pthread_mutex_destroy manpage

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       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the	 corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       pthread_mutex_destroy, pthread_mutex_init -- destroy and	 initialize  a

       #include <pthread.h>

       int pthread_mutex_destroy(pthread_mutex_t *mutex);
       int pthread_mutex_init(pthread_mutex_t *restrict mutex,
	   const pthread_mutexattr_t *restrict attr);
       pthread_mutex_t mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;

       The  pthread_mutex_destroy()  function  shall  destroy the mutex object
       referenced by mutex; the mutex object becomes,  in  effect,  uninitial-
       ized.  An  implementation  may cause pthread_mutex_destroy() to set the
       object referenced by mutex to an invalid value.

       A   destroyed	mutex	 object	   can	  be	reinitialized	 using
       pthread_mutex_init();  the  results of otherwise referencing the object
       after it has been destroyed are undefined.

       It shall be safe to destroy an  initialized  mutex  that	 is  unlocked.
       Attempting to destroy a locked mutex or a mutex that is referenced (for
       example,	 while	 being	 used	in   a	 pthread_cond_timedwait()   or
       pthread_cond_wait()) by another thread results in undefined behavior.

       The pthread_mutex_init() function shall initialize the mutex referenced
       by mutex with attributes specified by  attr.   If  attr	is  NULL,  the
       default	mutex  attributes  are	used;  the effect shall be the same as
       passing the address of a default mutex attributes object. Upon success-
       ful  initialization,  the  state	 of  the mutex becomes initialized and

       Only mutex itself may  be  used	for  performing	 synchronization.  The
       result	 of    referring    to	 copies	  of   mutex   in   calls   to
       pthread_mutex_lock(), pthread_mutex_trylock(),  pthread_mutex_unlock(),
       and pthread_mutex_destroy() is undefined.

       Attempting  to initialize an already initialized mutex results in unde-
       fined behavior.

       In cases where default mutex  attributes	 are  appropriate,  the	 macro
       PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER can be used to initialize mutexes. The effect
       shall  be  equivalent  to  dynamic  initialization   by	 a   call   to
       pthread_mutex_init() with parameter attr specified as NULL, except that
       no error checks are performed.

       The behavior is undefined if the value specified by the mutex  argument
       to pthread_mutex_destroy() does not refer to an initialized mutex.

       The  behavior  is undefined if the value specified by the attr argument
       to  pthread_mutex_init()	 does  not  refer  to  an  initialized	 mutex
       attributes object.

       If  successful,	the  pthread_mutex_destroy()  and pthread_mutex_init()
       functions shall return  zero;  otherwise,  an  error  number  shall  be
       returned to indicate the error.

       The pthread_mutex_init() function shall fail if:

       EAGAIN The system lacked the necessary resources (other than memory) to
	      initialize another mutex.

       ENOMEM Insufficient memory exists to initialize the mutex.

       EPERM  The caller does not have the privilege to perform the operation.

       The pthread_mutex_init() function may fail if:

       EINVAL The attributes object referenced by attr has  the	 robust	 mutex
	      attribute set without the process-shared attribute being set.

       These functions shall not return an error code of [EINTR].

       The following sections are informative.



       If  an  implementation  detects	that  the value specified by the mutex
       argument to pthread_mutex_destroy() does not refer  to  an  initialized
       mutex,  it  is  recommended that the function should fail and report an
       [EINVAL] error.

       If an implementation detects that the  value  specified	by  the	 mutex
       argument to pthread_mutex_destroy() or pthread_mutex_init() refers to a
       locked mutex or a mutex that is referenced (for	example,  while	 being
       used  in	 a pthread_cond_timedwait() or pthread_cond_wait()) by another
       thread, or detects that the value specified by the  mutex  argument  to
       pthread_mutex_init() refers to an already initialized mutex, it is rec-
       ommended that the function should fail and report an [EBUSY] error.

       If an implementation detects that the value specified by the attr argu-
       ment  to	 pthread_mutex_init()  does  not refer to an initialized mutex
       attributes object, it is recommended that the function should fail  and
       report an [EINVAL] error.

   Alternate Implementations Possible
       This  volume  of	 POSIX.1-2008 supports several alternative implementa-
       tions of mutexes.  An implementation may store the lock directly in the
       object  of  type pthread_mutex_t.  Alternatively, an implementation may
       store the lock in the heap and  merely  store  a	 pointer,  handle,  or
       unique ID in the mutex object.  Either implementation has advantages or
       may be required on certain hardware configurations.  So	that  portable
       code  can  be  written that is invariant to this choice, this volume of
       POSIX.1-2008 does not define assignment or equality for this type,  and
       it  uses	 the  term  ``initialize'' to reinforce the (more restrictive)
       notion that the lock may actually reside in the mutex object itself.

       Note that this precludes an over-specification of the type of the mutex
       or condition variable and motivates the opaqueness of the type.

       An   implementation   is	  permitted,   but   not   required,  to  have
       pthread_mutex_destroy() store an illegal value into the mutex. This may
       help  detect  erroneous	programs that try to lock (or otherwise refer-
       ence) a mutex that has already been destroyed.

   Tradeoff Between Error Checks and Performance Supported
       Many error conditions that can occur are not required to be detected by
       the  implementation  in	order to let implementations trade off perfor-
       mance versus degree of error checking according to the needs  of	 their
       specific	 applications  and  execution  environment. As a general rule,
       conditions caused by the	 system	 (such	as  insufficient  memory)  are
       required	 to be detected, but conditions caused by an erroneously coded
       application (such as failing to	provide	 adequate  synchronization  to
       prevent	a  mutex  from	being  deleted	while in use) are specified to
       result in undefined behavior.

       A wide range of implementations is thus made possible. For example,  an
       implementation  intended for application debugging may implement all of
       the error checks, but an implementation running a single, provably cor-
       rect  application under very tight performance constraints in an embed-
       ded computer might implement minimal checks.  An	 implementation	 might
       even be provided in two versions, similar to the options that compilers
       provide: a full-checking, but slower version; and  a  limited-checking,
       but faster version. To forbid this optionality would be a disservice to

       By carefully limiting the use of ``undefined behavior'' only to	things
       that  an	 erroneous (badly coded) application might do, and by defining
       that  resource-not-available  errors  are  mandatory,  this  volume  of
       POSIX.1-2008  ensures  that  a fully-conforming application is portable
       across the full range of implementations, while not forcing all	imple-
       mentations  to add overhead to check for numerous things that a correct
       program never does. When the behavior is undefined, no error number  is
       specified  to  be returned on implementations that do detect the condi-
       tion. This is because undefined behavior	 means	anything  can  happen,
       which  includes	returning  with	 any value (which might happen to be a
       valid, but different, error number). However, since  the	 error	number
       might be useful to application developers when diagnosing problems dur-
       ing application development, a recommendation is made in rationale that
       implementors should return a particular error number if their implemen-
       tation does detect the condition.

   Why No Limits are Defined
       Defining symbols for the maximum number of mutexes and condition	 vari-
       ables  was  considered but rejected because the number of these objects
       may change dynamically. Furthermore, many implementations  place	 these
       objects into application memory; thus, there is no explicit maximum.

   Static Initializers for Mutexes and Condition Variables
       Providing  for  static  initialization of statically allocated synchro-
       nization objects allows modules	with  private  static  synchronization
       variables  to avoid runtime initialization tests and overhead. Further-
       more, it simplifies the coding of self-initializing modules. Such  mod-
       ules  are  common  in C libraries, where for various reasons the design
       calls for self-initialization instead of requiring an  explicit	module
       initialization function to be called. An example use of static initial-
       ization follows.

       Without static initialization, a self-initializing routine foo()	 might
       look as follows:

	   static pthread_once_t foo_once = PTHREAD_ONCE_INIT;
	   static pthread_mutex_t foo_mutex;

	   void foo_init()
	       pthread_mutex_init(&foo_mutex, NULL);

	   void foo()
	       pthread_once(&foo_once, foo_init);
	      /* Do work. */

       With static initialization, the same routine could be coded as follows:

	   static pthread_mutex_t foo_mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;

	   void foo()
	      /* Do work. */

       Note  that  the	static initialization both eliminates the need for the
       initialization test inside pthread_once() and the fetch	of  &foo_mutex
       to   learn   the	 address  to  be  passed  to  pthread_mutex_lock()  or

       Thus, the C code written to initialize static objects is simpler on all
       systems and is also faster on a large class of systems; those where the
       (entire) synchronization object can be stored in application memory.

       Yet the locking	performance  question  is  likely  to  be  raised  for
       machines	 that  require	mutexes to be allocated out of special memory.
       Such machines actually have to  have  mutexes  and  possibly  condition
       variables  contain  pointers  to	 the actual hardware locks. For static
       initialization to work on such machines, pthread_mutex_lock() also  has
       to  test	 whether  or not the pointer to the actual lock has been allo-
       cated. If it has not, pthread_mutex_lock() has to initialize it	before
       use.  The reservation of such resources can be made when the program is
       loaded, and hence return codes have not been added to mutex locking and
       condition  variable waiting to indicate failure to complete initializa-

       This runtime test in pthread_mutex_lock() would at  first  seem	to  be
       extra  work;  an	 extra test is required to see whether the pointer has
       been initialized. On most machines this would actually  be  implemented
       as  a  fetch of the pointer, testing the pointer against zero, and then
       using the pointer if it has already been initialized.  While  the  test
       might seem to add extra work, the extra effort of testing a register is
       usually negligible since no extra memory references are actually	 done.
       As  more and more machines provide caches, the real expenses are memory
       references, not instructions executed.

       Alternatively, depending on the machine architecture, there  are	 often
       ways  to eliminate all overhead in the most important case: on the lock
       operations that occur after the lock has been initialized. This can  be
       done by shifting more overhead to the less frequent operation: initial-
       ization. Since out-of-line mutex allocation also means that an  address
       has  to	be dereferenced to find the actual lock, one technique that is
       widely applicable is to have static initialization store a bogus	 value
       for that address; in particular, an address that causes a machine fault
       to occur. When such a fault occurs upon the first attempt to lock  such
       a  mutex, validity checks can be done, and then the correct address for
       the actual lock can be filled in. Subsequent lock operations  incur  no
       extra  overhead	since  they do not ``fault''. This is merely one tech-
       nique that can be used to  support  static  initialization,  while  not
       adversely affecting the performance of lock acquisition. No doubt there
       are other techniques that are highly machine-dependent.

       The locking overhead for machines doing out-of-line mutex allocation is
       thus  similar  for  modules  being  implicitly initialized, where it is
       improved for those doing mutex allocation entirely inline.  The	inline
       case is thus made much faster, and the out-of-line case is not signifi-
       cantly worse.

       Besides the issue of locking performance for such machines,  a  concern
       is  raised  that it is possible that threads would serialize contending
       for initialization locks when attempting to finish initializing	stati-
       cally allocated mutexes. (Such finishing would typically involve taking
       an internal lock, allocating a structure,  storing  a  pointer  to  the
       structure  in  the mutex, and releasing the internal lock.) First, many
       implementations would reduce such serialization by hashing on the mutex
       address.	 Second, such serialization can only occur a bounded number of
       times. In particular, it can happen at most as many times as there  are
       statically  allocated  synchronization  objects.	 Dynamically allocated
       objects	would  still  be  initialized  via   pthread_mutex_init()   or

       Finally,	 if  none of the above optimization techniques for out-of-line
       allocation yields sufficient performance for  an	 application  on  some
       implementation,	the  application can avoid static initialization alto-
       gether by explicitly initializing all synchronization objects with  the
       corresponding  pthread_*_init()	functions,  which are supported by all
       implementations. An implementation can also document the tradeoffs  and
       advise  which  initialization technique is more efficient for that par-
       ticular implementation.

   Destroying Mutexes
       A mutex can be destroyed immediately after it is unlocked. For example,
       consider the following code:

	   struct obj {
	   pthread_mutex_t om;
	       int refcnt;

	   obj_done(struct obj *op)
	       if (--op->refcnt == 0) {
	   (A)	   pthread_mutex_destroy(&op->om);
	   (B)	   free(op);
	       } else
	   (C)	   pthread_mutex_unlock(&op->om);

       In this case obj is reference counted and obj_done() is called whenever
       a reference to the object is dropped.  Implementations are required  to
       allow an object to be destroyed and freed and potentially unmapped (for
       example, lines A and B) immediately after the object is unlocked	 (line

   Robust Mutexes
       Implementations are required to provide robust mutexes for mutexes with
       the process-shared attribute set to PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED. Implementa-
       tions are allowed, but not required, to provide robust mutexes when the
       process-shared attribute is set to PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE.


       pthread_mutex_getprioceiling(), pthread_mutexattr_getrobust(),
       pthread_mutex_lock(), pthread_mutex_timedlock(), pthread_mutex-

       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008, <pthread.h>

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in  electronic  form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX),	The  Open  Group  Base
       Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electri-
       cal and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and	 The  Open  Group.   (This  is
       POSIX.1-2008  with  the	2013  Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The  Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be  obtained	online
       at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any  typographical  or  formatting  errors that appear in this page are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source
       files  to  man page format. To report such errors, see https://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group		     2013	     PTHREAD_MUTEX_DESTROY(3P)