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RANDOM(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		     RANDOM(3)

       random, srandom, initstate, setstate - random number generator

       #include <stdlib.h>

       long int random(void);

       void srandom(unsigned int seed);

       char *initstate(unsigned int seed, char *state, size_t n);
       char *setstate(char *state);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       random(), srandom(), initstate(), setstate():
	   _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 500
	       || /* Glibc since 2.19: */ _DEFAULT_SOURCE
	       || /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _SVID_SOURCE || _BSD_SOURCE

       The  random() function uses a nonlinear additive feedback random number
       generator employing a default table of size 31 long integers to	return
       successive  pseudo-random numbers in the range from 0 to RAND_MAX.  The
       period of this random number generator  is  very	 large,	 approximately
       16 * ((2^31) - 1).

       The srandom() function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence
       of pseudo-random integers to be returned by random().  These  sequences
       are  repeatable	by  calling srandom() with the same seed value.	 If no
       seed value is provided, the random() function is	 automatically	seeded
       with a value of 1.

       The  initstate()	 function allows a state array state to be initialized
       for use by random().  The size of the state array n is  used  by	 init-
       state() to decide how sophisticated a random number generator it should
       use--the larger the state array, the better the random numbers will be.
       Current	"optimal"  values for the size of the state array n are 8, 32,
       64, 128, and 256 bytes; other amounts will be rounded down to the near-
       est  known  amount.  Using less than 8 bytes results in an error.  seed
       is the seed for the initialization, which specifies  a  starting	 point
       for the random number sequence, and provides for restarting at the same

       The setstate() function changes the state array used  by	 the  random()
       function.   The	state array state is used for random number generation
       until the next call to initstate() or  setstate().   state  must	 first
       have  been initialized using initstate() or be the result of a previous
       call of setstate().

       The random() function returns a value  between  0  and  RAND_MAX.   The
       srandom() function returns no value.

       The initstate() function returns a pointer to the previous state array.
       On error, errno is set to indicate the cause.

       On success, setstate() returns a pointer to the previous	 state	array.
       On  error, it returns NULL, with errno set to indicate the cause of the

       EINVAL The state argument given to setstate() was NULL.

       EINVAL A state array of less than 8 bytes was specified to initstate().

       For  an	explanation  of	 the  terms  used   in	 this	section,   see

       |Interface		| Attribute	| Value	  |
       |random(), srandom(),	| Thread safety | MT-Safe |
       |initstate(), setstate() |		|	  |
       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, 4.3BSD.

       The  random()  function	should	not  be used in multithreaded programs
       where reproducible behavior is required.	 Use random_r(3) for that pur-

       Random-number  generation  is a complex topic.  Numerical Recipes in C:
       The Art of Scientific Computing (William H. Press, Brian	 P.  Flannery,
       Saul  A.	 Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling; New York: Cambridge Univer-
       sity Press, 2007, 3rd ed.)  provides an excellent discussion of practi-
       cal random-number generation issues in Chapter 7 (Random Numbers).

       For  a  more  theoretical  discussion  which also covers many practical
       issues in depth, see Chapter 3 (Random Numbers) in  Donald  E.  Knuth's
       The  Art	 of Computer Programming, volume 2 (Seminumerical Algorithms),
       2nd ed.; Reading,  Massachusetts:  Addison-Wesley  Publishing  Company,

       According  to  POSIX,  initstate() should return NULL on error.	In the
       glibc implementation, errno is (as specified) set  on  error,  but  the
       function does not return NULL.

       getrandom(2), drand48(3), rand(3), random_r(3), srand(3)

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       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
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GNU				  2017-03-13			     RANDOM(3)