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SAR(1)			      Linux User's Manual			SAR(1)



NAME
       sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.

SYNOPSIS
       sar  [ -A ] [ -b ] [ -B ] [ -C ] [ -d ] [ -h ] [ -H ] [ -i interval ] [
       -p ] [ -q ] [ -r ] [ -R ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u [ ALL ] ] [ -v ] [ -V ]  [
       -w  ]  [	 -W  ]	[  -y ] [ -m { keyword [,...] | ALL } ] [ -n { keyword
       [,...] | ALL } ] [ -I { int [,...] | SUM | ALL | XALL } ] [  -P	{  cpu
       [,...]  | ALL } ] [ -o [ filename ] | -f [ filename ] ] [ -s [ hh:mm:ss
       ] ] [ -e [ hh:mm:ss ] ] [ interval [ count ] ]

DESCRIPTION
       The sar command writes to standard  output  the	contents  of  selected
       cumulative  activity  counters  in the operating system. The accounting
       system, based on the values  in	the  count  and	 interval  parameters,
       writes  information  the specified number of times spaced at the speci-
       fied intervals in seconds.  If the interval parameter is set  to	 zero,
       the  sar command displays the average statistics for the time since the
       system was started. If the interval parameter is specified without  the
       count  parameter,  then	reports	 are generated continuously.  The col-
       lected data can also be saved in the file specified by the -o  filename
       flag,  in  addition  to being displayed onto the screen. If filename is
       omitted, sar uses the standard system activity  daily  data  file,  the
       /var/log/sysstat/sadd  file,  where the dd parameter indicates the cur-
       rent day.  By default all the data available from the kernel are	 saved
       in the data file.

       The  sar	 command extracts and writes to standard output records previ-
       ously saved in a file. This file can be either the one specified by the
       -f flag or, by default, the standard system activity daily data file.

       Without	the -P flag, the sar command reports system-wide (global among
       all processors) statistics, which are calculated as averages for values
       expressed  as  percentages,  and	 as  sums otherwise. If the -P flag is
       given, the sar command reports activity which relates to the  specified
       processor  or  processors.  If -P ALL is given, the sar command reports
       statistics for each individual processor and  global  statistics	 among
       all processors.

       You  can	 select	 information  about  specific  system activities using
       flags. Not specifying any flags selects only CPU activity.   Specifying
       the -A flag selects all possible activities.

       The  default  version of the sar command (CPU utilization report) might
       be one of the first facilities the user runs to begin  system  activity
       investigation,  because it monitors major system resources. If CPU uti-
       lization is near 100 percent (user + nice + system), the workload  sam-
       pled is CPU-bound.

       If  multiple samples and multiple reports are desired, it is convenient
       to specify an output file for the sar command.  Run the sar command  as
       a background process. The syntax for this is:

       sar -o datafile interval count >/dev/null 2>&1 &

       All  data  are  captured in binary form and saved to a file (datafile).
       The data can then be selectively displayed with the sar	command	 using
       the  -f	option.	 Set the interval and count parameters to select count
       records at interval second intervals. If the  count  parameter  is  not
       set, all the records saved in the file will be selected.	 Collection of
       data in this manner is useful  to  characterize	system	usage  over  a
       period of time and determine peak usage hours.

       Note:	 The sar command only reports on local activities.


OPTIONS
       -A     This  is	equivalent to specifying -bBdHqrRSuvwWy -I SUM -I XALL
	      -m ALL -n ALL -u ALL -P ALL.

       -b     Report I/O and transfer rate statistics.	The  following	values
	      are displayed:

	      tps
		     Total  number of transfers per second that were issued to
		     physical devices.	A transfer is  an  I/O	request	 to  a
		     physical  device.	Multiple  logical requests can be com-
		     bined into a single I/O request to the device.  A	trans-
		     fer is of indeterminate size.

	      rtps
		     Total number of read requests per second issued to physi-
		     cal devices.

	      wtps
		     Total number of write requests per second issued to phys-
		     ical devices.

	      bread/s
		     Total  amount of data read from the devices in blocks per
		     second.  Blocks are equivalent to sectors	and  therefore
		     have a size of 512 bytes.

	      bwrtn/s
		     Total  amount  of	data  written to devices in blocks per
		     second.

       -B     Report paging statistics.	 The following values are displayed:

	      pgpgin/s
		     Total number of kilobytes the system paged in  from  disk
		     per second.

	      pgpgout/s
		     Total  number  of	kilobytes the system paged out to disk
		     per second.

	      fault/s
		     Number of page faults (major + minor) made by the	system
		     per second.  This is not a count of page faults that gen-
		     erate I/O, because some page faults can be resolved with-
		     out I/O.

	      majflt/s
		     Number  of	 major	faults the system has made per second,
		     those which have required	loading	 a  memory  page  from
		     disk.

	      pgfree/s
		     Number of pages placed on the free list by the system per
		     second.

	      pgscank/s
		     Number of pages scanned by the kswapd daemon per  second.

	      pgscand/s
		     Number of pages scanned directly per second.

	      pgsteal/s
		     Number  of	 pages	the  system  has  reclaimed from cache
		     (pagecache and swapcache) per second to satisfy its  mem-
		     ory demands.

	      %vmeff
		     Calculated	 as  pgsteal / pgscan, this is a metric of the
		     efficiency of page reclaim.  If  it  is  near  100%  then
		     almost  every  page  coming  off the tail of the inactive
		     list is being reaped. If it gets too low (e.g. less  than
		     30%)  then	 the virtual memory is having some difficulty.
		     This field is displayed as zero if	 no  pages  have  been
		     scanned during the interval of time.

       -C     When reading data from a file, tell sar to display comments that
	      have been inserted by sadc.

       -d     Report activity for each block device.  When data are displayed,
	      the  device  specification  dev m-n is generally used ( DEV col-
	      umn).  m is the major number of the device and n its minor  num-
	      ber.   Device  names  may also be pretty-printed if option -p is
	      used (see below).	 Note  that  disk  activity  depends  on  sadc
	      options  "-S DISK" and "-S XDISK" to be collected. The following
	      values are displayed:

	      tps
		     Indicate the number of transfers  per  second  that  were
		     issued  to	 the device.  Multiple logical requests can be
		     combined into a single  I/O  request  to  the  device.  A
		     transfer is of indeterminate size.

	      rd_sec/s
		     Number  of	 sectors  read	from the device. The size of a
		     sector is 512 bytes.

	      wr_sec/s
		     Number of sectors written to the device. The  size	 of  a
		     sector is 512 bytes.

	      avgrq-sz
		     The  average  size (in sectors) of the requests that were
		     issued to the device.

	      avgqu-sz
		     The average queue length of the requests that were issued
		     to the device.

	      await
		     The  average  time	 (in  milliseconds)  for  I/O requests
		     issued to the device to be served. This includes the time
		     spent by the requests in queue and the time spent servic-
		     ing them.

	      svctm
		     The  average  service  time  (in  milliseconds)  for  I/O
		     requests  that were issued to the device. Warning! Do not
		     trust this field any more. This field will be removed  in
		     a future sysstat version.

	      %util
		     Percentage	 of  CPU  time	during which I/O requests were
		     issued to	the  device  (bandwidth	 utilization  for  the
		     device).  Device  saturation  occurs  when	 this value is
		     close to 100%.

       -e [ hh:mm:ss ]
	      Set the ending time of the report. The default  ending  time  is
	      18:00:00.	 Hours	must  be given in 24-hour format.  This option
	      can be used when data  are  read	from  or  written  to  a  file
	      (options -f or -o ).

       -f [ filename ]
	      Extract records from filename (created by the -o filename flag).
	      The default value of the filename parameter is the current daily
	      data  file,  the	/var/log/sysstat/sadd  file.  The -f option is
	      exclusive of the -o option.

       -h     Display a short help message then exit.

       -H     Report hugepages utilization statistics.	The  following	values
	      are displayed:

	      kbhugfree
		     Amount  of	 hugepages memory in kilobytes that is not yet
		     allocated.

	      kbhugused
		     Amount of hugepages memory in  kilobytes  that  has  been
		     allocated.

	      %hugused
		     Percentage	 of total hugepages memory that has been allo-
		     cated.

       -i interval
	      Select data records at seconds as close as possible to the  num-
	      ber specified by the interval parameter.

       -I { int [,...] | SUM | ALL | XALL }
	      Report  statistics  for a given interrupt.  int is the interrupt
	      number. Specifying multiple -I int  parameters  on  the  command
	      line will look at multiple independent interrupts.  The SUM key-
	      word indicates that the total number of interrupts received  per
	      second  is  to  be  displayed.  The  ALL	keyword indicates that
	      statistics from the first 16  interrupts	are  to	 be  reported,
	      whereas  the  XALL  keyword  indicates  that statistics from all
	      interrupts, including potential APIC interrupt sources,  are  to
	      be  reported.   Note  that  interrupt  statistics depend on sadc
	      option "-S INT" to be collected.

       -m { keyword [,...] | ALL }
	      Report power management statistics.  Note that these  statistics
	      depend on sadc option "-S POWER" to be collected.

	      Possible keywords are CPU, FAN, FREQ, IN, TEMP and USB.

	      With  the	 CPU  keyword, statistics about CPU are reported.  The
	      following value is displayed:

	      MHz
		     Instantaneous CPU clock frequency in MHz.

	      With the FAN keyword, statistics about fans speed are  reported.
	      The following values are displayed:

	      rpm
		     Fan speed expressed in revolutions per minute.

	      drpm
		     This  field  is calculated as the difference between cur-
		     rent fan speed (rpm) and its low limit (fan_min).

	      DEVICE
		     Sensor device name.

	      With the FREQ keyword, statistics about CPU clock frequency  are
	      reported.	 The following value is displayed:

	      wghMHz
		     Weighted  average	CPU clock frequency in MHz.  Note that
		     the cpufreq-stats driver must be compiled in  the	kernel
		     for this option to work.

	      With  the	 IN  keyword,  statistics  about  voltage  inputs  are
	      reported.	 The following values are displayed:

	      inV
		     Voltage input expressed in Volts.

	      %in
		     Relative input value. A value of 100% means that  voltage
		     input has reached its high limit (in_max) whereas a value
		     of 0% means that it has reached its low limit (in_min).

	      DEVICE
		     Sensor device name.

	      With the TEMP keyword, statistics about devices temperature  are
	      reported.	 The following values are displayed:

	      degC
		     Device temperature expressed in degrees Celsius.

	      %temp
		     Relative  device  temperature. A value of 100% means that
		     temperature has reached its high limit (temp_max).

	      DEVICE
		     Sensor device name.

	      With the USB keyword, the sar command takes a  snapshot  of  all
	      the USB devices currently plugged into the system. At the end of
	      the report, sar will display a summary of all those USB devices.
	      The following values are displayed:

	      BUS
		     Root hub number of the USB device.

	      idvendor
		     Vendor ID number (assigned by USB organization).

	      idprod
		     Product ID number (assigned by Manufacturer).

	      maxpower
		     Maximum  power  consumption  of  the device (expressed in
		     mA).

	      manufact
		     Manufacturer name.

	      product
		     Product name.

       -n { keyword [,...] | ALL }
	      Report network statistics.

	      Possible keywords are DEV, EDEV, NFS, NFSD, SOCK, IP, EIP, ICMP,
	      EICMP, TCP, ETCP, UDP, SOCK6, IP6, EIP6, ICMP6, EICMP6 and UDP6.

	      With the DEV keyword, statistics from the	 network  devices  are
	      reported.	 The following values are displayed:

	      IFACE
		     Name  of  the  network interface for which statistics are
		     reported.

	      rxpck/s
		     Total number of packets received per second.

	      txpck/s
		     Total number of packets transmitted per second.

	      rxkB/s
		     Total number of kilobytes received per second.

	      txkB/s
		     Total number of kilobytes transmitted per second.

	      rxcmp/s
		     Number of compressed packets  received  per  second  (for
		     cslip etc.).

	      txcmp/s
		     Number of compressed packets transmitted per second.

	      rxmcst/s
		     Number of multicast packets received per second.

	      With  the EDEV keyword, statistics on failures (errors) from the
	      network devices are reported.  The  following  values  are  dis-
	      played:

	      IFACE
		     Name  of  the  network interface for which statistics are
		     reported.

	      rxerr/s
		     Total number of bad packets received per second.

	      txerr/s
		     Total number of errors that  happened  per	 second	 while
		     transmitting packets.

	      coll/s
		     Number  of	 collisions  that  happened  per  second while
		     transmitting packets.

	      rxdrop/s
		     Number of received packets dropped per second because  of
		     a lack of space in linux buffers.

	      txdrop/s
		     Number  of transmitted packets dropped per second because
		     of a lack of space in linux buffers.

	      txcarr/s
		     Number of carrier-errors that happened per	 second	 while
		     transmitting packets.

	      rxfram/s
		     Number of frame alignment errors that happened per second
		     on received packets.

	      rxfifo/s
		     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on
		     received packets.

	      txfifo/s
		     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on
		     transmitted packets.

	      With the NFS keyword, statistics about NFS client	 activity  are
	      reported.	 The following values are displayed:

	      call/s
		     Number of RPC requests made per second.

	      retrans/s
		     Number  of RPC requests per second, those which needed to
		     be retransmitted (for example because of a	 server	 time-
		     out).

	      read/s
		     Number of 'read' RPC calls made per second.

	      write/s
		     Number of 'write' RPC calls made per second.

	      access/s
		     Number of 'access' RPC calls made per second.

	      getatt/s
		     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls made per second.

	      With  the NFSD keyword, statistics about NFS server activity are
	      reported.	 The following values are displayed:

	      scall/s
		     Number of RPC requests received per second.

	      badcall/s
		     Number of bad RPC requests	 received  per	second,	 those
		     whose processing generated an error.

	      packet/s
		     Number of network packets received per second.

	      udp/s
		     Number of UDP packets received per second.

	      tcp/s
		     Number of TCP packets received per second.

	      hit/s
		     Number of reply cache hits per second.

	      miss/s
		     Number of reply cache misses per second.

	      sread/s
		     Number of 'read' RPC calls received per second.

	      swrite/s
		     Number of 'write' RPC calls received per second.

	      saccess/s
		     Number of 'access' RPC calls received per second.

	      sgetatt/s
		     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls received per second.

	      With the SOCK keyword, statistics on sockets in use are reported
	      (IPv4).  The following values are displayed:

	      totsck
		     Total number of sockets used by the system.

	      tcpsck
		     Number of TCP sockets currently in use.

	      udpsck
		     Number of UDP sockets currently in use.

	      rawsck
		     Number of RAW sockets currently in use.

	      ip-frag
		     Number of IP fragments currently in queue.

	      tcp-tw
		     Number of TCP sockets in TIME_WAIT state.

	      With the IP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network  traffic  are
	      reported.	  Note	that IPv4 statistics depend on sadc option "-S
	      SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
	      mal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      irec/s
		     The  total number of input datagrams received from inter-
		     faces per	second,	 including  those  received  in	 error
		     [ipInReceives].

	      fwddgm/s
		     The  number of input datagrams per second, for which this
		     entity was not their final IP destination, as a result of
		     which an attempt was made to find a route to forward them
		     to that final destination [ipForwDatagrams].

	      idel/s
		     The total number of input datagrams  successfully	deliv-
		     ered  per	second	to  IP user-protocols (including ICMP)
		     [ipInDelivers].

	      orq/s
		     The total number of IP datagrams which local IP user-pro-
		     tocols  (including	 ICMP)	supplied  per  second to IP in
		     requests for  transmission	 [ipOutRequests].   Note  that
		     this  counter  does  not include any datagrams counted in
		     fwddgm/s.

	      asmrq/s
		     The number of IP  fragments  received  per	 second	 which
		     needed to be reassembled at this entity [ipReasmReqds].

	      asmok/s
		     The  number of IP datagrams successfully re-assembled per
		     second [ipReasmOKs].

	      fragok/s
		     The number of IP datagrams that  have  been  successfully
		     fragmented at this entity per second [ipFragOKs].

	      fragcrt/s
		     The number of IP datagram fragments that have been gener-
		     ated per second as a  result  of  fragmentation  at  this
		     entity [ipFragCreates].

	      With  the	 EIP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network errors are
	      reported.	 Note that IPv4 statistics depend on sadc  option  "-S
	      SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
	      mal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ihdrerr/s
		     The number of input datagrams discarded per second due to
		     errors in their IP headers, including bad checksums, ver-
		     sion number mismatch, other format	 errors,  time-to-live
		     exceeded,	 errors	 discovered  in	 processing  their  IP
		     options, etc. [ipInHdrErrors]

	      iadrerr/s
		     The  number  of  input  datagrams	discarded  per	second
		     because  the  IP address in their IP header's destination
		     field was not a valid address  to	be  received  at  this
		     entity.  This  count  includes  invalid  addresses (e.g.,
		     0.0.0.0) and  addresses  of  unsupported  Classes	(e.g.,
		     Class  E).	 For  entities	which  are  not IP routers and
		     therefore do not forward datagrams, this counter includes
		     datagrams	discarded  because the destination address was
		     not a local address [ipInAddrErrors].

	      iukwnpr/s
		     The number of locally-addressed datagrams	received  suc-
		     cessfully	but discarded per second because of an unknown
		     or unsupported protocol [ipInUnknownProtos].

	      idisc/s
		     The number of input IP datagrams per second for which  no
		     problems were encountered to prevent their continued pro-
		     cessing, but which were  discarded	 (e.g.,	 for  lack  of
		     buffer  space)  [ipInDiscards].   Note  that this counter
		     does not include any datagrams discarded  while  awaiting
		     re-assembly.

	      odisc/s
		     The number of output IP datagrams per second for which no
		     problem was encountered to prevent their transmission  to
		     their  destination,  but  which were discarded (e.g., for
		     lack of buffer space) [ipOutDiscards].   Note  that  this
		     counter  would  include  datagrams counted in fwddgm/s if
		     any such packets met this (discretionary) discard	crite-
		     rion.

	      onort/s
		     The  number  of IP datagrams discarded per second because
		     no route could be found to transmit them to their	desti-
		     nation  [ipOutNoRoutes].  Note that this counter includes
		     any  packets  counted  in	fwddgm/s   which   meet	  this
		     'no-route'	 criterion.  Note that this includes any data-
		     grams which a  host  cannot  route	 because  all  of  its
		     default routers are down.

	      asmf/s
		     The  number  of  failures	detected  per second by the IP
		     re-assembly algorithm (for whatever  reason:  timed  out,
		     errors,  etc) [ipReasmFails].  Note that this is not nec-
		     essarily a count of discarded  IP	fragments  since  some
		     algorithms	 can  lose track of the number of fragments by
		     combining them as they are received.

	      fragf/s
		     The number of IP datagrams that have been	discarded  per
		     second  because  they  needed  to	be  fragmented at this
		     entity but could not be, e.g., because their Don't	 Frag-
		     ment flag was set [ipFragFails].

	      With  the	 ICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 network traffic
	      are reported.  Note that ICMPv4 statistics depend on sadc option
	      "-S  SNMP"  to be collected.  The following values are displayed
	      (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      imsg/s
		     The total	number	of  ICMP  messages  which  the	entity
		     received per second [icmpInMsgs].	Note that this counter
		     includes all those counted by ierr/s.

	      omsg/s
		     The total number  of  ICMP	 messages  which  this	entity
		     attempted	to  send  per second [icmpOutMsgs].  Note that
		     this counter includes all those counted by oerr/s.

	      iech/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages	 received  per
		     second [icmpInEchos].

	      iechr/s
		     The  number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received per sec-
		     ond [icmpInEchoReps].

	      oech/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent per  sec-
		     ond [icmpOutEchos].

	      oechr/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Echo Reply messages sent per second
		     [icmpOutEchoReps].

	      itm/s
		     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages  received
		     per second [icmpInTimestamps].

	      itmr/s
		     The  number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages received per
		     second [icmpInTimestampReps].

	      otm/s
		     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages sent  per
		     second [icmpOutTimestamps].

	      otmr/s
		     The number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages sent per sec-
		     ond [icmpOutTimestampReps].

	      iadrmk/s
		     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages received
		     per second [icmpInAddrMasks].

	      iadrmkr/s
		     The  number  of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages received
		     per second [icmpInAddrMaskReps].

	      oadrmk/s
		     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages sent per
		     second [icmpOutAddrMasks].

	      oadrmkr/s
		     The  number  of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages sent per
		     second [icmpOutAddrMaskReps].

	      With the EICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4  error  messages
	      are reported.  Note that ICMPv4 statistics depend on sadc option
	      "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following values	are  displayed
	      (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ierr/s
		     The  number  of ICMP messages per second which the entity
		     received but determined as	 having	 ICMP-specific	errors
		     (bad ICMP checksums, bad length, etc.) [icmpInErrors].

	      oerr/s
		     The  number of ICMP messages per second which this entity
		     did not send due to problems discovered within ICMP  such
		     as a lack of buffers [icmpOutErrors].

	      idstunr/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP  Destination	 Unreachable  messages
		     received per second [icmpInDestUnreachs].

	      odstunr/s
		     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages  sent
		     per second [icmpOutDestUnreachs].

	      itmex/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Time Exceeded messages received per
		     second [icmpInTimeExcds].

	      otmex/s
		     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent per second
		     [icmpOutTimeExcds].

	      iparmpb/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Parameter Problem messages received
		     per second [icmpInParmProbs].

	      oparmpb/s
		     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem  messages  sent  per
		     second [icmpOutParmProbs].

	      isrcq/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Source Quench messages received per
		     second [icmpInSrcQuenchs].

	      osrcq/s
		     The number of ICMP Source Quench messages sent per second
		     [icmpOutSrcQuenchs].

	      iredir/s
		     The  number of ICMP Redirect messages received per second
		     [icmpInRedirects].

	      oredir/s
		     The number of ICMP	 Redirect  messages  sent  per	second
		     [icmpOutRedirects].

	      With the TCP keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network traffic are
	      reported.	 Note that TCPv4 statistics depend on sadc option  "-S
	      SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
	      mal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      active/s
		     The number of times TCP connections have  made  a	direct
		     transition	 to  the  SYN-SENT state from the CLOSED state
		     per second [tcpActiveOpens].

	      passive/s
		     The number of times TCP connections have  made  a	direct
		     transition	 to  the  SYN-RCVD state from the LISTEN state
		     per second [tcpPassiveOpens].

	      iseg/s
		     The total number of segments received per second, includ-
		     ing  those	 received  in  error  [tcpInSegs].  This count
		     includes segments received on currently established  con-
		     nections.

	      oseg/s
		     The  total	 number of segments sent per second, including
		     those on current connections but excluding those contain-
		     ing only retransmitted octets [tcpOutSegs].

	      With the ETCP keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network errors are
	      reported.	 Note that TCPv4 statistics depend on sadc option  "-S
	      SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
	      mal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      atmptf/s
		     The number of times per second TCP connections have  made
		     a	direct	transition to the CLOSED state from either the
		     SYN-SENT state or the SYN-RCVD state, plus the number  of
		     times per second TCP connections have made a direct tran-
		     sition to	the  LISTEN  state  from  the  SYN-RCVD	 state
		     [tcpAttemptFails].

	      estres/s
		     The  number of times per second TCP connections have made
		     a direct transition to the CLOSED state from  either  the
		     ESTABLISHED  state	 or  the CLOSE-WAIT state [tcpEstabRe-
		     sets].

	      retrans/s
		     The total number of segments retransmitted per  second  -
		     that  is, the number of TCP segments transmitted contain-
		     ing one or more  previously  transmitted  octets  [tcpRe-
		     transSegs].

	      isegerr/s
		     The total number of segments received in error (e.g., bad
		     TCP checksums) per second [tcpInErrs].

	      orsts/s
		     The number of TCP segments sent per second containing the
		     RST flag [tcpOutRsts].

	      With the UDP keyword, statistics about UDPv4 network traffic are
	      reported.	 Note that UDPv4 statistics depend on sadc option  "-S
	      SNMP" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
	      mal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      idgm/s
		     The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per second to
		     UDP users [udpInDatagrams].

	      odgm/s
		     The  total	 number	 of UDP datagrams sent per second from
		     this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

	      noport/s
		     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for
		     which  there  was	no application at the destination port
		     [udpNoPorts].

	      idgmerr/s
		     The number of received  UDP  datagrams  per  second  that
		     could not be delivered for reasons other than the lack of
		     an application at the destination port [udpInErrors].

	      With the	SOCK6  keyword,	 statistics  on	 sockets  in  use  are
	      reported	(IPv6).	  Note	that  IPv6  statistics	depend on sadc
	      option "-S IPV6" to be collected.	 The following values are dis-
	      played:

	      tcp6sck
		     Number of TCPv6 sockets currently in use.

	      udp6sck
		     Number of UDPv6 sockets currently in use.

	      raw6sck
		     Number of RAWv6 sockets currently in use.

	      ip6-frag
		     Number of IPv6 fragments currently in use.

	      With  the IP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network traffic are
	      reported.	 Note that IPv6 statistics depend on sadc  option  "-S
	      IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
	      mal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      irec6/s
		     The total number of input datagrams received from	inter-
		     faces  per	 second,  including  those  received  in error
		     [ipv6IfStatsInReceives].

	      fwddgm6/s
		     The number of output  datagrams  per  second  which  this
		     entity received and forwarded to their final destinations
		     [ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams].

	      idel6/s
		     The total number of datagrams successfully delivered  per
		     second  to IPv6 user-protocols (including ICMP) [ipv6IfS-
		     tatsInDelivers].

	      orq6/s
		     The total number  of  IPv6	 datagrams  which  local  IPv6
		     user-protocols  (including	 ICMP)	supplied per second to
		     IPv6  in  requests	 for  transmission  [ipv6IfStatsOutRe-
		     quests].	Note  that  this  counter does not include any
		     datagrams counted in fwddgm6/s.

	      asmrq6/s
		     The number of IPv6 fragments received  per	 second	 which
		     needed  to	 be reassembled at this interface [ipv6IfStat-
		     sReasmReqds].

	      asmok6/s
		     The number of IPv6 datagrams successfully reassembled per
		     second [ipv6IfStatsReasmOKs].

	      imcpck6/s
		     The  number  of  multicast packets received per second by
		     the interface [ipv6IfStatsInMcastPkts].

	      omcpck6/s
		     The number of multicast packets transmitted per second by
		     the interface [ipv6IfStatsOutMcastPkts].

	      fragok6/s
		     The  number of IPv6 datagrams that have been successfully
		     fragmented at this output interface per second  [ipv6IfS-
		     tatsOutFragOKs].

	      fragcr6/s
		     The  number  of  output datagram fragments that have been
		     generated per second as a result of fragmentation at this
		     output interface [ipv6IfStatsOutFragCreates].

	      With  the EIP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network errors are
	      reported.	 Note that IPv6 statistics depend on sadc  option  "-S
	      IPV6" to be collected.  The following values are displayed (for-
	      mal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ihdrer6/s
		     The number of input datagrams discarded per second due to
		     errors  in	 their	IPv6 headers, including version number
		     mismatch, other format errors, hop count exceeded, errors
		     discovered	  in   processing  their  IPv6	options,  etc.
		     [ipv6IfStatsInHdrErrors]

	      iadrer6/s
		     The  number  of  input  datagrams	discarded  per	second
		     because  the IPv6 address in their IPv6 header's destina-
		     tion field was not a valid address to be received at this
		     entity. This count includes invalid addresses (e.g., ::0)
		     and unsupported addresses (e.g., addresses	 with  unallo-
		     cated  prefixes). For entities which are not IPv6 routers
		     and therefore do  not  forward  datagrams,	 this  counter
		     includes  datagrams  discarded  because  the  destination
		     address  was  not	a  local  address  [ipv6IfStatsInAddr-
		     Errors].

	      iukwnp6/s
		     The  number  of locally-addressed datagrams received suc-
		     cessfully but discarded per second because of an  unknown
		     or unsupported protocol [ipv6IfStatsInUnknownProtos].

	      i2big6/s
		     The number of input datagrams that could not be forwarded
		     per second because their size exceeded the	 link  MTU  of
		     outgoing interface [ipv6IfStatsInTooBigErrors].

	      idisc6/s
		     The  number  of input IPv6 datagrams per second for which
		     no problems were encountered to prevent  their  continued
		     processing,  but  which were discarded (e.g., for lack of
		     buffer space)  [ipv6IfStatsInDiscards].  Note  that  this
		     counter  does  not	 include any datagrams discarded while
		     awaiting re-assembly.

	      odisc6/s
		     The number of output IPv6 datagrams per second for	 which
		     no	 problem was encountered to prevent their transmission
		     to their destination, but which were discarded (e.g., for
		     lack of buffer space) [ipv6IfStatsOutDiscards]. Note that
		     this counter would include datagrams counted in fwddgm6/s
		     if any such packets met this (discretionary) discard cri-
		     terion.

	      inort6/s
		     The  number  of  input  datagrams	discarded  per	second
		     because no route could be found to transmit them to their
		     destination [ipv6IfStatsInNoRoutes].

	      onort6/s
		     The number of locally generated  IP  datagrams  discarded
		     per  second  because  no route could be found to transmit
		     them to their destination [unknown formal SNMP name].

	      asmf6/s
		     The number of failures detected per second	 by  the  IPv6
		     re-assembly  algorithm  (for  whatever reason: timed out,
		     errors, etc.) [ipv6IfStatsReasmFails].  Note that this is
		     not necessarily a count of discarded IPv6 fragments since
		     some algorithms can lose track of the number of fragments
		     by combining them as they are received.

	      fragf6/s
		     The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been discarded per
		     second because they needed to be fragmented at this  out-
		     put interface but could not be [ipv6IfStatsOutFragFails].

	      itrpck6/s
		     The  number  of  input  datagrams	discarded  per	second
		     because datagram frame didn't carry enough data [ipv6IfS-
		     tatsInTruncatedPkts].

	      With the ICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 network  traffic
	      are reported.  Note that ICMPv6 statistics depend on sadc option
	      "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The following values	are  displayed
	      (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      imsg6/s
		     The  total number of ICMP messages received by the inter-
		     face per second  which  includes  all  those  counted  by
		     ierr6/s [ipv6IfIcmpInMsgs].

	      omsg6/s
		     The  total	 number	 of ICMP messages which this interface
		     attempted to send per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutMsgs].

	      iech6/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo (request)	messages  received  by
		     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInEchos].

	      iechr6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Echo Reply messages received by the
		     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInEchoReplies].

	      oechr6/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent by the inter-
		     face per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutEchoReplies].

	      igmbq6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMPv6  Group  Membership Query messages
		     received by the interface per second  [ipv6IfIcmpInGroup-
		     MembQueries].

	      igmbr6/s
		     The  number  of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages
		     received by the interface per second  [ipv6IfIcmpInGroup-
		     MembResponses].

	      ogmbr6/s
		     The  number  of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages
		     sent per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembResponses].

	      igmbrd6/s
		     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction  messages
		     received  by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInGroup-
		     MembReductions].

	      ogmbrd6/s
		     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction  messages
		     sent per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembReductions].

	      irtsol6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Router Solicit messages received by
		     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterSolicits].

	      ortsol6/s
		     The number of ICMP Router Solicitation messages  sent  by
		     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutRouterSolicits].

	      irtad6/s
		     The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages received
		     by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterAdvertise-
		     ments].

	      inbsol6/s
		     The  number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages received by
		     the interface per second  [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighborSolicits].

	      onbsol6/s
		     The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicitation messages sent by
		     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborSolicits].

	      inbad6/s
		     The   number  of  ICMP  Neighbor  Advertisement  messages
		     received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighb-
		     orAdvertisements].

	      onbad6/s
		     The  number  of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages sent
		     by the interface per second  [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborAdver-
		     tisements].

	      With  the EICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 error messages
	      are reported.  Note that ICMPv6 statistics depend on sadc option
	      "-S  IPV6"  to be collected.  The following values are displayed
	      (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ierr6/s
		     The number of ICMP messages per second which  the	inter-
		     face  received  but  determined  as  having ICMP-specific
		     errors   (bad   ICMP   checksums,	 bad   length,	 etc.)
		     [ipv6IfIcmpInErrors]

	      idtunr6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP  Destination	 Unreachable  messages
		     received by the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInDestUn-
		     reachs].

	      odtunr6/s
		     The  number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent
		     by the interface per second  [ipv6IfIcmpOutDestUnreachs].

	      itmex6/s
		     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received by the
		     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInTimeExcds].

	      otmex6/s
		     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded  messages	 sent  by  the
		     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutTimeExcds].

	      iprmpb6/s
		     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received by
		     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInParmProblems].

	      oprmpb6/s
		     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent by the
		     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutParmProblems].

	      iredir6/s
		     The number of Redirect messages received by the interface
		     per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRedirects].

	      oredir6/s
		     The number of Redirect messages sent by the interface  by
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpOutRedirects].

	      ipck2b6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Packet Too Big messages received by
		     the interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInPktTooBigs].

	      opck2b6/s
		     The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages	 sent  by  the
		     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutPktTooBigs].

	      With  the	 UDP6  keyword, statistics about UDPv6 network traffic
	      are reported.  Note that UDPv6 statistics depend on sadc	option
	      "-S  IPV6"  to be collected.  The following values are displayed
	      (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      idgm6/s
		     The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per second to
		     UDP users [udpInDatagrams].

	      odgm6/s
		     The  total	 number	 of UDP datagrams sent per second from
		     this entity [udpOutDatagrams].

	      noport6/s
		     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for
		     which  there  was	no application at the destination port
		     [udpNoPorts].

	      idgmer6/s
		     The number of received  UDP  datagrams  per  second  that
		     could not be delivered for reasons other than the lack of
		     an application at the destination port [udpInErrors].

	      The ALL keyword is equivalent to	specifying  all	 the  keywords
	      above and therefore all the network activities are reported.

       -o [ filename ]
	      Save the readings in the file in binary form. Each reading is in
	      a separate record. The default value of the  filename  parameter
	      is  the current daily data file, the /var/log/sysstat/sadd file.
	      The -o option is exclusive of  the  -f  option.	All  the  data
	      available	 from  the  kernel are saved in the file (in fact, sar
	      calls its data collector sadc with  the  option  "-S  ALL".  See
	      sadc(8) manual page).

       -P { cpu [,...] | ALL }
	      Report  per-processor  statistics for the specified processor or
	      processors.  Specifying the ALL keyword reports  statistics  for
	      each  individual	processor,  and	 globally  for all processors.
	      Note that processor 0 is the first processor.

       -p     Pretty-print device names. Use this option in  conjunction  with
	      option  -d.  By default names are printed as dev m-n where m and
	      n are the major and minor numbers for the device.	 Use  of  this
	      option displays the names of the devices as they (should) appear
	      in /dev.	Name  mappings	are  controlled	 by  /etc/sysstat/sys-
	      stat.ioconf.

       -q     Report  queue length and load averages. The following values are
	      displayed:

	      runq-sz
		     Run queue length (number of tasks waiting for run	time).

	      plist-sz
		     Number of tasks in the task list.

	      ldavg-1
		     System  load average for the last minute.	The load aver-
		     age is calculated as the average number  of  runnable  or
		     running tasks (R state), and the number of tasks in unin-
		     terruptible sleep (D state) over the specified  interval.

	      ldavg-5
		     System load average for the past 5 minutes.

	      ldavg-15
		     System load average for the past 15 minutes.

	      blocked
		     Number  of	 tasks	currently  blocked, waiting for I/O to
		     complete.

       -r     Report memory utilization statistics.  The following values  are
	      displayed:

	      kbmemfree
		     Amount of free memory available in kilobytes.

	      kbmemused
		     Amount  of	 used  memory in kilobytes. This does not take
		     into account memory used by the kernel itself.

	      %memused
		     Percentage of used memory.

	      kbbuffers
		     Amount of memory used as buffers by the kernel  in	 kilo-
		     bytes.

	      kbcached
		     Amount  of	 memory	 used  to  cache data by the kernel in
		     kilobytes.

	      kbcommit
		     Amount of memory in kilobytes needed  for	current	 work-
		     load.  This is an estimate of how much RAM/swap is needed
		     to guarantee that there never is out of memory.

	      %commit
		     Percentage of memory needed for current workload in rela-
		     tion to the total amount of memory (RAM+swap).  This num-
		     ber may be greater than 100% because the  kernel  usually
		     overcommits memory.

	      kbactive
		     Amount  of	 active	 memory	 in kilobytes (memory that has
		     been used more recently and usually not reclaimed	unless
		     absolutely necessary).

	      kbinact
		     Amount  of inactive memory in kilobytes (memory which has
		     been less recently	 used.	It  is	more  eligible	to  be
		     reclaimed for other purposes).

       -R     Report memory statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      frmpg/s
		     Number of memory pages freed by the system per second.  A
		     negative value represents a number of pages allocated  by
		     the  system.  Note that a page has a size of 4 kB or 8 kB
		     according to the machine architecture.

	      bufpg/s
		     Number of additional memory pages used as buffers by  the
		     system  per  second.   A negative value means fewer pages
		     used as buffers by the system.

	      campg/s
		     Number of additional memory pages cached  by  the	system
		     per  second.   A  negative value means fewer pages in the
		     cache.

       -s [ hh:mm:ss ]
	      Set the starting time of the data, causing the  sar  command  to
	      extract  records	time-tagged  at, or following, the time speci-
	      fied. The default starting time  is  08:00:00.   Hours  must  be
	      given  in 24-hour format. This option can be used only when data
	      are read from a file (option -f ).

       -S     Report swap space utilization statistics.	 The following	values
	      are displayed:

	      kbswpfree
		     Amount of free swap space in kilobytes.

	      kbswpused
		     Amount of used swap space in kilobytes.

	      %swpused
		     Percentage of used swap space.

	      kbswpcad
		     Amount  of cached swap memory in kilobytes.  This is mem-
		     ory that once was swapped out, is	swapped	 back  in  but
		     still  also  is  in the swap area (if memory is needed it
		     doesn't need to  be  swapped  out	again  because	it  is
		     already in the swap area. This saves I/O).

	      %swpcad
		     Percentage	 of  cached  swap  memory  in  relation to the
		     amount of used swap space.

       -t     When reading data from a daily  data  file,  indicate  that  sar
	      should display the timestamps in the original locale time of the
	      data file creator. Without this option, the sar command displays
	      the timestamps in the user's locale time.

       -u [ ALL ]
	      Report  CPU  utilization. The ALL keyword indicates that all the
	      CPU fields should be displayed.  The report may show the follow-
	      ing fields:

	      %user
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
		     ing at the user level (application). Note that this field
		     includes time spent running virtual processors.

	      %usr
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
		     ing at the user level (application). Note that this field
		     does NOT include time spent running virtual processors.

	      %nice
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
		     ing at the user level with nice priority.

	      %system
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
		     ing  at  the  system level (kernel). Note that this field
		     includes  time  spent  servicing  hardware	 and  software
		     interrupts.

	      %sys
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while execut-
		     ing at the system level (kernel). Note  that  this	 field
		     does  NOT	include time spent servicing hardware or soft-
		     ware interrupts.

	      %iowait
		     Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle	during
		     which the system had an outstanding disk I/O request.

	      %steal
		     Percentage	 of time spent in involuntary wait by the vir-
		     tual CPU or  CPUs	while  the  hypervisor	was  servicing
		     another virtual processor.

	      %irq
		     Percentage	 of  time  spent by the CPU or CPUs to service
		     hardware interrupts.

	      %soft
		     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or  CPUs  to  service
		     software interrupts.

	      %guest
		     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to run a vir-
		     tual processor.

	      %idle
		     Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle and the
		     system did not have an outstanding disk I/O request.

	      Note:  On SMP machines a processor that does not have any activ-
	      ity at all (0.00 for every field) is a disabled  (offline)  pro-
	      cessor.

       -v     Report  status of inode, file and other kernel tables.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed:

	      dentunusd
		     Number of unused cache entries in the directory cache.

	      file-nr
		     Number of file handles used by the system.

	      inode-nr
		     Number of inode handlers used by the system.

	      pty-nr
		     Number of pseudo-terminals used by the system.

       -V     Print version number then exit.

       -w     Report task creation and system switching activity.

	      proc/s
		     Total number of tasks created per second.

	      cswch/s
		     Total number of context switches per second.

       -W     Report swapping statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      pswpin/s
		     Total number of swap pages the system brought in per sec-
		     ond.

	      pswpout/s
		     Total  number  of	swap  pages the system brought out per
		     second.

       -y     Report TTY device activity. The following values are displayed:

	      rcvin/s
		     Number of	receive	 interrupts  per  second  for  current
		     serial  line. Serial line number is given in the TTY col-
		     umn.

	      xmtin/s
		     Number of transmit	 interrupts  per  second  for  current
		     serial line.

	      framerr/s
		     Number  of	 frame	errors	per  second for current serial
		     line.

	      prtyerr/s
		     Number of parity errors per  second  for  current	serial
		     line.

	      brk/s
		     Number of breaks per second for current serial line.

	      ovrun/s
		     Number  of	 overrun  errors per second for current serial
		     line.


ENVIRONMENT
       The sar command takes into account the following environment variables:


       S_TIME_FORMAT
	      If  this	variable  exists and its value is ISO then the current
	      locale will be ignored when printing  the	 date  in  the	report
	      header.	 The   sar  command  will  use	the  ISO  8601	format
	      (YYYY-MM-DD) instead.


       S_TIME_DEF_TIME
	      If this variable exists and its value is UTC then sar will  save
	      its  data	 in  UTC  time	(data will still be displayed in local
	      time).  sar will also use UTC time  instead  of  local  time  to
	      determine	  the	current	  daily	  data	file  located  in  the
	      /var/log/sysstat directory. This	variable  may  be  useful  for
	      servers with users located across several timezones.

EXAMPLES
       sar -u 2 5
	      Report  CPU  utilization	for  each  2 seconds. 5 lines are dis-
	      played.

       sar -I 14 -o int14.file 2 10
	      Report statistics on IRQ 14 for each 2  seconds.	10  lines  are
	      displayed.  Data are stored in a file called int14.file.

       sar -r -n DEV -f /var/log/sysstat/sa16
	      Display  memory  and network statistics saved in daily data file
	      'sa16'.

       sar -A
	      Display all the statistics saved in current daily data file.

BUGS
       /proc filesystem must be mounted for the sar command to work.

       All the statistics are not necessarily available, depending on the ker-
       nel  version  used.  sar assumes that you are using at least a 2.6 ker-
       nel.

FILES
       /var/log/sysstat/sadd
	      Indicate the daily data file, where the dd parameter is a number
	      representing the day of the month.

       /proc contains various files with system statistics.

AUTHOR
       Sebastien Godard (sysstat <at> orange.fr)

SEE ALSO
       sadc(8),	 sa1(8),  sa2(8),  sadf(1),  pidstat(1), mpstat(1), iostat(1),
       vmstat(8)

       http://pagesperso-orange.fr/sebastien.godard/



Linux				   MAY 2011				SAR(1)
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