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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync -- a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync  finds  files  that  need to be transferred using a "quick check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed  in  size
       or   in	last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in	 the  other  preserved
       attributes (as requested by options) are made on the  destination  file
       directly	 when  the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and  permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	 CVS  exclude  mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal  for

       Rsync  copies  files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
       current host (it does not support  copying  files  between  two	remote

       There  are  two	different  ways	 for rsync to contact a remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or  rsh)  or
       contacting  an  rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell trans-
       port is used whenever the source or destination path contains a	single
       colon  (:)  separator  after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync
       daemon directly happens when the source or destination path contains  a
       double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a host specification, OR when an
       rsync:// URL is specified (see also the	"USING	RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES
       VIA  A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote  side  as
       the  "server".	Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon
       is always a server, but a server can be either a daemon	or  a  remote-
       shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,	 you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are	transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,	ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to	"copy  the  directory  by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av host: /dest
	      rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

	      rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains	 whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote	shell  will  understand.   For

	      rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It  is  also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using	 TCP port 873.	(This obviously requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in	 this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
	      fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may	 also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the	rsync  command	(so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).	 For example:

	 export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already  required  to	allow  remote-
       shell  access).	 Rsync	supports  connecting  to a host using a remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
       read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change the uid used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to
       tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure  a	 normal	 rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that	 you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	(Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will	 not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the	 host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to	 ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming	socket	connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the	 daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for	the  transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile tar-

		   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data in file checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing using
				    "-r --exclude='/*/*'" (rsync 2.6.x compatible)
	    --new-dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
				    (rsync 3.0.x compatible)
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run with no changes made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the remote shell to use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put a partially transferred file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put all updated files into place at end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ... and include copies of unchanged files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from FILE
	-0, --from0		    all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log what we're doing to the specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync  uses  the	 GNU  long  options  package. Many of the command line
       options have two variants, one short and one  long.   These  are	 shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       '=' for options that take a parameter is optional;  whitespace  can  be
       used instead.

       --help Print  a	short  help  page  describing the options available in
	      rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
	      of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
	      without any other args.

	      print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
	      -v will give you information about what files are	 being	trans-
	      ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
	      you information on what files are	 being	skipped	 and  slightly
	      more  information	 at  the  end. More than two -v options should
	      only be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
	      done  using  a  default  --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
	      just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
	      points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not men-
	      tion when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding "%i" to the --out-format setting),	 the  output  (on  the
	      client)  increases  to mention all items that are changed in any
	      way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server. This  option  is	useful	when  invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the client
	      at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
	      that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"  request
	      (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
	      turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
	      that need to be transferred, changing it	from  the  default  of
	      transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
	      modified time to just looking for files  that  have  changed  in
	      size.   This  is	useful	when starting to use rsync after using
	      another mirroring	 system	 which	may  not  preserve  timestamps

	      When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in	the  files  in	the transfer (and this is prior to any
	      reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need to be updated?" check.

	      For  protocol  30	 and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify  -H.

	      You  may	turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
	      option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
	      "no-":  only  options  that  are	implied by other options (e.g.
	      --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in	 various  cir-
	      cumstances  (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
	      You may specify either the short or the long option  name	 after
	      the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner), instead of converting	-a  into  -rlptgD,  you	 could
	      specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

	      The  order  of  the options is important:	 if you specify --no-r
	      -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite  of
	      -a  --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
	      option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
	      several  options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This tells rsync to  copy	 directories  recursively.   See  also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning	 with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now
	      an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
	      begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
	      ries have been completed.	 This incremental  scan	 only  affects
	      our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not change a non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some  options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
	      options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These  include:
	      --delete-before,	  --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,   and
	      --delay-updates.	Because of this, the default delete mode  when
	      you  specify  --delete  is now --delete-during when both ends of
	      the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or  --delete-during
	      to  request  this	 improved deletion mode explicitly).  See also
	      the --delete-delay option that is a  better  choice  than	 using

	      Incremental  recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use relative paths. This means that the full path	 names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
	      the last parts of the filenames.	This  is  particularly	useful
	      when  you want to send several different directories at the same
	      time. For example, if you used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
	      remote machine, preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
	      "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

	      Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	 always	 sends	these  implied
	      directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
	      element is really a symlink on the sending side.	This  prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
	      file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If  you
	      want  to	duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
	      you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is  sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
	      a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That  would  create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.	 (Note
	      that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would  not
	      be  abbreviated.)	  (2) For older rsync versions, you would need
	      to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For	example,  when
	      pushing files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
	      that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
	      mands.)	If  you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This option affects  the	default	 behavior  of  the  --relative
	      option.	When  it  is  specified, the attributes of the implied
	      directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
	      fer.   This  means  that	the corresponding path elements on the
	      destination system are left unchanged if	they  exist,  and  any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences,  such  as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving

	      For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
	      rsync  to	 transfer  the	file  "path/foo/file", the directories
	      "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is  used.   If
	      "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
	      receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
	      as  a  directory,	 and  receive the file into the new directory.
	      With   --no-implied-dirs,	  the	 receiving    rsync    updates
	      "path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
	      that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
	      to   accomplish	this   link   preservation   is	  to  use  the
	      --keep-dirlinks option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks  to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
	      to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
	      you  request  and	 you wish the implied directories to be trans-
	      ferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With this option, preexisting destination files are  renamed  as
	      each  file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
	      backup file goes and what (if any) suffix	 gets  appended	 using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note   that   if	 you   don't  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
	      --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
	      also  in	effect	(without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
	      "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note	 that  if  you
	      are  supplying  your  own filter rules, you may need to manually
	      insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
	      list  so	that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
	      (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this tells rsync to
	      store all backups in the specified directory  on	the  receiving
	      side.   This can be used for incremental backups.	 You can addi-
	      tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep
	      their original filenames).

	      This option allows you to override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty  string.

       -u, --update
	      This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
	      tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the	source
	      file.   (If an existing destination file has a modification time
	      equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes  are

	      Note  that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other
	      special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
	      sender  and receiver is always considered to be important enough
	      for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In	 other
	      words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
	      file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

	      This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes how rsync transfers a file when the file's
	      data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of  cre-
	      ating a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is
	      complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to  the
	      destination file.

	      This  has several effects: (1) in-use binaries cannot be updated
	      (either the OS will prevent this	from  happening,  or  binaries
	      that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or crash), (2)
	      the file's data will be in  an  inconsistent  state  during  the
	      transfer, (3) a file's data may be left in an inconsistent state
	      after the transfer if the	 transfer  is  interrupted  or	if  an
	      update  fails,  (4)  a file that does not have write permissions
	      can not be updated, and (5) the  efficiency  of  rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm  may be reduced if some data in the destina-
	      tion file is overwritten before it can be copied to  a  position
	      later  in the file (one exception to this is if you combine this
	      option with --backup, since rsync is smart  enough  to  use  the
	      backup file as the basis file for the transfer).

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
	      being accessed by others, so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
	      this for a copy.

	      This  option  is	useful for transfer of large files with block-
	      based changes or appended data, and also	on  systems  that  are
	      disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
	      end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
	      exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
	      the  sender,  the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
	      the updating of a file's non-content  attributes	(e.g.  permis-
	      sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
	      ferred, nor does it  affect  the	updating  of  any  non-regular
	      files.   Implies	--inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse
	      (since it is always extending a file's length).

	      This works just like the --append option, but the existing  data
	      on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
	      ification step, which will cause a file  to  be  resent  if  the
	      final  verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-append-
	      ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either  append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell the sending	side  to  include  any	directories  that  are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
	      copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
	      trailing	slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip	 all  directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The   default   --dirs  behaviour	 is  backward-compatible  with
	      rsync-2.6.x, that is, using a hack of "-r	 --exclude='/*/*'"  to
	      list  a  single  directory  without recursing.  To turn on a new
	      rsync-3.0.x --dirs behaviour, use --new-dirs helper option.

	      The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

       -l, --links
	      When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the  des-

       -L, --copy-links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
	      referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
	      of  rsync,  this	option also had the side-effect of telling the
	      receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to  directo-
	      ries.   In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to spec-
	      ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
	      exception	 is  when sending files to an rsync that is too old to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have  the
	      side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent of symbolic links that
	      point outside the	 copied	 tree.	 Absolute  symlinks  are  also
	      treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks in the
	      source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has  no
	      additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

	      This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point out-
	      side the copied tree. All absolute symlinks  are	also  ignored.
	      Using  this option in conjunction with --relative may give unex-
	      pected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This option causes the sending side to  treat  a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you don't want symlinks to non-directories to  be	 affected,  as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without  this  option, if the sending side has replaced a direc-
	      tory with a symlink to a	directory,  the	 receiving  side  will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
	      a directory hierarchy (as long as	 --force  or  --delete	is  in

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This option causes the receiving side to treat a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	 as  though  it	 were a real directory, but only if it
	      matches a real directory from the sender.	 Without this  option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

	      For example, suppose you transfer a directory  "foo"  that  con-
	      tains  a	file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
	      on the receiver.	Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
	      symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
	      file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
	      all the symlinks	in  the	 copy!	 If  it	 is  possible  for  an
	      untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
	      user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
	      a	 real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
	      the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
	      using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This  tells  rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer
	      and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
	      Without  this  option,  hard-linked  files  in  the transfer are
	      treated as though they were separate files.

	      When you are updating a non-empty destination, this option  only
	      ensures  that  files that are hard-linked together on the source
	      are hard-linked together on the destination.  It does  NOT  cur-
	      rently endeavor to break already existing hard links on the des-
	      tination that do not exist between the source files.  Note, how-
	      ever,  that  if  one  or	more  extra-linked  files have content
	      changes, they will become unlinked when  updated	(assuming  you
	      are not using the --inplace option).

	      Note  that  rsync	 can only detect hard links between files that
	      are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
	      extra  hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
	      your files are being updated so that you	are  certain  that  no
	      unintended  changes  happen due to lingering hard links (and see
	      the --inplace option for more caveats).

	      If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync  may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.	  This
	      does  not	 affect	 the  accuracy of the transfer, just its effi-
	      ciency.  One way to avoid this is to disable incremental	recur-
	      sion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       -p, --perms
	      This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination
	      permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
	      the  --chmod  option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including	updated	 files)	 retain	 their
		     existing  permissions,  though the --executability option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
		     source  file's  permissions  masked  with	the  receiving
		     directory's default  permissions  (either	the  receiving
		     process's	umask,	or  the	 permissions specified via the
		     destination directory's default ACL), and	their  special
		     permission	 bits  disabled except in the case where a new
		     directory inherits a setgid bit from  its	parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In  summary:  to	give  destination files (both old and new) the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give new files the destina-
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is	 off  and  use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures	that  all  non-masked bits get
	      enabled).	 If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier  to
	      type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
	      and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination

		 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You could then use this new option in a  command	such  as  this

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat:	make  sure  that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
	      enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The preservation of the destination's setgid bit	on  newly-cre-
	      ated  directories	 when --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.
	      Older rsync versions erroneously	preserved  the	three  special
	      permission  bits	for  newly-created files when --perms was off,
	      while overriding the  destination's  setgid  bit	setting	 on  a
	      newly-created  directory.	  Default  ACL observance was added to
	      the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7,  so  older	 (or  non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
	      mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This  option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
	      executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.   A
	      regular  file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x'
	      is turned on in its permissions.	When an	 existing  destination
	      file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
	      source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	 make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To make a file executable, rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
		     mission  that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

	      The  source  and	destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
	      entries for this option to work properly.	 See the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the   remote   extended
	      attributes to be the same as the local ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" strings to the permission of the files in the  transfer.
	      The  resulting value is treated as though it was the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
	      to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
	      For example:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
	      ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
	      receiving side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
	      receiving side.

	      The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

	      This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
	      files to the remote system  to  recreate	these  devices.	  This
	      option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
	      super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
	      files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the
	      files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off	 using

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and	 copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will  get	 errors	 if  the receiving side isn't being run as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

	      When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
	      This includes the file's owner and  group	 (if  it  is  not  the
	      default),	 the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
	      created as empty text files), and any permission	bits  that  we
	      won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
	      u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

	      This is a good way to backup data without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option only affects the side where the option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, specify an rsync path:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

	      Since  there  is	only  one  "side" in a local copy, this option
	      affects both the sending and receiving of files.	You'll need to
	      specify a copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, pos-
	      sibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support  directory)
	      as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

	      This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with --inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

	      NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination	is  a  Solaris
	      "tmpfs"  filesystem.  It	doesn't seem to handle seeks over null
	      regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This makes rsync perform a  trial	 run  that  doesn't  make  any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
	      is most commonly used in	combination  with  the	-v,  --verbose
	      and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
	      same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
	      Other output is the same to the extent practical, but may differ
	      in some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data
	      for  file	 transfers,  so	 --progress  has no effect, the "bytes
	      sent", "bytes received",	"literal  data",  and  "matched	 data"
	      statistics  are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent
	      to a run where no file transfers are needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	 is  not  used
	      and  the	whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
	      faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
	      tination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the underlying mount-point
	      directory are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
	      is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined	with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
	      updated (which can be useful if all you want  to	do  is	delete
	      extraneous files).

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the files that the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This tells rsync to skip updating files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this does not ignore existing directories, or
	      nothing would get done).	See also --existing.

	      This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  for those doing backups using the
	      --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run  that
	      got  interrupted.	  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
	      directory hierarchy (when it is used properly),  using  --ignore
	      existing	will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).	This does mean that this option is only looking at the
	      existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving
	      side  (ones  that	 aren't on the sending side), but only for the
	      directories that are being synchronized.	You  must  have	 asked
	      rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using a wildcard for the	directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
	      since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
	      a request to transfer individual files, not  the	files'	parent
	      directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior  to	 rsync	2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
	      --recursive was enabled.	Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!	 It is a  very
	      good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
	      on  the  destination.   You   can	  override   this   with   the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The   --delete   option	may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
	      --delete-WHEN   options	without	  conflict,   as    well    as
	      --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none	of  the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
	      algorithm	 when  talking	to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
	      --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
	      also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	 However,  it  does  introduce a delay
	      before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
	      transfer	to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
	      memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
	      scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
	      so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
	      doing the deletions prior	 to  any  per-directory	 filter	 files
	      being  updated.	This  option  was first added in rsync version
	      2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)	for  more  details  on

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
	      puted during  the	 transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
	      removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
	      than  using  --delete-after  (but	 can behave differently, since
	      --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass	 after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
	      receiving	 side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
	      you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
	      the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
	      --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive	 is  doing  an
	      incremental  scan).   See	 --delete  (which is implied) for more
	      details on file-deletion.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      after  the  transfer  has	 completed.  This is useful if you are
	      sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
	      and  you	want  their  exclusions	 to take effect for the delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
	      old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
	      scan all the files in the transfer  into	memory	at  once  (see
	      --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
	      not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
	      files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
	      sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
	      files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when using --delete-after, and  it  used	to  be	non-functional
	      unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

	      This  tells  rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directo-
	      ries.  If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output and	 rsync
	      exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

	      Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
	      warned about any extraneous files	 in  the  destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  older  ver-
	      sions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      The  suffixes  are  as  follows:	"K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
	      (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),	 and  "G"  (or
	      "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).	If you want the multi-
	      plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or	 "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	   --max-size=1.5mb-1	 is    1499999	  bytes,   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is  smaller
	      than  the	 specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
	      small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a  description
	      of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being updated.  See the technical report for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and remote
	      copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
	      remote shell connection, rather than  through  a	direct	socket
	      connection  to  a	 running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
	      NECTION" above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
	      quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
	      quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam-

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	 the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

	      Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the	remote
	      machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
	      default		remote-shell's		 path		 (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that	PROGRAM is run
	      with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
	      command  sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
	      rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com-

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
	      the remote machine for use  with	the  --relative	 option.   For

		  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
	      that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
	      similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following	 items
	      (these  initial  items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG	cvslog.*   tags	  TAGS
		     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
		     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	 *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/

	      then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
	      cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless of where the -C was  placed  on	 the  command-
	      line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified explicitly.	 If  you  want	to  control  where  these  CVS
	      excludes	get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
	      the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of	--fil-
	      ter=:C  and  --filter=-C	(either	 on  your  command-line	 or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
	      import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files to  be	transferred.  This  is
	      most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
	      like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the rule to rsync as a single argument.	The  text  below  also
	      mentions	that  you  can	use an underscore to replace the space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
	      parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

	      This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	 lines	starting  with	';' or '#' are
	      ignored.	If FILE is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard

	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full	 rule-
	      parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	 and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

	      Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of	 files
	      to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs (-d) option  is	 implied,  which  will	create
		     directories  specified  in	 the  list  on the destination
		     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use	 --no-dirs  or
		     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
		     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

	      o	     These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of the --files-from option on	 the  command-
		     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
		     --no-R and all other options).

	      The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir -- any leading slashes are	 removed  and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even	 "/bin"),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
	      host.  If it contains "bin/"  (note  the	trailing  slash),  the
	      immediate	 contents of the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this  began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
	      that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the
	      duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
	      host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the transfer".  For example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
	      file that was located on the remote "src" host.

       -0, --from0
	      This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from  a  file
	      are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
	      It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names	 read  from  a
	      .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

	      If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
	      --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

       -s, --protect-args
	      This option sends all filenames and some options to  the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
	      means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
	      special  characters  are	not  translated	 (such	as ~, $, ;, &,
	      etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by	 rsync
	      (instead of the shell doing it).

	      If  you  use  this  option  with	--iconv, the args will also be
	      translated from the local	 to  the  remote  character-set.   The
	      translation  happens  before  wild-cards are expanded.  See also
	      the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR as	 a  scratch  directory
	      when  creating  temporary copies of the files transferred on the
	      receiving side.  The default behavior is to create  each	tempo-
	      rary  file  in  the same directory as the associated destination

	      This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
	      does  not	 have  enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
	      file in the transfer.  In	 this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
	      directory	 is  on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
	      able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
	      associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
	      place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
	      destination  file,  which	 means	that the destination file will
	      contain truncated data during this copy.	If this were not  done
	      this  way	 (even if the destination file were first removed, the
	      data locally copied to  a	 temporary  file  in  the  destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
	      open),  and  thus	 there might not be enough room to fit the new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
	      of   disk	  space,   you	 may  wish  to	combine	 it  with  the
	      --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied	 files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
	      ing the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough  room  to
	      duplicate	 all  the arriving files on the destination partition,
	      another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
	      disk  space  is  to use the --partial-dir option with a relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will use the partial-dir as a staging area  to  bring  over  the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
	      ing a --partial-dir with an absolute path	 does  not  have  this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
	      any destination file that is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
	      looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an  identical  size  and	 modified-time,	 or  a
	      similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
	      to try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note that the use of the --delete option might get  rid  of  any
	      potential	 fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This option instructs  rsync  to	use  DIR  on  the  destination
	      machine  as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
	      against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti-
	      nation  directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
	      to the sender's file, the file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
	      destination  directory.	This  is  useful for creating a sparse
	      backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
	      may  be  provided,  which will cause rsync to search the list in
	      the order specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is	 found
	      that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
	      copy unchanged files found in DIR to the	destination  directory
	      using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination while leaving existing files intact, and then	 doing
	      a	 flash-cutover	when  all  files have been successfully trans-

	      Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be	provided,  which  will
	      cause  rsync  to	search	the list in the order specified for an
	      unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --copy-dest, but	 unchanged  files  are
	      hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
	      must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	 files	to  be	linked
	      together.	 An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.	  Also
	      check  if	 some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
	      control, such a mount option that	 squishes  root	 to  a	single
	      user,  or	 mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
	      as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
	      order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
	      differs  only  in	 attributes,  a	 local	copy  is  made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-

	      This option works best when copying into	an  empty  destination
	      hierarchy,  as  rsync treats existing files as definitive (so it
	      never looks in  the  link-dest  dirs  when  a  destination  file
	      already  exists),	 and  as  malleable  (so  it  might change the
	      attributes of a destination file, which affects  all  the	 hard-
	      linked versions).

	      Note  that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which reduces	 the  amount  of  data
	      being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connec-

	      Note that this  option  typically	 achieves  better  compression
	      ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
	      or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
	      implicit	information  in	 the matching data blocks that are not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

	      Explicitly  set  the  compression	 level to use (see --compress)
	      instead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero,  the	--com-
	      press option is implied.

	      Override	the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.
	      The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
	      separated by slashes (/).

	      You  may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
	      of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
	      (several of these are newly added for 3.0.0):


	      This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
	      but one situation: a copy from a	daemon	rsync  will  add  your
	      skipped  suffixes	 to its list of non-compressing files (and its
	      list may be configured to a different default).

	      With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group names and mapping them at both

	      By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to	deter-
	      mine  what  ownership  to	 give files. The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

	      If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
	      match on the destination system, then the numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments on the
	      "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
	      names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

	      This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
	      wait  for	 its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.	If the
	      timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
	      specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the	 options you may be able to set. By default no
	      special socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.	  If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
	      rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.	  (Note	 that ssh prefers non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are	 being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
	      receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11	letters	 long.
	      The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output if they are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

	      o	     A < means that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A	>  means that a file is being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A h means that the item is a hard link  to	 another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have attributes that are being modified).

	      o	     A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
	      directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S	for  a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
	      that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
	      being  updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
	      are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
	      (2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
	      unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

	      o	     A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
		     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or special file has a changed value.  Note	 that  if  you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
		     flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular

	      o	     A	s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
		     will be updated by the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification time is different and is being
		     updated  to  the  sender's	 value (requires --times).  An
		     alternate value of T means	 that  the  modification  time
		     will  be  set  to the transfer time, which happens when a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
		     symlink  is  changed and the receiver can't set its time.
		     (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client,  you  might  see
		     the  s  flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A p means the permissions are  different  and  are	 being
		     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A	g means the group is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The u slot is reserved for future use.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The  x  means  that  the  extended	 attribute information

	      One other output is possible:  when  deleting  files,  the  "%i"
	      will  output  the string "*deleting" for each item that is being
	      removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough	 rsync
	      that  it	logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
	      to  the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
	      containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
	      with  a  percent	(%) character.	 A default format of "%n%L" is
	      assumed if -v is specified (which reports the name of  the  file
	      and,  if	the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list
	      of the possible escape characters, see the "log format"  setting
	      in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying  the --out-format option will mention each file, dir,
	      etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file,
	      a	 recreated  symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addi-
	      tion, if the itemize-changes escape  (%i)	 is  included  in  the
	      string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the log-
	      ging of names increases to mention any item that is  changed  in
	      any  way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See
	      the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output  of

	      Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
	      fer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes	is  requested,
	      in  which	 case  the  logging  is	 done at the end of the file's
	      transfer.	 When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
	      also  specified,	rsync  will  also  output the name of the file
	      being transferred prior to its progress  information  (followed,
	      of course, by the out-format output).

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what it is doing to a file.
	      This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
	      requested	 for  the client side and/or the server side of a non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as a client option, transfer log-
	      ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's a example command that requests the remote	 side  to  log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This  is	very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
	      put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also be specified for this option to have any effect).   If  you
	      specify  an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
	      the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The  default  FORMAT  used  if  --log-file is specified and this
	      option is not is '%i %n%L'.

	      This tells rsync to print a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
	      transfer algorithm is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number of files is the  count  of	all  "files"  (in  the
		     generic  sense),  which  includes	directories, symlinks,

	      o	     Number of files transferred is the count of normal	 files
		     that  were	 updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm,
		     which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o	     Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
		     transfer.	 This  does not count any size for directories
		     or special files, but does include the size of  symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to	the  receiver  for  it to recreate the
		     updated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be  present.

	      o	     File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total  bytes  received  is	 the  count of all non-message
		     bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
		     server  side.   "Non-message"  bytes  means that we don't
		     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
	      the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
	      valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
	      control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
	      backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3  octal  dig-
	      its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output  numbers in a more human-readable format.	This makes big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this  option  was	 specified  once,  these units are K (1000), M
	      (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is  repeated,
	      the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

	      By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
	      the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
	      desirable	 to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par-
	      tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file	 which	should
	      make  a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

	      A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to  specify  a  DIR  that	 will be used to hold the partial data
	      (instead of writing it out to the	 destination  file).   On  the
	      next  transfer,  rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
	      to speed up the resumption of the transfer and  then  delete  it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified (or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir file that is found for a file  that  is	being  updated
	      will  simply  be	removed	 (since rsync is sending files without
	      using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir  --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file's directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You  can	also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.	For  instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
	      you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to turn on the use of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file's	destination directory, but if you've specified
	      the --partial-dir option, that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with	--inplace  and

	      This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso-
	      lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files	 using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note  that  the  use  of	transfer rules, such as the --min-size
	      option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
	      does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
	      directory match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
	      affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
	      However, keep in mind that excluded files	 and  directories  can
	      prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
	      hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
	      perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of certain empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect emptydir/'

	      Here's an example that copies all .pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already specified.

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
	      of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

	      These  statistics	 can  be  misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
	      algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
	      of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%	 146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
	      total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      This option allows you to provide	 a  password  in  a  file  for
	      accessing an rsync daemon.  The file must not be world readable.
	      It should contain just the password as a single line.

	      This option does not supply a password to a remote shell	trans-
	      port  such  as  ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote
	      shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon  using  a
	      remote  shell  as	 the  transport,  this	option only comes into
	      effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication	 (i.e.
	      if  you  have  also  specified a password in the daemon's config

	      This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
	      transferred.   This  option  is  inferred	 if  there is a single
	      source arg and no destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
	      (1)  to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
	      a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify  more  than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion: keep in mind  that	a  source  arg	with  a	 wild-card  is
	      expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

	      Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files
	      from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may  encounter
	      an  error	 if  you  ask  for  a  non-recursive listing.  This is
	      because a file listing implies the --dirs	 option	 w/o  --recur-
	      sive,  and  older	 rsyncs don't have that option.	 To avoid this
	      problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't  need
	      to  expand  a  directory's  content),  or	 turn on recursion and
	      exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

	      This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per  second. This option is most effective when using
	      rsync with large files (several megabytes and up).  Due  to  the
	      nature  of  rsync	 transfers,  blocks  of data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait	before
	      sending  the  next data block. The result is an average transfer
	      rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no

	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
	      details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system via some other
	      means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this media fills to capacity before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
	      changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
	      tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system  because  this  allows  the	 batched  data	to  be
	      diverted	from  the sender into the batch file without having to
	      flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
	      erated by --write-batch.	If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
	      read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for

	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
	      option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
	      default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
	      can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
	      remote   charset	 separated   by	  a   comma   in   the	 order
	      --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This	 order
	      ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
	      ing  or  pulling	files.	 Finally,  you	can   specify	either
	      --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
	      The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
	      also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv --list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
	      late  the	 filenames  you	 specify  on the command-line that are
	      being sent to  the  remote  host.	  See  also  the  --files-from

	      Note  that  rsync	 does not do any conversion of names in filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is  up  to  you  to
	      ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
	      both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
	      two sides that need to be accounted for.

	      When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that	allows
	      it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con-
	      figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you	 actu-
	      ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.	  This
	      only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the outgoing socket when directly contacting  an	rsync  daemon.
	      See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

	      If  rsync	 was  complied	without	 support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
	      option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
	      if this is the case.

	      Set  the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
	      seed is included in each block and  file	checksum  calculation.
	      By  default  the	checksum  seed	is generated by the server and
	      defaults to the current time() .	This option is used to	set  a
	      specific	checksum  seed,	 which is useful for applications that
	      want repeatable block and file checksums, or in the  case	 where
	      the  user	 wants	a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0
	      causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.	  See  also the "address" global option in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option allows you to specify a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
	      can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value  will  be  rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
	      client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

	      This specifies an alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a	remote
	      shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
	      case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory	(typi-
	      cally $HOME).

	      When  running  as	 a  daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
	      detach itself and become a background process.  This  option  is
	      required	when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
	      useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
	      or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
	      mended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on rather than the default of 873.	 See also  the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to use the given log-file
	      name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
	      string instead of using the "log format" setting in  the	config
	      file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
	      empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This overrides the socket options	 setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.	 After the client connects,  the  dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
	      ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
	      already  in  use" error when nothing else is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

	      If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the	--ipv6
	      option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
	      if this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ-
	      ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans-
       fer (include) and which files to	 skip  (exclude).   The	 rules	either
       directly	 specify  include/exclude  patterns  or	 they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a	file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of	 include/exclude  pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is	 not skipped; if no matching pattern is found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You  have  your	choice	of  using  either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.	 If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide,  H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from	 dele-
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of	rule  parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or	 "+  "	(plus,
       space),	then  the  rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter	 option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the	FILTER	RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that  are	 going	to  be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
	      lar spot in the hierarchy of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is similar to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
	      the merge-file's	directory  (for	 a  per-directory  rule).   An
	      unqualified  "foo"  would	 match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
	      tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from  the  top
	      down;  it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being
	      the end of the filename.	Even the  unanchored  "sub/foo"	 would
	      match  at	 any  point  in	 the hierarchy where a "foo" was found
	      within a directory named "sub".  See the	section	 on  ANCHORING
	      INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
	      a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only  match  a	direc-
	      tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
	      matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these	 three
	      wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a	  '['	introduces   a	character  class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
	      card  character,	but  it is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)	 or  a
	      "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
	      filename.	 (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
	      so  "full	 filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from
	      the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory  (as  if
	      "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
	      (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This	 behavior  was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync	 finds	the  files  to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can ren-
       der a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not  descend
       through	that  excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particularly
       important when using a trailing '*' rule.   For	instance,  this	 won't

	      + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      + /file-is-included
	      - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule:  "+	 */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.	 For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

	      + /some/
	      + /some/path/
	      + /some/path/this-file-is-found
	      + /file-also-included
	      - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named  foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"	would  exclude	any file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
	      directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination	of  "+	foo/",	"+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
	      include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A	 /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/  /etc/passwd"	 would	exclude	 the  passwd file any time the
	      transfer was sending files from the "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
	      subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
	      "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current  transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A	 C  is	used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be inserted as excludes in place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents	 files
	      from  being  transferred.	  The  default is for a rule to affect
	      both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.	 See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify	 send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	 p  indicates  that  a	rule is perishable, meaning that it is
	      ignored in directories that are being  deleted.	For  instance,
	      the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that  was removed on the source from being deleted on the desti-

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance  ('.')  and  per-
       directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.   For  per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory rule files must be created on the sending side because it  is  the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving  side
       if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
	      compatible  manner.   This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A	 e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "-  .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-

       o      A w specifies  that  the	rules  are  word-split	on  whitespace
	      instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
	      ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
	      is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
	      rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
	      the file default to having that  modifier	 set.	For  instance,
	      "merge,-/	 .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-
	      path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and  ":sC"  would  each
	      make  all	 their	per-directory  rules apply only on the sending

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of  the	direc-
       tory  where  the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.
       Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the  inherited	 per-directory
       rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority
       than the inherited rules.   The	entire	set  of	 dir-merge  rules  are
       grouped	together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it
       is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that	got  specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inherited	 rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another	way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.	Anchored  rules	 in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which	 you'd specify via --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      - *.gz
	      dir-merge .rules
	      + *.[ch]
	      - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the	start  of  the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent dirs from that starting point to the	 transfer  directory  for  the
       indicated  per-directory	 file.	 For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories  from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer
       prior to the start of the normal directory scan	of  the	 file  in  the
       directories  that  are  sent  as a part of the transfer.	 (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"	before	the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	 the  file  in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids  the  par-
       ent-dir	scan  and  only	 looks	for  the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you  should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig-
       nore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this  to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)	option's inclusion of the per-
       directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules  by  putting  the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all  your
       other  rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules).
       For example:

	      cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      + foo.o
	      - *.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.	Each  one  will	 merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the	 :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIG-
       NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead  insert  a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).	The  "current"
       list  is	 either	 the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a	 set  of  per-directory	 rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's	 directory).   If  you	think  of  the
       transfer	 as  a	subtree	 of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to	be  duplicated
       in  the	destination  directory.	 This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the	 transfer-root,	 changing  the
       trailing	 slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching	 (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note missing "me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note missing "you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without	a  delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude  the  merge  files	 them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two  equivalent  com-

	      rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
	      rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	 if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,	because	 this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it  tries  to	delete

	      rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or	 you'll	 need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is	 this  (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is	 excluding  the	 .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files  to	 control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number  of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to  do
       this  using  batch  mode,  rsync	 is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.	The  write-batch  option causes the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all	 the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple  destination	 trees.	 Multicast  transport protocols can be used to
       transfer the batch update files in parallel  to	many  hosts  at	 once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also  created  when  the	write-
       batch option is used:  it will be named the same as the batch file with
       ".sh" appended.	This script file contains a command-line suitable  for
       updating	 a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be
       executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally  passing  in
       an  alternate  destination  tree pathname which is then used instead of
       the original destination path.  This is	useful	when  the  destination
       tree  path  on the current host differs from the one used to create the
       batch file.


	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ scp foo* remote:
	      $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is	used  to   update   /adest/dir/	  from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local -- you can push or pull data to/from a  remote  host  using
	      either  the  remote-shell	 syntax	 or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as

       o      The first example uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
	      right  rsync  options when running the read-batch command on the
	      remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
	      that  the	 batch	file  doesn't  need to be copied to the remote
	      machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
	      needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
	      the script file if you wished to make use of it  (just  be  sure
	      that  no	other  option is trying to use standard input, such as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination	 trees
       is  encountered	the  update  might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)	 or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a	 read-
       batch  operation	 if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date,  use	the  -I	 option (when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in	 a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too	 new  for  the	batch-
       reading	rsync  to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to
       have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will	force  the  value  of  certain
       options	to  match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the	 --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the	 BATCH.sh  file	 transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into a single list that is  appended	 as  a
       "here"  document	 to  the  shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to  run	the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when	rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not	transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An	 exam-
       ple  where  this	 might be used is a web site mirror that wishes ensure
       the  rsync  module  they	 copy  does  not  include  symbolic  links  to
       /etc/passwd    in    the	  public   section   of	  the	site.	 Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file  they
       point  to  on  the  destination.	  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
       links to be omitted altogether.	(Note that you	must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic	 links	are  considered	 unsafe	 if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough	 ".."	components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe  sym-

	      Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote	 shell
       facility	 producing  unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is	 to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you	 will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output	 statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	 action	 not supported: an attempt was made to manipu-
	      late 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an
	      option  was specified that is supported by the client and not by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment	 vari-

	      The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
	      default shell used as the transport  for	rsync.	 Command  line
	      options  are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password  allows  you  to
	      run  authenticated  rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
	      user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password  to
	      a	 remote	 shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync daemon.	 If neither is
	      set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems	 rsync	may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred	 as  native  numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

       This man page is current for version 3.0.6 of rsync.

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by	 a  user  under	 normal	 circumstances.	  Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only	run  an	 rsync	command.   For
       instance,  the support directory of the rsync distribution has an exam-
       ple script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync  is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPY-
       ING for details.

       A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic	which  may  cover  questions unanswered by this manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would be delighted to hear  from  you	 if  you  like	this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This  program  uses  the	 excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Especial thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt	McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David	 Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell	 and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing	lists  for  support   and   development	  are	available   at

				  8 May 2009			      rsync(1)
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