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SETJMP(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		     SETJMP(3)

       setjmp, sigsetjmp, longjmp, siglongjmp  - performing a nonlocal goto

       #include <setjmp.h>

       int setjmp(jmp_buf env);
       int sigsetjmp(sigjmp_buf env, int savesigs);

       void longjmp(jmp_buf env, int val);
       void siglongjmp(sigjmp_buf env, int val);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

	   see NOTES.
       sigsetjmp(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE

       The  functions described on this page are used for performing "nonlocal
       gotos": transferring execution from one	function  to  a	 predetermined
       location in another function.  The setjmp() function dynamically estab-
       lishes the target to which  control  will  later	 be  transferred,  and
       longjmp() performs the transfer of execution.

       The setjmp() function saves various information about the calling envi-
       ronment (typically, the stack pointer, the instruction pointer,	possi-
       bly  the	 values	 of other registers and the signal mask) in the buffer
       env for later use by longjmp().	In this case, setjmp() returns 0.

       The longjmp() function uses the information saved in  env  to  transfer
       control	back  to  the  point  where setjmp() was called and to restore
       ("rewind") the stack to its state at the time of the setjmp() call.  In
       addition,  and  depending on the implementation (see NOTES), the values
       of some other registers and the process signal mask may be restored  to
       their state at the time of the setjmp() call.

       Following  a  successful	 longjmp(), execution continues as if setjmp()
       had returned for a second time.	This  "fake"  return  can  be  distin-
       guished from a true setjmp() call because the "fake" return returns the
       value provided in val.  If the programmer mistakenly passes the value 0
       in val, the "fake" return will instead return 1.

   sigsetjmp() and siglongjmp()
       sigsetjmp()  and	 siglongjmp() also perform nonlocal gotos, but provide
       predictable handling of the process signal mask.

       If, and only if, the  savesigs  argument	 provided  to  sigsetjmp()  is
       nonzero,	 the process's current signal mask is saved in env and will be
       restored if a siglongjmp() is later performed with this env.

       setjmp() and sigsetjmp() return 0 when called directly; on  the	"fake"
       return  that  occurs after longjmp() or siglongjmp(), the nonzero value
       specified in val is returned.

       The longjmp() or siglongjmp() functions do not return.

       For  an	explanation  of	 the  terms  used   in	 this	section,   see

       |Interface		| Attribute	| Value	  |
       |setjmp(), sigsetjmp()	| Thread safety | MT-Safe |
       |longjmp(), siglongjmp() | Thread safety | MT-Safe |

       setjmp(), longjmp(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C89, C99.

       sigsetjmp(), siglongjmp(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.

       POSIX  does  not specify whether setjmp() will save the signal mask (to
       be later restored during longjmp()).  In System	V  it  will  not.   In
       4.3BSD  it  will, and there is a function _setjmp() that will not.  The
       behavior under Linux depends on the glibc version and  the  setting  of
       feature	text  macros.	On  Linux  with	 glibc	versions  before 2.19,
       setjmp() follows the System V behavior by default, but the BSD behavior
       is provided if the _BSD_SOURCE feature test macro is explicitly defined
       or  _SVID_SOURCE is defined.  Since glibc 2.19, <setjmp.h> exposes only
       the System V version of setjmp().  Programs that need the BSD semantics
       should  replace	calls  to  setjmp()  with  calls to sigsetjmp() with a
       nonzero savesigs argument.

       setjmp() and longjmp() can be useful for	 dealing  with	errors	inside
       deeply  nested function calls or to allow a signal handler to pass con-
       trol to a specific point in the program, rather than returning  to  the
       point  where  the  handler interrupted the main program.	 In the latter
       case, if you want to  portably  save  and  restore  signal  masks,  use
       sigsetjmp() and siglongjmp().  See also the discussion of program read-
       ability below.

       The compiler may optimize variables into registers, and	longjmp()  may
       restore	the values of other registers in addition to the stack pointer
       and program counter.  Consequently, the values of  automatic  variables
       are  unspecified after a call to longjmp() if they meet all the follow-
       ing criteria:

       o  they are local to the function that made the corresponding  setjmp()

       o  their	  values  are  changed	between	 the  calls  to	 setjmp()  and
	  longjmp(); and

       o  they are not declared as volatile.

       Analogous remarks apply for siglongjmp().

   Nonlocal gotos and program readability
       While it can be abused, the traditional C "goto" statement at least has
       the benefit that lexical cues (the goto statement and the target label)
       allow the programmer to easily perceive the flow of control.   Nonlocal
       gotos  provide  no  such cues: multiple setjmp() calls might employ the
       same jmp_buf variable so that the content of the	 variable  may	change
       over the lifetime of the application.  Consequently, the programmer may
       be forced to perform detailed reading of	 the  code  to	determine  the
       dynamic	target	of a particular longjmp() call.	 (To make the program-
       mer's life easier, each setjmp() call should employ  a  unique  jmp_buf

       Adding  further	difficulty,  the  setjmp() and longjmp() calls may not
       even be in the same source code module.

       In summary, nonlocal gotos can make programs harder to  understand  and
       maintain, and an alternative should be used if possible.

       If  the	function  which	 called	 setjmp()  returns before longjmp() is
       called, the behavior is undefined.  Some kind  of  subtle  or  unsubtle
       chaos is sure to result.

       If,  in a multithreaded program, a longjmp() call employs an env buffer
       that was initialized by a call to setjmp() in a different  thread,  the
       behavior is undefined.

       POSIX.1-2008 Technical Corrigendum 2 adds longjmp() and siglongjmp() to
       the list of async-signal-safe functions.	 However, the standard	recom-
       mends avoiding the use of these functions from signal handlers and goes
       on to point out that if these functions are called from a  signal  han-
       dler  that  interrupted	a call to a non-async-signal-safe function (or
       some equivalent, such as the steps equivalent  to  exit(3)  that	 occur
       upon  a	return from the initial call to main()), the behavior is unde-
       fined if the program subsequently makes a call to  a  non-async-signal-
       safe  function.	 The  only  way	 of  avoiding undefined behavior is to
       ensure one of the following:

       *  After long jumping from the signal handler,  the  program  does  not
	  call	any  non-async-signal-safe  functions and does not return from
	  the initial call to main().

       *  Any signal whose handler performs a long jump must be blocked during
	  every call to a non-async-signal-safe function and no non-async-sig-
	  nal-safe functions are called after returning from the initial  call
	  to main().

       signal(7), signal-safety(7)

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				  2017-03-13			     SETJMP(3)