personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
		       selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
		       processes selected by other means. An alternate
		       description is that this option causes ps to list all
		       processes with a terminal (tty), or to list all
		       processes when used together with the x option.


       -d	       Select all processes except session leaders.


       -e	       Select all processes. Identical to -A.


       g	       Really all, even session leaders. This flag is obsolete
		       and may be discontinued in a future release. It is
		       normally implied by the a flag, and is only useful when
		       operating in the sunos4 personality.


       r	       Restrict the selection to only running processes.


       x	       Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which
		       is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
		       BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
		       personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
		       selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
		       processes selected by other means. An alternate
		       description is that this option causes ps to list all
		       processes owned by you (same EUID as ps), or to list
		       all processes when used together with the a option.


       --deselect      Select all processes except those that fulfill the
		       specified conditions. (negates the selection) Identical
		       to -N.



PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST
       These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated
       or comma-separated list. They can be used multiple times.
       For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4


       -C cmdlist      Select by command name.
		       This selects the processes whose executable name is
		       given in cmdlist.


       -G grplist      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose real group name or ID
		       is in the grplist list. The real group ID identifies
		       the group of the user who created the process, see
		       getgid(2).


       U userlist      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose effective user name or
		       ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
		       user whose file access permissions are used by the
		       process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to -u and --user.


       -U userlist     select by real user ID (RUID) or name.
		       It selects the processes whose real user name or ID is
		       in the userlist list. The real user ID identifies the
		       user who created the process, see getuid(2).


       -g grplist      Select by session OR by effective group name.
		       Selection by session is specified by many standards,
		       but selection by effective group is the logical
		       behavior that several other operating systems use. This
		       ps will select by session when the list is completely
		       numeric (as sessions are). Group ID numbers will work
		       only when some group names are also specified. See the
		       -s and --group options.


       p pidlist       Select by process ID. Identical to -p and --pid.


       -p pidlist      Select by PID.
		       This selects the processes whose process ID numbers
		       appear in pidlist. Identical to p and --pid.


       -s sesslist     Select by session ID.
		       This selects the processes with a session ID specified
		       in sesslist.


       t ttylist       Select by tty. Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but
		       can also be used with an empty ttylist to indicate the
		       terminal associated with ps. Using the T option is
		       considered cleaner than using T with an empty ttylist.


       -t ttylist      Select by tty.
		       This selects the processes associated with the
		       terminals given in ttylist. Terminals (ttys, or screens
		       for text output) can be specified in several forms:
		       /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1. A plain "-" may be used to
		       select processes not attached to any terminal.


       -u userlist     Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose effective user name or
		       ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
		       user whose file access permissions are used by the
		       process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to U and --user.


       --Group grplist Select by real group ID (RGID) or name. Identical to
		       -G.


       --User userlist Select by real user ID (RUID) or name. Identical to -U.


       --group grplist Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.
		       This selects the processes whose effective group name
		       or ID is in grouplist. The effective group ID describes
		       the group whose file access permissions are used by the
		       process (see geteuid(2)). The -g option is often an
		       alternative to --group.


       --pid pidlist   Select by process ID. Identical to -p and p.


       --ppid pidlist  Select by parent process ID. This selects the processes
		       with a parent process ID in pidlist. That is, it
		       selects processes that are children of those listed in
		       pidlist.


       --sid sesslist  Select by session ID. Identical to -s.


       --tty ttylist   Select by terminal. Identical to -t and t.


       --user userlist Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name. Identical
		       to -u and U.


       -123	       Identical to --sid 123.


       123	       Identical to --pid 123.



OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL
       These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps. The
       output may differ by personality.



       -F	       extra full format. See the -f option, which -F implies.


       -O format       is like -o, but preloaded with some default columns.
		       Identical to -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or
		       -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd, see -o below.


       O format	       is preloaded o (overloaded).
		       The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
		       format with some common fields predefined) or can be
		       used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
		       determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
		       the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
		       formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
		       with -O or --sort). When used as a formatting option,
		       it is identical to -O, with the BSD personality.


       -M	       Add a column of security data. Identical to Z.
		       (for SE Linux)


       X	       Register format.


       Z	       Add a column of security data. Identical to -M.
		       (for SE Linux)


       -c	       Show different scheduler information for the -l option.


       -f	       does full-format listing. This option can be combined
		       with many other UNIX-style options to add additional
		       columns. It also causes the command arguments to be
		       printed. When used with -L, the NLWP (number of
		       threads) and LWP (thread ID) columns will be added. See
		       the c option, the format keyword args, and the format
		       keyword comm.


       j	       BSD job control format.


       -j	       jobs format


       l	       display BSD long format.


       -l	       long format. The -y option is often useful with this.


       o format	       specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and
		       --format.


       -o format       user-defined format.
		       format is a single argument in the form of a
		       blank-separated or comma-separated list, which offers a
		       way to specify individual output columns. The
		       recognized keywords are described in the STANDARD
		       FORMAT SPECIFIERS section below. Headers may be renamed
		       (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as desired.
		       If all column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=)
		       then the header line will not be output. Column width
		       will increase as needed for wide headers; this may be
		       used to widen up columns such as WCHAN
		       (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm). Explicit
		       width control (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too.
		       The behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with
		       personality; output may be one column named "X,comm=Y"
		       or two columns named "X" and "Y". Use multiple -o
		       options when in doubt. Use the PS_FORMAT environment
		       variable to specify a default as desired; DefSysV and
		       DefBSD are macros that may be used to choose the
		       default UNIX or BSD columns.


       s	       display signal format


       u	       display user-oriented format


       v	       display virtual memory format


       -y	       Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr. This
		       option can only be used with -l.


       -Z	       display security context format (SELinux, etc.)


       --format format user-defined format. Identical to -o and o.


       --context       Display security context format. (for SE Linux)



OUTPUT MODIFIERS
       -H	       show process hierarchy (forest)


       N namelist      Specify namelist file. Identical to -n, see -n above.


       O order	       Sorting order. (overloaded)
		       The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
		       format with some common fields predefined) or can be
		       used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
		       determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
		       the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
		       formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
		       with -O or --sort).

		       For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is
		       O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]. It orders the processes
		       listing according to the multilevel sort specified by
		       the sequence of one-letter short keys k1, k2, ...
		       described in the OBSOLETE SORT KEYS section below.
		       The "+" is currently optional, merely re-iterating the
		       default direction on a key, but may help to distinguish
		       an O sort from an O format. The "-" reverses direction
		       only on the key it precedes.


       S	       Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead
		       child processes into their parent. This is useful for
		       examining a system where a parent process repeatedly
		       forks off short-lived children to do work.


       c	       Show the true command name. This is derived from the
		       name of the executable file, rather than from the argv
		       value. Command arguments and any modifications to them
		       (see setproctitle(3)) are thus not shown. This option
		       effectively turns the args format keyword into the comm
		       format keyword; it is useful with the -f format option
		       and with the various BSD-style format options, which
		       all normally display the command arguments. See the -f
		       option, the format keyword args, and the format keyword
		       comm.


       e	       Show the environment after the command.


       f	       ASCII-art process hierarchy (forest)


       h	       No header. (or, one header per screen in the BSD
		       personality)
		       The h option is problematic. Standard BSD ps uses this
		       option to print a header on each page of output, but
		       older Linux ps uses this option to totally disable the
		       header. This version of ps follows the Linux usage of
		       not printing the header unless the BSD personality has
		       been selected, in which case it prints a header on each
		       page of output. Regardless of the current personality,
		       you can use the long options --headers and --no-headers
		       to enable printing headers each page or disable headers
		       entirely, respectively.


       k spec	       specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
		       [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key
		       from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
		       optional since default direction is increasing
		       numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to --sort.
		       Examples:
		       ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
		       ps axk comm o comm,args
		       ps kstart_time -ef


       -n namelist     set namelist file. Identical to N.
		       The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN display,
		       and must match the current Linux kernel exactly for
		       correct output. Without this option, the default search
		       path for the namelist is:

			    $PS_SYSMAP
			    $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
			    /proc/*/wchan
			    /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
			    /boot/System.map
			    /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
			    /usr/src/linux/System.map
			    /System.map


       n	       Numeric output for WCHAN and USER. (including all types
		       of UID and GID)


       -w	       Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


       w	       Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


       --cols n	       set screen width


       --columns n     set screen width


       --cumulative    include some dead child process data (as a sum with the
		       parent)


       --forest	       ASCII art process tree


       --headers       repeat header lines, one per page of output


       --no-headers    print no header line at all


       --lines n       set screen height


       --rows n	       set screen height


       --sort spec     specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
		       [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key
		       from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
		       optional since default direction is increasing
		       numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to k. For
		       example: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid


       --width n       set screen width



THREAD DISPLAY
       H	       Show threads as if they were processes

       -L	       Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns

       -T	       Show threads, possibly with SPID column

       m	       Show threads after processes

       -m	       Show threads after processes



OTHER INFORMATION
       L	       List all format specifiers.

       -V	       Print the procps version.

       V	       Print the procps version.

       --help	       Print a help message.

       --info	       Print debugging info.

       --version       Print the procps version.



NOTES
       This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc. This ps does not
       need to be setuid kmem or have any privileges to run. Do not give this
       ps any special permissions.

       This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display. For
       kernels prior to 2.6, the System.map file must be installed.

       CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent
       running during the entire lifetime of a process. This is not ideal,
       and it does not conform to the standards that ps otherwise conforms to.
       CPU usage is unlikely to add up to exactly 100%.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count some parts of a process including
       the page tables, kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct
       task_struct. This is usually at least 20 KiB of memory that is always
       resident. SIZE is the virtual size of the process (code+data+stack).

       Processes marked <defunct> are dead processes (so-called "zombies")
       that remain because their parent has not destroyed them properly. These
       processes will be destroyed by init(8) if the parent process exits.

       If the length of the username is greater than the length of the display
       column, the numeric user ID is displayed instead.


PROCESS FLAGS
       The sum of these values is displayed in the "F" column, which is
       provided by the flags output specifier.
       1    forked but didn't exec
       4    used super-user privileges


PROCESS STATE CODES
       Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output
       specifiers (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of
       a process.
       D    Uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
       R    Running or runnable (on run queue)
       S    Interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
       T    Stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being
	    traced.
       W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
       X    dead (should never be seen)
       Z    Defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its
	    parent.

       For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional
       characters may be displayed:
       <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
       N    low-priority (nice to other users)
       L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
       s    is a session leader
       l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
       +    is in the foreground process group



OBSOLETE SORT KEYS
       These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting).
       The GNU --sort option doesn't use these keys, but the specifiers
       described below in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. Note that
       the values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses and not the
       "cooked" values used in some of the output format fields (e.g. sorting
       on tty will sort into device number, not according to the terminal name
       displayed). Pipe ps output into the sort(1) command if you want to sort
       the cooked values.


       KEY   LONG	  DESCRIPTION
       c     cmd	  simple name of executable
       C     pcpu	  cpu utilization
       f     flags	  flags as in long format F field
       g     pgrp	  process group ID
       G     tpgid	  controlling tty process group ID
       j     cutime	  cumulative user time
       J     cstime	  cumulative system time
       k     utime	  user time
       m     min_flt	  number of minor page faults
       M     maj_flt	  number of major page faults
       n     cmin_flt	  cumulative minor page faults
       N     cmaj_flt	  cumulative major page faults
       o     session	  session ID
       p     pid	  process ID
       P     ppid	  parent process ID
       r     rss	  resident set size
       R     resident	  resident pages
       s     size	  memory size in kilobytes
       S     share	  amount of shared pages
       t     tty	  the device number of the controlling tty
       T     start_time	  time process was started
       U     uid	  user ID number
       u     user	  user name
       v     vsize	  total VM size in kB
       y     priority	  kernel scheduling priority



AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS
       This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the
       formatting codes of printf(1) and printf(3). For example, the normal
       default output can be produced with this:  ps -eo "%p %y %x %c".
       The NORMAL codes are described in the next section.

       CODE   NORMAL   HEADER
       %C     pcpu     %CPU
       %G     group    GROUP
       %P     ppid     PPID
       %U     user     USER
       %a     args     COMMAND
       %c     comm     COMMAND
       %g     rgroup   RGROUP
       %n     nice     NI
       %p     pid      PID
       %r     pgid     PGID
       %t     etime    ELAPSED
       %u     ruser    RUSER
       %x     time     TIME
       %y     tty      TTY
       %z     vsz      VSZ


STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
       Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output
       format (e.g. with option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the
       GNU-style --sort option.

       For example:  ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

       This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in
       other implementations of ps.

       The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces: args,
       cmd, comm, command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

       Some keywords may not be available for sorting.



CODE	   HEADER   DESCRIPTION

%cpu	   %CPU	    cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format.
		    Currently, it is the CPU time used divided by the time the
		    process has been running (cputime/realtime ratio),
		    expressed as a percentage. It will not add up to 100%
		    unless you are lucky. (alias pcpu).

%mem	   %MEM	    ratio of the process's resident set size  to the physical
		    memory on the machine, expressed as a percentage.
		    (alias pmem).

args	   COMMAND  command with all its arguments as a string. Modifications
		    to the arguments may be shown. The output in this column
		    may contain spaces. A process marked <defunct> is partly
		    dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent.
		    Sometimes the process args will be unavailable; when this
		    happens, ps will instead print the executable name in
		    brackets. (alias cmd, command). See also the comm format
		    keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
		    When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
		    of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
		    when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
		    command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
		    unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
		    COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
		    to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
		    option may be also be used to adjust width.

blocked	   BLOCKED  mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7). According to
		    the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
		    hexadecimal format is displayed.
		    (alias sig_block, sigmask).

bsdstart   START    time the command started. If the process was started less
		    than 24 hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it
		    is "mmm dd" (where mmm is the three letters of the month).

bsdtime	   TIME	    accumulated cpu time, user + system. The display format is
		    usually "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the
		    process used more than 999 minutes of cpu time.

c	   C	    processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer
		    value of the percent usage over the lifetime of the
		    process. (see %cpu).

caught	   CAUGHT   mask of the caught signals, see signal(7). According to
		    the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in
		    hexadecimal format is displayed.
		    (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).

class	   CLS	    scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, cls).
		    Field's possible values are:
		    -	not reported
		    TS	SCHED_OTHER
		    FF	SCHED_FIFO
		    RR	SCHED_RR
		    ?	unknown value



cls	   CLS	    scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, class).
		    Field's possible values are:
		    -	not reported
		    TS	SCHED_OTHER
		    FF	SCHED_FIFO
		    RR	SCHED_RR
		    ?	unknown value

cmd	   CMD	    see args. (alias args, command).

comm	   COMMAND  command name (only the executable name). Modifications to
		    the command name will not be shown. A process marked
		    <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by
		    its parent. The output in this column may contain spaces.
		    (alias ucmd, ucomm). See also the args format keyword, the
		    -f option, and the c option.
		    When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
		    of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
		    when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
		    command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
		    unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
		    COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
		    to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
		    option may be also be used to adjust width.

command	   COMMAND  see args. (alias args, cmd).

cp	   CP	    per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage. (see %cpu).

cputime	   TIME	    cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias time).

egid	   EGID	    effective group ID number of the process as a decimal
		    integer. (alias gid).

egroup	   EGROUP   effective group ID of the process. This will be the
		    textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field
		    width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
		    (alias group).

eip	   EIP	    instruction pointer.

esp	   ESP	    stack pointer.

etime	   ELAPSED  elapsed time since the process was started, in the
		    form [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss.

euid	   EUID	    effective user ID. (alias uid).

euser	   EUSER    effective user name. This will be the textual user ID,
		    if it can be obtained and the field width permits,
		    or a decimal representation otherwise. The n option can be
		    used to force the decimal representation.
		    (alias uname, user).

f	   F	    flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS
		    section. (alias flag, flags).

fgid	   FGID	    filesystem access group ID. (alias fsgid).

fgroup	   FGROUP   filesystem access group ID. This will be the textual
		    user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
		    permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
		    (alias fsgroup).

flag	   F	    see f. (alias f, flags).

flags	   F	    see f. (alias f, flag).

fname	   COMMAND  first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's executable
		    file. The output in this column may contain spaces.


fuid	   FUID	    filesystem access user ID. (alias fsuid).

fuser	   FUSER    filesystem access user ID. This will be the textual
		    user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
		    permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

gid	   GID	    see egid. (alias egid).

group	   GROUP    see egroup. (alias egroup).

ignored	   IGNORED  mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7). According to
		    the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
		    hexadecimal format is displayed. (alias sig_ignore,
		    sigignore).

label	   LABEL    security label, most commonly used for SE Linux context
		    data. This is for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC")
		    found on high-security systems.

lstart	   STARTED  time the command started.

lwp	   LWP	    lwp (light weight process, or thread) ID of the lwp being
		    reported. (alias spid, tid).

ni	   NI	    nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice
		    to others), see nice(1). (alias nice).

nice	   NI	    see ni. (alias ni).

nlwp	   NLWP	    number of lwps (threads) in the process. (alias thcount).

nwchan	   WCHAN    address of the kernel function where the process is
		    sleeping (use wchan if you want the kernel function name).
		    Running tasks will display a dash ('-') in this column.

pcpu	   %CPU	    see %cpu. (alias %cpu).

pending	   PENDING  mask of the pending signals. See signal(7). Signals
		    pending on the process are distinct from signals pending
		    on individual threads. Use the m option or the -m option
		    to see both. According to the width of the field, a 32-bit
		    or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
		    (alias sig).

pgid	   PGID	    process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
		    process group leader. (alias pgrp).

pgrp	   PGRP	    see pgid. (alias pgid).

pid	   PID	    process ID number of the process.

pmem	   %MEM	    see %mem. (alias %mem).

policy	   POL	    scheduling class of the process. (alias class, cls).
		    Possible values are:
		    -	not reported
		    TS	SCHED_OTHER
		    FF	SCHED_FIFO
		    RR	SCHED_RR
		    ?	unknown value

ppid	   PPID	    parent process ID.

psr	   PSR	    processor that process is currently assigned to.

rgid	   RGID	    real group ID.

rgroup	   RGROUP   real group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
		    can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
		    representation otherwise.


rss	   RSS	    resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a
		    task has used (in kiloBytes). (alias rssize, rsz).

rssize	   RSS	    see rss. (alias rss, rsz).

rsz	   RSZ	    see rss. (alias rss, rssize).

rtprio	   RTPRIO   realtime priority.

ruid	   RUID	    real user ID.

ruser	   RUSER    real user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can
		    be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
		    representation otherwise.

s	   S	    minimal state display (one character). See section PROCESS
		    STATE CODES for the different values. See also stat if you
		    want additional information displayed. (alias state).

sched	   SCH	    scheduling policy of the process. The policies
		    sched_other, sched_fifo, and sched_rr are respectively
		    displayed as 0, 1, and 2.

sess	   SESS	    session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
		    session leader. (alias session, sid).

sgi_p	   P	    processor that the process is currently executing on.
		    Displays "*" if the process is not currently running or
		    runnable.

sgid	   SGID	    saved group ID. (alias svgid).

sgroup	   SGROUP   saved group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
		    can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
		    representation otherwise.

sid	   SID	    see sess. (alias sess, session).

sig	   PENDING  see pending. (alias pending, sig_pend).

sigcatch   CAUGHT   see caught. (alias caught, sig_catch).

sigignore  IGNORED  see ignored. (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

sigmask	   BLOCKED  see blocked. (alias blocked, sig_block).

size	   SZ	    approximate amount of swap space that would be required if
		    the process were to dirty all writable pages and then be
		    swapped out. This number is very rough!

spid	   SPID	    see lwp. (alias lwp, tid).

stackp	   STACKP   address of the bottom (start) of stack for the process.

start	   STARTED  time the command started. If the process was started less
		    than 24 hours ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else
		    it is "  mmm dd" (where mmm is a three-letter month name).

start_time START    starting time or date of the process. Only the year will
		    be displayed if the process was not started the same year
		    ps was invoked, or "mmmdd" if it was not started the same
		    day, or "HH:MM" otherwise.

stat	   STAT	    multi-character process state. See section PROCESS STATE
		    CODES for the different values meaning. See also s and
		    state if you just want the first character displayed.

state	   S	    see s. (alias s).

suid	   SUID	    saved user ID. (alias svuid).


suser	   SUSER    saved user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it
		    can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
		    representation otherwise. (alias svuser).

svgid	   SVGID    see sgid. (alias sgid).

svuid	   SVUID    see suid. (alias suid).

sz	   SZ	    size in physical pages of the core image of the process.
		    This includes text, data, and stack space. Device mappings
		    are currently excluded; this is subject to change. See vsz
		    and rss.

thcount	   THCNT    see nlwp. (alias nlwp). number of kernel threads owned by
		    the process.

tid	   TID	    see lwp. (alias lwp).

time	   TIME	    cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format.
		    (alias cputime).

tname	   TTY	    controlling tty (terminal). (alias tt, tty).

tpgid	   TPGID    ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal)
		    that the process is connected to, or -1 if the process is
		    not connected to a tty.

tt	   TT	    controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tty).

tty	   TT	    controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tt).

ucmd	   CMD	    see comm. (alias comm, ucomm).

ucomm	   COMMAND  see comm. (alias comm, ucmd).

uid	   UID	    see euid. (alias euid).

uname	   USER	    see euser. (alias euser, user).

user	   USER	    see euser. (alias euser, uname).

vsize	   VSZ	    see vsz. (alias vsz).

vsz	   VSZ	    virtual memory size of the process in KiB
		    (1024-byte units). Device mappings are currently excluded;
		    this is subject to change. (alias vsize).

wchan	   WCHAN    name of the kernel function in which the process is
		    sleeping, a "-" if the process is running, or a "*" if the
		    process is multi-threaded and ps is not displaying
		    threads.



ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables could affect ps:

       COLUMNS
	  Override default display width.

       LINES
	  Override default display height.

       PS_PERSONALITY
	  Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
	  (see section PERSONALITY below).

       CMD_ENV
	  Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
	  (see section PERSONALITY below).

       I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
	  Force obsolete command line interpretation.

       LC_TIME
	  Date format.

       PS_COLORS
	  Not currently supported.

       PS_FORMAT
	  Default output format override. You may set this to a format string
	  of the type used for the -o option. The DefSysV and DefBSD values
	  are particularly useful.

       PS_SYSMAP
	  Default namelist (System.map) location.

       PS_SYSTEM_MAP
	  Default namelist (System.map) location.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	  Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       POSIX2
	  When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

       UNIX95
	  Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       _XPG
	  Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.

       In general, it is a bad idea to set these variables. The one exception
       is CMD_ENV or PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal
       systems. Without that setting, ps follows the useless and bad parts of
       the Unix98 standard.



PERSONALITY
       390	  like the S/390 OpenEdition ps
       aix	  like AIX ps
       bsd	  like FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard)
       compaq	  like Digital Unix ps
       debian	  like the old Debian ps
       digital	  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       gnu	  like the old Debian ps
       hp	  like HP-UX ps
       hpux	  like HP-UX ps
       irix	  like Irix ps
       linux	  ***** RECOMMENDED *****
       old	  like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
       os390	  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       posix	  standard
       s390	  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       sco	  like SCO ps
       sgi	  like Irix ps
       solaris2	  like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
       sunos4	  like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
       svr4	  standard
       sysv	  standard
       tru64	  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       unix	  standard
       unix95	  standard
       unix98	  standard



SEE ALSO
       top(1), pgrep(1), pstree(1), proc(5).



STANDARDS
       This ps conforms to:

       1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
       2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
       3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
       4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
       5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003


AUTHOR
       ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>.
       Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to
       use the proc filesystem, changing a few things in the process. Michael
       Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list feature. Charles
       Blake <cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style
       library, the device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate
       binary search directly on System.map, and many code and documentation
       cleanups. David Mossberger-Tang wrote the generic BFD support for
       psupdate. Albert Cahalan <albert@users.sf.net> rewrote ps for full
       Unix98 and BSD support, along with some ugly hacks for obsolete and
       foreign syntax.

       Please send bug reports to <procps-feedback@lists.sf.net>.
       No subscription is required or suggested.



Linux				 July 28, 2004				 PS(1)
YoLinux.com Home Page
YoLinux Tutorial Index
Privacy Policy | Advertise with us | Feedback Form |
Unauthorized copying or redistribution prohibited.
    Bookmark and Share