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RCMD(3)			   Linux Programmer's Manual		       RCMD(3)

       rcmd, rresvport, iruserok, ruserok, rcmd_af, rresvport_af, iruserok_af,
       ruserok_af - routines for returning a stream to a remote command

       #include <netdb.h>   /* Or <unistd.h> on some systems */

       int rcmd(char **ahost, unsigned short inport, const char *locuser,
		const char *remuser, const char *cmd, int *fd2p);

       int rresvport(int *port);

       int iruserok(uint32_t raddr, int superuser,
		    const char *ruser, const char *luser);

       int ruserok(const char *rhost, int superuser,
		   const char *ruser, const char *luser);

       int rcmd_af(char **ahost, unsigned short inport, const char *locuser,
		   const char *remuser, const char *cmd, int *fd2p,
		   sa_family_t af);

       int rresvport_af(int *port, sa_family_t af);

       int iruserok_af(const void *raddr, int superuser,
		       const char *ruser, const char *luser, sa_family_t af);

       int ruserok_af(const char *rhost, int superuser,
		      const char *ruser, const char *luser, sa_family_t af);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       rcmd(),	  rcmd_af(),	rresvport(),	rresvport_af(),	   iruserok(),
       iruserok_af(), ruserok(), ruserok_af():
	   Since glibc 2.19:
	   Glibc 2.19 and earlier:

       The  rcmd() function is used by the superuser to execute a command on a
       remote machine using an authentication scheme based on privileged  port
       numbers.	  The  rresvport()  function  returns  a  file descriptor to a
       socket with an address in the privileged port  space.   The  iruserok()
       and  ruserok()  functions  are  used by servers to authenticate clients
       requesting service with rcmd().	All four functions  are	 used  by  the
       rshd(8) server (among others).

       The  rcmd()  function  looks up the host *ahost using gethostbyname(3),
       returning -1 if the host does not exist.	 Otherwise, *ahost is  set  to
       the  standard  name  of	the  host and a connection is established to a
       server residing at the well-known Internet port inport.

       If the connection succeeds, a socket in the  Internet  domain  of  type
       SOCK_STREAM  is returned to the caller, and given to the remote command
       as stdin and stdout.  If fd2p is nonzero, then an auxiliary channel  to
       a  control process will be set up, and a file descriptor for it will be
       placed in *fd2p.	 The control process  will  return  diagnostic	output
       from  the  command (unit 2) on this channel, and will also accept bytes
       on this channel as being UNIX signal numbers, to be  forwarded  to  the
       process group of the command.  If fd2p is 0, then the stderr (unit 2 of
       the remote command) will be made the same as the stdout and  no	provi-
       sion  is	 made  for  sending  arbitrary	signals to the remote process,
       although you may be able to get	its  attention	by  using  out-of-band

       The protocol is described in detail in rshd(8).

       The  rresvport()	 function is used to obtain a socket with a privileged
       port bound to it.  This socket is suitable for use by rcmd()  and  sev-
       eral  other  functions.	 Privileged  ports are those in the range 0 to
       1023.  Only a privileged process (on Linux:  a  process	that  has  the
       CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE  capability	 in  the  user namespace governing its
       network namespace).  is allowed to bind to a privileged port.   In  the
       glibc  implementation,  this function restricts its search to the ports
       from 512 to 1023.  The port argument is value-result: the value it sup-
       plies  to  the call is used as the starting point for a circular search
       of the port range; on (successful) return, it contains the port	number
       that was bound to.

   iruserok() and ruserok()
       The  iruserok() and ruserok() functions take a remote host's IP address
       or name, respectively, two usernames and a flag indicating whether  the
       local  user's  name is that of the superuser.  Then, if the user is not
       the superuser, it checks the /etc/hosts.equiv file.  If that lookup  is
       not  done,  or  is  unsuccessful,  the .rhosts in the local user's home
       directory is checked to see if the request for service is allowed.

       If this file does not exist, is not a regular file, is owned by	anyone
       other  than the user or the superuser, is writable by anyone other than
       the owner, or is hardlinked anywhere, the  check	 automatically	fails.
       Zero is returned if the machine name is listed in the hosts.equiv file,
       or the host and remote username are found in the .rhosts	 file;	other-
       wise  iruserok()	 and  ruserok()	 return	 -1.   If the local domain (as
       obtained from gethostname(2)) is the same as the	 remote	 domain,  only
       the machine name need be specified.

       If  the	IP  address  of the remote host is known, iruserok() should be
       used in preference to ruserok(), as it does not	require	 trusting  the
       DNS server for the remote host's domain.

   *_af() variants
       All  of the functions described above work with IPv4 (AF_INET) sockets.
       The "_af" variants take	an  extra  argument  that  allows  the	socket
       address	family	to be specified.  For these functions, the af argument
       can be specified as AF_INET or AF_INET6.	 In addition,  rcmd_af()  sup-
       ports the use of AF_UNSPEC.

       The  rcmd()  function returns a valid socket descriptor on success.  It
       returns -1 on error and prints a diagnostic  message  on	 the  standard

       The  rresvport()	 function  returns a valid, bound socket descriptor on
       success.	 It returns -1 on  error  with	the  global  value  errno  set
       according  to  the  reason for failure.	The error code EAGAIN is over-
       loaded to mean "All network ports in use."

       For information on the return from ruserok() and iruserok(), see above.

       The   functions	 iruserok_af(),	  rcmd_af(),	rresvport_af(),	   and
       ruserok_af() functions are provide in glibc since version 2.2.

       For   an	  explanation	of   the  terms	 used  in  this	 section,  see

       |Interface		    | Attribute	    | Value	     |
       |rcmd(), rcmd_af()	    | Thread safety | MT-Unsafe	     |
       |rresvport(), rresvport_af() | Thread safety | MT-Safe	     |
       |iruserok(), ruserok(),	    | Thread safety | MT-Safe locale |
       |iruserok_af(), ruserok_af() |		    |		     |

       Not in POSIX.1.	Present on the BSDs, Solaris, and many other  systems.
       These functions appeared in 4.2BSD.  The "_af" variants are more recent
       additions, and are not present on as wide a range of systems.

       iruserok() and iruserok_af() are declared in glibc headers  only	 since
       version 2.12.

       rlogin(1), rsh(1), intro(2), rexec(3), rexecd(8), rlogind(8), rshd(8)

       This  page  is  part of release 4.10 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest	  version     of     this    page,    can    be	   found    at

Linux				  2016-10-08			       RCMD(3)