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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync -- a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a	"quick	check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in	the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as	requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a	 remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans-
       port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
       colon (:) separator after a host specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a	daemon
       is  always  a  server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-
       shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its	 communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.
       The  files  are	transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,	ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to	"copy  the  directory  by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in the same way, including their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av host: /dest
	      rsync -av host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a `:' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

	      rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains	 whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote	shell  will  understand.   For

	      rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It  is  also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using	 TCP port 873.	(This obviously requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in	 this  way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the  remote  daemon may print a message of the day when you con-

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then  the  list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
	      fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems	 environment  variables	 are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may	 establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing  to  your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as  a	 proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish to run in place of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a	 single	 "%"  in  your
       string).	 For example:

	 export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the  targeth-
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a	system	(other	than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a	host  using  a	remote
       shell  and  then	 spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to
       read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.	 This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use	features  such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.
       (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider	using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local	 port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that	 you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	(Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will	 not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the	 host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to	 ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming	socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the	 daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for	the  transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile tar-

		   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data in file checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run with no changes made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the remote shell to use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put a partially transferred file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put all updated files into place at end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ... and include copies of unchanged files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from FILE
	-0, --from0		    all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log what we're doing to the specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync  uses  the	 GNU  long  options  package. Many of the command line
       options have two variants, one short and one  long.   These  are	 shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       `=' for options that take a parameter is optional;  whitespace  can  be
       used instead.

       --help Print  a	short  help  page  describing the options available in
	      rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
	      of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
	      without any other args.

	      print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
	      -v will give you information about what files are	 being	trans-
	      ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
	      you information on what files are	 being	skipped	 and  slightly
	      more  information	 at  the  end. More than two -v options should
	      only be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
	      done  using  a  default  --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
	      just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
	      points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not men-
	      tion when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding "%i" to the --out-format setting),	 the  output  (on  the
	      client)  increases  to mention all items that are changed in any
	      way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server. This  option  is	useful	when  invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the client
	      at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
	      that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"  request
	      (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
	      turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
	      that need to be transferred, changing it	from  the  default  of
	      transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
	      modified time to just looking for files  that  have  changed  in
	      size.   This  is	useful	when starting to use rsync after using
	      another mirroring	 system	 which	may  not  preserve  timestamps

	      When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in	the  files  in	the transfer (and this is prior to any
	      reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need to be updated?" check.

	      For  protocol  30	 and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with "no-".	Not all options may be prefixed with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by	 other	options	 (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify either the short or the long option name after
	      the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

	      The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
	      an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
	      begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
	      ries  have  been	completed.  This incremental scan only affects
	      our recursion algorithm, and does	 not  change  a	 non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so	 these
	      options  disable the incremental recursion mode.	These include:
	      --delete-before,	 --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,	   and
	      --delay-updates.	 Because of this, the default delete mode when
	      you specify --delete is now --delete-during when	both  ends  of
	      the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
	      to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
	      the  --delete-delay  option  that	 is a better choice than using

	      Incremental recursion can be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
	      the  last	 parts	of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
	      when you want to send several different directories at the  same
	      time. For example, if you used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
	      remote machine, preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
	      "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	 with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
	      directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
	      element  is really a symlink on the sending side.	 This prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
	      file  that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.	If you
	      want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
	      you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you  may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.	  With
	      a	 modern	 rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	(2) For older rsync versions, you  would  need
	      to  use  a  chdir	 to  limit the source path.  For example, when
	      pushing files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future com-
	      mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
	      option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
	      directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
	      fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged if they exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on	the  receiving

	      For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
	      to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
	      you request and you wish the implied directories	to  be	trans-
	      ferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
	      each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
	      backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
	      --omit-dir-times	option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
	      also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will	add  a
	      "protect"	 filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously  backed-up  files	 from being deleted.  Note that if you
	      are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
	      insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
	      list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to	 be  effective
	      (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
	      `*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In combination with the --backup option,	this  tells  rsync  to
	      store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
	      side.  This can be used for incremental backups.	You can	 addi-
	      tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise the files backed up in the specified directory will  keep
	      their original filenames).

	      This  option  allows  you	 to override the default backup suffix
	      used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
	      tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the	source
	      file.   (If an existing destination file has a modification time
	      equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes  are

	      Note  that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other
	      special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
	      sender  and receiver is always considered to be important enough
	      for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In	 other
	      words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
	      file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

	      This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes how rsync transfers a file when the file's
	      data needs to be updated: instead of the default method of  cre-
	      ating a new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is
	      complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to  the
	      destination file.

	      This  has several effects: (1) in-use binaries cannot be updated
	      (either the OS will prevent this	from  happening,  or  binaries
	      that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or crash), (2)
	      the file's data will be in  an  inconsistent  state  during  the
	      transfer, (3) a file's data may be left in an inconsistent state
	      after the transfer if the	 transfer  is  interrupted  or	if  an
	      update  fails,  (4)  a file that does not have write permissions
	      can not be updated, and (5) the  efficiency  of  rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm  may be reduced if some data in the destina-
	      tion file is overwritten before it can be copied to  a  position
	      later  in the file (one exception to this is if you combine this
	      option with --backup, since rsync is smart  enough  to  use  the
	      backup file as the basis file for the transfer).

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
	      being accessed by others, so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
	      this for a copy.

	      This  option  is	useful for transfer of large files with block-
	      based changes or appended data, and also	on  systems  that  are
	      disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This causes rsync to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
	      end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
	      exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of  the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
	      the  sender,  the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
	      the updating of a file's non-content  attributes	(e.g.  permis-
	      sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
	      ferred, nor does it  affect  the	updating  of  any  non-regular
	      files.   Implies	--inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse
	      (since it is always extending a file's length).

	      This works just like the --append option, but the existing  data
	      on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
	      ification step, which will cause a file  to  be  resent  if  the
	      final  verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-append-
	      ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell  the	 sending  side	to  include  any  directories that are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
	      copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
	      trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).	 Without  this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync will skip all directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to	 use  a	 hack  of  "-r
	      --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a single	direc-
	      tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-

       -L, --copy-links
	      When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to  (the
	      referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
	      of rsync, this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
	      receiving	 side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
	      ries.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to	 spec-
	      ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only
	      exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too  old  to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
	      side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

	      This tells rsync to copy the referent  of	 symbolic  links  that
	      point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
	      treated like ordinary files, and so  are	any  symlinks  in  the
	      source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
	      additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
	      side  the	 copied	 tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
	      Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give	 unex-
	      pected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the	 sending  side to treat a symlink to a
	      directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you  don't  want	symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a	direc-
	      tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
	      a	 directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
	      directory as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
	      tains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to  directory	 "bar"
	      on  the receiver.	 Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink "foo", recreates it as a	directory,  and	 receives  the
	      file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
	      all  the	symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible for an
	      untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
	      user  could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
	      a real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory
	      the  symlink  references.	 For backup copies, you are better off
	      using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	 the  transfer
	      and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
	      Without this option,  hard-linked	 files	in  the	 transfer  are
	      treated as though they were separate files.

	      When  you are updating a non-empty destination, this option only
	      ensures that files that are hard-linked together on  the	source
	      are  hard-linked	together on the destination.  It does NOT cur-
	      rently endeavor to break already existing hard links on the des-
	      tination that do not exist between the source files.  Note, how-
	      ever, that if  one  or  more  extra-linked  files	 have  content
	      changes,	they  will  become unlinked when updated (assuming you
	      are not using the --inplace option).

	      Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
	      your  files  are	being  updated so that you are certain that no
	      unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
	      the --inplace option for more caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
	      does not affect the accuracy of the  transfer,  just  its	 effi-
	      ciency.	One way to avoid this is to disable incremental recur-
	      sion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
		     existing permissions, though the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set to the
		     source  file's  permissions  masked  with	the  receiving
		     directory's  default  permissions	(either	 the receiving
		     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
		     permission bits disabled except in the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give new files the destina-
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged),  make	 sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all	 non-masked  bits  get
	      enabled).	  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

		 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in a command such as this

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or	 it  will  re-
	      enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or  non-
	      executability)  of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
	      regular file is considered to be executable if at least one  `x'
	      is  turned  on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
	      file's executability differs  from  that	of  the	 corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     `x' permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync turns on each `x' per-
		     mission that has a corresponding `r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

	      The  source  and	destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
	      entries for this option to work properly.	 See the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the   remote   extended
	      attributes to be the same as the local ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" strings to the permission of the files in the  transfer.
	      The  resulting value is treated as though it was the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
	      to a directory by prefixing it with a `D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing it with a `F'.
	      For example:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
	      ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
	      receiving side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
	      receiving side.

	      The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

	      This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
	      files to the remote system  to  recreate	these  devices.	  This
	      option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
	      super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
	      files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the
	      files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off	 using

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and	 copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the super-user, and also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will  get	 errors	 if  the receiving side isn't being run as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

	      When  this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that are attached to each file (as needed).
	      This includes the file's owner and  group	 (if  it  is  not  the
	      default),	 the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
	      created as empty text files), and any permission	bits  that  we
	      won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
	      u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

	      This is a good way to backup data without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option only affects the side where the option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, specify an rsync path:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

	      Since  there  is	only  one  "side" in a local copy, this option
	      affects both the sending and receiving of files.	You'll need to
	      specify a copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, pos-
	      sibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support  directory)
	      as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

	      This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with --inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

	      NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination	is  a  Solaris
	      "tmpfs"  filesystem.  It	doesn't seem to handle seeks over null
	      regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This makes rsync perform a  trial	 run  that  doesn't  make  any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
	      is most commonly used in	combination  with  the	-v,  --verbose
	      and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
	      same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
	      Other output is the same to the extent practical, but may differ
	      in some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data
	      for  file	 transfers,  so	 --progress  has no effect, the "bytes
	      sent", "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data" sta-
	      tistics  are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to
	      a run where no file transfers are needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	 is  not  used
	      and  the	whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
	      faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
	      tination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the underlying mount-point
	      directory are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
	      is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined	with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
	      updated (which can be useful if all you want  to	do  is	delete
	      extraneous files).

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the files that the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This tells rsync to skip updating files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this does not ignore existing directories, or
	      nothing would get done).	See also --existing.

	      This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  for those doing backups using the
	      --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run  that
	      got  interrupted.	  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
	      directory hierarchy (when it is used properly),  using  --ignore
	      existing	will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).	This does mean that this option is only looking at the
	      existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving
	      side  (ones  that	 aren't on the sending side), but only for the
	      directories that are being synchronized.	You  must  have	 asked
	      rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using a wildcard for the	directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
	      since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
	      a request to transfer individual files, not  the	files'	parent
	      directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive  was	enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
	      good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any files at the destination  will  be  automatically  disabled.
	      This  is	to  prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS
	      errors) on the sending side causing a massive deletion of	 files
	      on   the	 destination.	 You   can   override  this  with  the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The  --delete  option  may  be  combined	 with	one   of   the
	      --delete-WHEN    options	  without   conflict,	as   well   as
	      --delete-excluded.   However,  if	 none  of  the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options  are  specified,	rsync  will choose the --delete-during
	      algorithm	 when  talking	to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
	      --delete-before  algorithm  when talking to an older rsync.  See
	      also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the	filesystem  is
	      tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the transfer possible.   However,	 it  does  introduce  a	 delay
	      before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout  (if	--timeout  was	specified).   It  also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that requires rsync to scan all the files in the	transfer  into
	      memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
	      scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
	      so it behaves like a more efficient  --delete-before,  including
	      doing  the  deletions  prior  to	any per-directory filter files
	      being updated.  This option was first  added  in	rsync  version
	      2.6.4.   See  --delete  (which  is  implied) for more details on

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  com-
	      puted  during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and then
	      removed after the transfer completes.  This is useful when  com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
	      than using --delete-after (but  can  behave  differently,	 since
	      --delete-after  computes	the deletions in a separate pass after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an  internal  buffer,  a	temporary  file will be created on the
	      receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while  open,  so
	      you  shouldn't  see it during the transfer).  If the creation of
	      the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall back  to	 using
	      --delete-after  (which  it  cannot do if --recursive is doing an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which  is  implied)  for  more
	      details on file-deletion.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
	      after the transfer has completed.	 This is  useful  if  you  are
	      sending  new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
	      and you want their exclusions to	take  effect  for  the	delete
	      phase  of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
	      old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to
	      scan  all	 the  files  in	 the transfer into memory at once (see
	      --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
	      not on the sending side, this tells rsync	 to  also  delete  any
	      files  on	 the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
	      sions  behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect
	      files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which  is  implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
	      I/O errors.

	      This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it
	      is  to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
	      deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when  using  --delete-after,  and	 it  used to be non-functional
	      unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output and rsync
	      exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

	      Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
	      warned  about  any  extraneous  files in the destination without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited",  so if you don't know what version the client is, you can
	      use the less obvious --max-delete=-1  as	a  backward-compatible
	      way  to  specify that no deletions be allowed (though older ver-
	      sions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

	      This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that  is	larger
	      than  the	 specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a
	      string to indicate a size multiplier, and may  be	 a  fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the files that the
	      receiver requests to be transferred.

	      The suffixes are as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB")  is  a  kibibyte
	      (1024),  "M"  (or	 "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or
	      "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want  the	multi-
	      plier  to	 be  1000  instead  of	1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	  --max-size=1.5mb-1	is    1499999	 bytes,	   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
	      than the specified SIZE, which  can  help	 in  not  transferring
	      small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
	      of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer	 algo-
	      rithm  to	 a  fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the
	      size of each file being updated.	See the technical  report  for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This  option  allows  you	 to choose an alternative remote shell
	      program to use for communication between the  local  and	remote
	      copies  of  rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

	      If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path,  then  the
	      remote  shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
	      remote host, and all  data  will	be  transmitted	 through  that
	      remote  shell  connection,  rather  than through a direct socket
	      connection to a running rsync daemon on the  remote  host.   See
	      NECTION" above.

	      Command-line arguments are permitted in  COMMAND	provided  that
	      COMMAND  is  presented  to rsync as a single argument.  You must
	      use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate  the  com-
	      mand  and	 args  from each other, and you can use single- and/or
	      double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but  not	 back-
	      slashes).	  Note	that  doubling a single-quote inside a single-
	      quoted string gives you a	 single-quote;	likewise  for  double-
	      quotes  (though  you  need to pay attention to which quotes your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some exam-

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

	      (Note  that  ssh	users  can alternately customize site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment  variable, which accepts the same range of values as

	      See also the --blocking-io option	 which	is  affected  by  this

	      Use  this	 to  specify  what  program is to be run on the remote
	      machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in  the
	      default		 remote-shell's		  path		 (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that  PROGRAM  is  run
	      with  the	 help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or
	      command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not  cor-
	      rupt  the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to com-

	      One tricky example is to set a different	default	 directory  on
	      the  remote  machine  for	 use  with the --relative option.  For

		  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of	 files
	      that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
	      similar algorithm to CVS	to  determine  if  a  file  should  be

	      The  exclude  list is initialized to exclude the following items
	      (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS   SCCS	  CVS	CVS.adm	  RCSLOG  cvslog.*  tags  TAGS
		     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old	 *.bak
		     *.BAK  *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/

	      then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to  the  list
	      and  any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
	      cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
	      .cvsignore  file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If  you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
	      note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
	      rules,  regardless  of  where  the -C was placed on the command-
	      line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified  explicitly.   If  you  want  to  control  where these CVS
	      excludes get inserted into your filter rules,  you  should  omit
	      the  -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --fil-
	      ter=:C and  --filter=-C  (either	on  your  command-line	or  by
	      putting  the  ":C"  and  "-C" rules into a filter file with your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
	      import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude  cer-
	      tain  files  from	 the  list of files to be transferred. This is
	      most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

	      You may use as many --filter options on the command line as  you
	      like  to	build  up the list of files to exclude.	 If the filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the  rule	 to  rsync  as a single argument.  The text below also
	      mentions that you can use an underscore  to  replace  the	 space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two  --filter  rules  to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This tells rsync to look for per-directory  .rsync-filter	 files
	      that  have  been	sprinkled  through the hierarchy and use their
	      rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F	 is  repeated,
	      it is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This  filters  out  the  .rsync-filter files themselves from the

	      See the FILTER RULES section for	detailed  information  on  how
	      these options work.

	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow  the  full	 rule-
	      parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns (one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	 and  lines  starting  with  `;'  or  `#'  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	include rule and does not allow the full rule-
	      parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

	      This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
	      a FILE that contains include patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	 lines	starting  with	`;' or `#' are
	      ignored.	If FILE is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard

	      Using  this option allows you to specify the exact list of files
	      to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or -	 for  standard
	      input).	It  also  tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
	      transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

	      o	     The --relative (-R) option is  implied,  which  preserves
		     the  path	information that is specified for each item in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The  --dirs  (-d)	option	is  implied, which will create
		     directories specified in  the  list  on  the  destination
		     rather  than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs or
		     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not	 imply
		     --recursive  (-r),	 so specify it explicitly, if you want

	      o	     These side-effects change the default state of rsync,  so
		     the  position  of the --files-from option on the command-
		     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	 works	the same before or after --files-from, as does
		     --no-R and all other options).

	      The filenames that are read from the FILE are  all  relative  to
	      the  source  dir	-- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
	      references are allowed to go higher than the  source  dir.   For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
	      /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the	remote
	      host.   If  it  contains	"bin/"	(note the trailing slash), the
	      immediate contents of the directory would also be sent  (without
	      needing  to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in
	      version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r	 option	 was  enabled,
	      that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
	      mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since  it	 is  not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
	      the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate  only
	      the  path	 info  that is read from the file -- it does not force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In addition, the --files-from file can be read from  the	remote
	      host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the transfer".  For example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
	      file that was located on the remote "src" host.

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
	      are terminated by a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
	      It  does	not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
	      .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

	      If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and  the
	      --files-from  filenames are being sent from one host to another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

       -s, --protect-args
	      This  option  sends all filenames and some options to the remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
	      means  that  spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard
	      special characters are not translated  (such  as	~,  $,	;,  &,
	      etc.).   Wildcards  are  expanded	 on  the  remote host by rsync
	      (instead of the shell doing it).

	      If you use this option with  --iconv,  the  args	will  also  be
	      translated  from	the  local  to	the remote character-set.  The
	      translation happens before wild-cards are	 expanded.   See  also
	      the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 The default behavior is to create each tempo-
	      rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination

	      This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
	      does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the  transfer.	 In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
	      directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
	      associated destination file,  but	 instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
	      destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.	 If this were not done
	      this way (even if the destination file were first	 removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied  to	 a  temporary  file in the destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough room to	 fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of  disk	space,	you  may  wish	to   combine   it   with   the
	      --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
	      ing  the	end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to
	      duplicate all the arriving files on the  destination  partition,
	      another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
	      disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will  use	 the  partial-dir  as a staging area to bring over the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
	      ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.	 The current algorithm
	      looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
	      larly-named file.	 If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
	      potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
	      machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination	 files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  sender's	 file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning	 in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause rsync to search	 the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
	      that differs only in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
	      a flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an
	      unchanged	 file.	If a match is not found, a basis file from one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	 files	to  be	linked
	      together.	 An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If  file's  aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
	      check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
	      control,	such  a	 mount	option	that squishes root to a single
	      user, or mounts a removable drive with generic  ownership	 (such
	      as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      This  option  works  best when copying into an empty destination
	      hierarchy, as rsync treats existing files as definitive  (so  it
	      never  looks  in	the  link-dest	dirs  when  a destination file
	      already exists), and  as	malleable  (so	it  might  change  the
	      attributes  of  a	 destination file, which affects all the hard-
	      linked versions).

	      Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,	 rsync
	      will not link any files together because it only links identical
	      files together as a substitute for transferring the file,	 never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that	 could
	      prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
	      when -o was specified (or implied by -a).	 You  can  work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which reduces	 the  amount  of  data
	      being  transmitted  -- something that is useful over a slow con-

	      Note that this  option  typically	 achieves  better  compression
	      ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
	      or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
	      implicit	information  in	 the matching data blocks that are not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

	      Explicitly  set  the  compression	 level to use (see --compress)
	      instead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero,  the	--com-
	      press option is implied.

	      Override	the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.
	      The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
	      separated by slashes (/).

	      You  may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
	      of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
	      (several of these are newly added for 3.0.0):


	      This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
	      but one situation: a copy from a	daemon	rsync  will  add  your
	      skipped  suffixes	 to its list of non-compressing files (and its
	      list may be configured to a different default).

	      With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group names and mapping them at both

	      By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to	deter-
	      mine  what  ownership  to	 give files. The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

	      If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
	      match on the destination system, then the numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments on the
	      "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
	      names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

	      This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
	      wait  for	 its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.	If the
	      timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
	      specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the	 options you may be able to set. By default no
	      special socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.	  If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
	      rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.	  (Note	 that ssh prefers non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are	 being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
	      receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11	letters	 long.
	      The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output if they are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

	      o	     A < means that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A	>  means that a file is being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A h means that the item is a hard link  to	 another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have attributes that are being modified).

	      o	     A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
	      directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S	for  a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
	      that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
	      being  updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
	      are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
	      (2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
	      unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
		     flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular

	      o	     A s means the size of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification time is different and is being
		     updated to the sender's  value  (requires	--times).   An
		     alternate	value  of  T  means that the modification time
		     will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
		     symlink is changed and the receiver can't set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A	p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
		     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The u slot is reserved for future use.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The x  means  that	 the  extended	attribute  information

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.   A default format	of  "%n%L"  is
	      assumed  if  -v is specified (which reports the name of the file
	      and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a  full  list
	      of  the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
	      in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying the --out-format option will mention each file,  dir,
	      etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file,
	      a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).   In	 addi-
	      tion,  if	 the  itemize-changes  escape  (%i) is included in the
	      string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the log-
	      ging  of	names increases to mention any item that is changed in
	      any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).   See
	      the  --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of

	      Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
	      fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
	      in which case the logging is done	 at  the  end  of  the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
	      also specified, rsync will also output  the  name	 of  the  file
	      being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
	      of course, by the out-format output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a	 file.
	      This  is	similar	 to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
	      requested for the client side and/or the server side of  a  non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as a client option, transfer log-
	      ging will be enabled with a default format of  "%i  %n%L".   See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's  a	 example  command that requests the remote side to log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug	why  a	connection  is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This  allows  you	 to specify exactly what per-update logging is
	      put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also  be	specified for this option to have any effect).	If you
	      specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
	      the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
	      option is not is '%i %n%L'.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-
	      transfer algorithm is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,

	      o	     Number  of files transferred is the count of normal files
		     that were updated via rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm,
		     which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o	     Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any size  for  directories
		     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to	the  receiver  for  it to recreate the
		     updated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test them to see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this option was specified once, these  units  are	 K  (1000),  M
	      (1000*1000),  and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
	      the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

	      By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	 interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which should
	      make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

	      A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to  specify  a  DIR  that	 will be used to hold the partial data
	      (instead of writing it out to the	 destination  file).   On  the
	      next  transfer,  rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
	      to speed up the resumption of the transfer and  then  delete  it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified (or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir file that is found for a file  that  is	being  updated
	      will  simply  be	removed	 (since rsync is sending files without
	      using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file's directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You  can	also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.	For  instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
	      you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to turn on the use of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file's	destination directory, but if you've specified
	      the --partial-dir option, that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with	--inplace  and

	      This  option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred) and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also that you should not use an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single directory if the path is abso-
	      lute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files	 using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note  that  the  use  of	transfer rules, such as the --min-size
	      option, does not affect what goes into the file list,  and  thus
	      does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
	      directory match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
	      affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
	      However, keep in mind that excluded files	 and  directories  can
	      prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
	      hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
	      perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of certain empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect emptydir/'

	      Here's an example that copies all .pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already specified.

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
	      of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

	      These  statistics	 can  be  misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
	      algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
	      of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%	 146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
	      total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      This option allows you to provide	 a  password  in  a  file  for
	      accessing an rsync daemon.  The file must not be world readable.
	      It should contain just the password as a single line.

	      This option does not supply a password to a remote shell	trans-
	      port  such  as  ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote
	      shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon  using  a
	      remote  shell  as	 the  transport,  this	option only comes into
	      effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication	 (i.e.
	      if  you  have  also  specified a password in the daemon's config

	      This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
	      transferred.   This  option  is  inferred	 if  there is a single
	      source arg and no destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
	      (1)  to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
	      a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify  more  than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion: keep in mind  that	a  source  arg	with  a	 wild-card  is
	      expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

	      Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing  of	 files
	      from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
	      an error if you  ask  for	 a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
	      because  a  file	listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recur-
	      sive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.   To  avoid  this
	      problem,	either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need
	      to expand a directory's  content),  or  turn  on	recursion  and
	      exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to specify a maximum transfer rate in
	      kilobytes per second. This option is most effective  when	 using
	      rsync  with  large  files (several megabytes and up). Due to the
	      nature of rsync transfers, blocks of  data  are  sent,  then  if
	      rsync  determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait before
	      sending the next data block. The result is an  average  transfer
	      rate  equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies no

	      Record a file that can later be  applied	to  another  identical
	      destination  with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
	      details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
	      destination  system  when	 creating  the	batch.	 This lets you
	      transport the changes to the destination system via  some	 other
	      means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note  that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
	      portable media: if this media fills to capacity before  the  end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
	      destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of  the
	      changes  (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destina-
	      tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote  system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data	 to be
	      diverted from the sender into the batch file without  having  to
	      flow  over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  gen-
	      erated  by  --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be
	      read from standard input.	 See  the  "BATCH  MODE"  section  for

	      Force  an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
	      creating a batch file that is compatible with an	older  version
	      of  rsync.   For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
	      --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be  used  to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating the batch file to force the older protocol  version  to
	      be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync can convert filenames between character  sets  using  this
	      option.	Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the
	      default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately,  you
	      can  fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
	      remote   charset	 separated   by	  a   comma   in   the	 order
	      --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,  e.g.   --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
	      ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're	 push-
	      ing   or	 pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify	either
	      --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any  conversion.
	      The  default  setting  of	 this option is site-specific, and can
	      also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For a list of what charset names your local iconv	 library  sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv --list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
	      late the filenames you specify  on  the  command-line  that  are
	      being  sent  to  the  remote  host.   See	 also the --files-from

	      Note that rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in	filter
	      files  (including	 include/exclude  files).   It is up to you to
	      ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can  match  on
	      both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
	      two sides that need to be accounted for.

	      When  you	 pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows
	      it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"  con-
	      figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
	      ally pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify  just  the	 local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

	      If rsync was compiled  without  support  for  IPv6,  the	--ipv6
	      option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
	      if this is the case.

	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.	 This 4 byte  checksum
	      seed  is	included  in each block and file checksum calculation.
	      By default the checksum seed is  generated  by  the  server  and
	      defaults	to  the current time() .  This option is used to set a
	      specific checksum seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
	      want  repeatable	block and file checksums, or in the case where
	      the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting  NUM	 to  0
	      causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

	      This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.	The daemon you
	      start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
	      being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
	      terminal	and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
	      the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon  with  the	 --daemon option.  The --address option allows
	      you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
	      This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
	      --config option.	See also the "address" global  option  in  the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to specify a maximum transfer rate in
	      kilobytes per second for the data the daemon sends.  The	client
	      can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value will be rounded down if they try to exceed	it.   See  the
	      client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

	      This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
	      is only relevant when --daemon is	 specified.   The  default  is
	      /etc/rsyncd.conf	unless	the  daemon  is	 running over a remote
	      shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
	      case  the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi-
	      cally $HOME).

	      When running as a daemon, this option  instructs	rsync  to  not
	      detach  itself  and become a background process.	This option is
	      required when running as a service on Cygwin, and	 may  also  be
	      useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
	      or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
	      mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
	      effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

	      This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
	      listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option tells the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
	      name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
	      string instead of using the "log format" setting in  the	config
	      file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
	      empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This overrides the socket options	 setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.	 After the client connects,  the  dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
	      ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
	      already  in  use" error when nothing else is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

	      If rsync was compiled  without  support  for  IPv6,  the	--ipv6
	      option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
	      if this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ-
	      ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans-
       fer (include) and which files to	 skip  (exclude).   The	 rules	either
       directly	 specify  include/exclude  patterns  or	 they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer  is	 built,	 rsync	checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no	 matching  pattern  is	found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either  short  or	long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.	 If you use a short-named rule, the `,' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from	 dele-
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of	rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or	 "+  "	(plus,
       space),	then  the  rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter	 option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the	FILTER	RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that  are	 going	to  be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
	      lar spot in the hierarchy of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is similar to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
	      the merge-file's	directory  (for	 a  per-directory  rule).   An
	      unqualified  "foo"  would	 match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
	      tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from  the  top
	      down;  it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being
	      the end of the filename.	Even the  unanchored  "sub/foo"	 would
	      match  at	 any  point  in	 the hierarchy where a "foo" was found
	      within a directory named "sub".  See the	section	 on  ANCHORING
	      INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
	      a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only  match  a	direc-
	      tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
	      matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these	 three
	      wildcard characters: `*', `?', and `[' .

       o      a `*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a `?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a	  `['	introduces   a	character  class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
	      card  character,	but  it is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)	 or  a
	      "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
	      filename.	 (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
	      so  "full	 filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from
	      the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory  (as  if
	      "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
	      (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This	 behavior  was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync	 finds	the  files  to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can ren-
       der a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not  descend
       through	that  excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particularly
       important when using a trailing `*' rule.   For	instance,  this	 won't

	      + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      + /file-is-included
	      - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the `*'
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule:  "+	 */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.	 For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

	      + /some/
	      + /some/path/
	      + /some/path/this-file-is-found
	      + /file-also-included
	      - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named  foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"	would  exclude	any file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
	      directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination	of  "+	foo/",	"+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
	      include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A	 /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/  /etc/passwd"	 would	exclude	 the  passwd file any time the
	      transfer was sending files from the "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
	      subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
	      "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude	 rules
	      should  be  inserted  as	excludes in place of the "-C".	No arg
	      should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies  to  the  sending
	      side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
	      from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to	affect
	      both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default rules become sender-side only.  See also	the  hide  (H)
	      and  show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the  receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the  protect  (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is  perishable,	 meaning  that	it  is
	      ignored  in  directories	that are being deleted.	 For instance,
	      the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that was removed on the source from being deleted on the	desti-

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of merged files -- single-instance (`.') and per-
       directory (`:').	 A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan  every  directory
       that  it	 traverses  for	 the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory  rule  files must be created on the sending side because it is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side
       if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      . /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	 - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 C  is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
	      compatible manner.  This turns on `n', `w', and  '-',  but  also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-

       o      A w specifies  that  the	rules  are  word-split	on  whitespace
	      instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
	      ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
	      is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
	      rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
	      the file default to having that  modifier	 set.	For  instance,
	      "merge,-/	 .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-
	      path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and  ":sC"  would  each
	      make  all	 their	per-directory  rules apply only on the sending

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of  the	direc-
       tory  where  the merge-file was found unless the `n' modifier was used.
       Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the  inherited	 per-directory
       rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority
       than the inherited rules.   The	entire	set  of	 dir-merge  rules  are
       grouped	together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it
       is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that	got  specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inherited	 rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another	way  to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.	Anchored  rules	 in  a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which	 you'd specify via --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      - *.gz
	      dir-merge .rules
	      + *.[ch]
	      - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the	start  of  the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent dirs from that starting point to the	 transfer  directory  for  the
       indicated  per-directory	 file.	 For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories  from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer
       prior to the start of the normal directory scan	of  the	 file  in  the
       directories  that  are  sent  as a part of the transfer.	 (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"	before	the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	 the  file  in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids  the  par-
       ent-dir	scan  and  only	 looks	for  the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you  should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsig-
       nore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this  to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)	option's inclusion of the per-
       directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules  by  putting  the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all  your
       other  rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules).
       For example:

	      cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      + foo.o
	      - *.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.	Each  one  will	 merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the	 :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIG-
       NORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead  insert  a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You  can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).	The  "current"
       list  is	 either	 the  global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options)  or  a	 set  of  per-directory	 rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's	 directory).   If  you	think  of  the
       transfer	 as  a	subtree	 of  names  that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to	be  duplicated
       in  the	destination  directory.	 This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to  the	 transfer-root,	 changing  the
       trailing	 slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching	 (in  addition
       to  changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note missing "me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note missing "you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant  on  the
       sending	side,  so  you	can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
       selves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the `e' mod-
       ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-

	      rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
	      rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to	be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure
       that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include	the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the sending side before it tries to delete

	      rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory	 merge
       files  on  the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they	were  specified	 after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one	final  example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they	 don't
       get  deleted)  and  then put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identi-
       cal  systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and
       those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do
       this using batch mode, rsync is run  with  the  write-batch  option  to
       apply  the  changes  made  to the source tree to one of the destination
       trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store	 in  a
       "batch  file"  all  the	information  needed  to	 repeat this operation
       against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multi-
       ple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols  can  be  used  to
       transfer	 the  batch  update  files  in parallel to many hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination  tree,  run	 rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience,	a  script file is also created when the write-
       batch option is used:  it will be named the same as the batch file with
       ".sh"  appended.	 This script file contains a command-line suitable for
       updating a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can  be
       executed	 using	a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in
       an alternate destination tree pathname which is then  used  instead  of
       the  original  destination  path.   This is useful when the destination
       tree path on the current host differs from the one used to  create  the
       batch file.


	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ scp foo* remote:
	      $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,	rsync  is  used	 to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local  --	 you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
	      either the  remote-shell	syntax	or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as

       o      The  first  example  uses	 the  created "foo.sh" file to get the
	      right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
	      remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
	      that the batch file doesn't need to  be  copied  to  the	remote
	      machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
	      needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
	      the  script  file	 if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
	      that no other option is trying to use standard  input,  such  as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was	 used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or	the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the  update  discarded
       with  an	 error.	  This	means that it should be safe to re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.	If you wish  to	 force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading  the  batch).	 If  an	 error
       occurs,	the  destination  tree will probably be in a partially updated
       state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch)  mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.	 Rsync will die with an	 error
       if  the	protocol  version  in the batch file is too new for the batch-
       reading rsync to handle.	 See also the --protocol option for a  way  to
       have  the  creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When  reading  a	 batch	file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set  them  to
       the  same as the batch-writing command.	Other options can (and should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from  is	 dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The  code  that	creates	 the  BATCH.sh	file   transforms   any	  fil-
       ter/include/exclude  options  into  a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An  advanced	user  can  use
       this  to	 modify	 the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred	 at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync  also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An exam-
       ple where this might be used is a web site mirror  that	wishes	ensure
       the  rsync  module  they	 copy  does  not  include  symbolic  links  to
       /etc/passwd   in	  the	public	 section   of	the    site.	 Using
       --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they
       point to on the destination.   Using  --safe-links  will	 cause	unsafe
       links  to  be  omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe  if	 they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty, or if they contain enough ".."	 components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe sym-

	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe  sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryp-
       tic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is  "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is	 using
       for  its	 transport.  The  way  to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly	 then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains	some  text  or
       data.  Look  at	the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or .profile) that contain output statements for non-
       interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the	 -vv  option.	At this level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu-
	      late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
	      option was specified that is supported by the client and not  by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      Specify  a  default --iconv setting using this environment vari-

	      The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to	 override  the
	      default  shell  used  as	the transport for rsync.  Command line
	      options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required password allows you to
	      run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync  daemon  without
	      user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
	      a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to  do	 that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The  USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
	      the default username sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
	      set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

       This man page is current for version 3.0.6 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed	 by  a	user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an	 exam-
       ple  script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file	 COPY-
       ING for details.

       A  WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover  questions  unanswered  by  this	manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We  would  be  delighted	 to  hear  from	 you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Especial	 thanks	 go  out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,	 Martin	 Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync  was  originally  written	by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.  It is	 currently  maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing	 lists	 for   support	 and   development  are	 available  at

				  8 May 2009			      rsync(1)