pthread_cond_broadcast manpage

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       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the	 corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       pthread_cond_broadcast, pthread_cond_signal -- broadcast	 or  signal  a

       #include <pthread.h>

       int pthread_cond_broadcast(pthread_cond_t *cond);
       int pthread_cond_signal(pthread_cond_t *cond);

       These functions shall unblock threads blocked on a condition variable.

       The  pthread_cond_broadcast()  function	shall unblock all threads cur-
       rently blocked on the specified condition variable cond.

       The pthread_cond_signal() function shall unblock at least  one  of  the
       threads	that  are blocked on the specified condition variable cond (if
       any threads are blocked on cond).

       If more than one thread is blocked on a condition variable, the	sched-
       uling  policy shall determine the order in which threads are unblocked.
       When each thread unblocked as a result of a pthread_cond_broadcast() or
       pthread_cond_signal()  returns  from its call to pthread_cond_wait() or
       pthread_cond_timedwait(), the thread shall own the mutex with which  it
       called  pthread_cond_wait() or pthread_cond_timedwait().	 The thread(s)
       that are unblocked shall contend for the mutex according to the	sched-
       uling   policy	(if   applicable),   and   as	if   each  had	called

       The pthread_cond_broadcast() or pthread_cond_signal() functions may  be
       called  by  a  thread  whether  or not it currently owns the mutex that
       threads calling pthread_cond_wait()  or	pthread_cond_timedwait()  have
       associated  with the condition variable during their waits; however, if
       predictable scheduling behavior is required, then that mutex  shall  be
       locked	 by    the    thread   calling	 pthread_cond_broadcast()   or

       The pthread_cond_broadcast() and pthread_cond_signal() functions	 shall
       have no effect if there are no threads currently blocked on cond.

       The  behavior  is undefined if the value specified by the cond argument
       to pthread_cond_broadcast() or pthread_cond_signal() does not refer  to
       an initialized condition variable.

       If  successful,	the pthread_cond_broadcast() and pthread_cond_signal()
       functions shall return  zero;  otherwise,  an  error  number  shall  be
       returned to indicate the error.

       These functions shall not return an error code of [EINTR].

       The following sections are informative.


       The pthread_cond_broadcast() function is used whenever the shared-vari-
       able state has been changed in a way that more than one thread can pro-
       ceed  with its task. Consider a single producer/multiple consumer prob-
       lem, where the producer can insert multiple items on  a	list  that  is
       accessed	 one  item  at	a  time	 by  the  consumers.  By  calling  the
       pthread_cond_broadcast() function, the producer would notify  all  con-
       sumers that might be waiting, and thereby the application would receive
       more throughput on a multi-processor. In addition,  pthread_cond_broad-
       cast()	makes	it   easier   to  implement  a	read-write  lock.  The
       pthread_cond_broadcast() function is needed in order  to	 wake  up  all
       waiting readers when a writer releases its lock. Finally, the two-phase
       commit algorithm can use this broadcast function to notify all  clients
       of an impending transaction commit.

       It  is  not  safe to use the pthread_cond_signal() function in a signal
       handler that is invoked asynchronously. Even if	it  were  safe,	 there
       would   still   be   a	race   between	 the   test   of  the  Boolean
       pthread_cond_wait() that could not be efficiently eliminated.

       Mutexes and condition variables are thus not suitable for  releasing  a
       waiting thread by signaling from code running in a signal handler.

       If an implementation detects that the value specified by the cond argu-
       ment to	pthread_cond_broadcast()  or  pthread_cond_signal()  does  not
       refer  to an initialized condition variable, it is recommended that the
       function should fail and report an [EINVAL] error.

   Multiple Awakenings by Condition Signal
       On a multi-processor, it may be impossible  for	an  implementation  of
       pthread_cond_signal()  to  avoid the unblocking of more than one thread
       blocked on a condition variable. For example,  consider	the  following
       partial	implementation	of  pthread_cond_wait()	 and pthread_cond_sig-
       nal(), executed by two threads in the order given. One thread is trying
       to  wait	 on  the condition variable, another is concurrently executing
       pthread_cond_signal(), while a third thread is already waiting.

	   pthread_cond_wait(mutex, cond):
	       value = cond->value; /* 1 */
	       pthread_mutex_unlock(mutex); /* 2 */
	       pthread_mutex_lock(cond->mutex); /* 10 */
	       if (value == cond->value) { /* 11 */
		   me->next_cond = cond->waiter;
		   cond->waiter = me;
	       } else
		   pthread_mutex_unlock(cond->mutex); /* 12 */
	       pthread_mutex_lock(mutex); /* 13 */

	       pthread_mutex_lock(cond->mutex); /* 3 */
	       cond->value++; /* 4 */
	       if (cond->waiter) { /* 5 */
		   sleeper = cond->waiter; /* 6 */
		   cond->waiter = sleeper->next_cond; /* 7 */
		   able_to_run(sleeper); /* 8 */
	       pthread_mutex_unlock(cond->mutex); /* 9 */

       The effect is that more than one thread can return  from	 its  call  to
       pthread_cond_wait() or pthread_cond_timedwait() as a result of one call
       to pthread_cond_signal().  This effect is called	 ``spurious  wakeup''.
       Note  that  the	situation  is  self-correcting	in  that the number of
       threads that are so awakened is finite; for example, the next thread to
       call pthread_cond_wait() after the sequence of events above blocks.

       While  this  problem  could  be	resolved, the loss of efficiency for a
       fringe condition that occurs only rarely	 is  unacceptable,  especially
       given  that  one has to check the predicate associated with a condition
       variable anyway. Correcting this problem would unnecessarily reduce the
       degree of concurrency in this basic building block for all higher-level
       synchronization operations.

       An added benefit of allowing spurious wakeups is that applications  are
       forced  to  code	 a  predicate-testing-loop  around the condition wait.
       This also makes the application tolerate superfluous  condition	broad-
       casts  or  signals  on the same condition variable that may be coded in
       some other part of the application. The resulting applications are thus
       more robust. Therefore, POSIX.1-2008 explicitly documents that spurious
       wakeups may occur.


       pthread_cond_destroy(), pthread_cond_timedwait()

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008, Section 4.11, Memory  Syn-
       chronization, <pthread.h>

       Portions	 of  this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       --  Portable  Operating	System	Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electri-
       cal  and	 Electronics  Engineers,  Inc  and  The	 Open Group.  (This is
       POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum	 1  applied.)  In  the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group  Standard
       is  the	referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
       at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear  in  this  page  are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source
       files to man page format. To report such errors,	 see  https://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group		     2013	    PTHREAD_COND_BROADCAST(3P)