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terminfo(5)			 File Formats			   terminfo(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo	 is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as nvi(1), rogue(1) and  libraries	 such  as  curses(3X).
       Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding	requirements  and  initialization  sequences.	This describes
       ncurses version 5.7 (patch 20090207).

       Entries in terminfo consist of  a  sequence  of	`,'  separated	fields
       (embedded  commas  may be escaped with a backslash or notated as \054).
       White space after the `,' separator is ignored.	The  first  entry  for
       each  terminal  gives the names which are known for the terminal, sepa-
       rated by `|' characters.	 The first  name  given	 is  the  most	common
       abbreviation  for  the  terminal,  the last name given should be a long
       name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are	understood  as
       synonyms	 for  the  terminal name.  All names but the last should be in
       lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain	 upper
       case and blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated as comments.
       While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo and
       infotocap  (aliases  for	 tic)  will  move  comments so they occur only
       between entries.

       Newlines and leading tabs may be used for formatting entries for	 read-
       ability.	 These are removed from parsed entries.	 The infocmp -f option
       relies on this to format if-then-else expressions: the  result  can  be
       read by tic.

       Terminal	 names	(except	 for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen
       using the following conventions.	 The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing  up	the  terminal  should have a root name, thus ``hp2621''.  This
       name should not contain hyphens.	 Modes that the hardware can be in, or
       user  preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode
       suffix.	Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.   The  fol-
       lowing suffixes should be used where possible:

	    Suffix		    Meaning		      Example
	    -nn	     Number of lines on the screen	      aaa-60
	    -np	     Number of pages of memory		      c100-4p
	    -am	     With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
	    -m	     Mono mode; suppress color		      ansi-m
	    -mc	     Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
	    -na	     No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
	    -nam     Without automatic margins		      vt100-nam
	    -nl	     No status line			      att4415-nl
	    -ns	     No status line			      hp2626-ns
	    -rv	     Reverse video			      c100-rv
	    -s	     Enable status line			      vt100-s
	    -vb	     Use visible bell instead of beep	      wy370-vb
	    -w	     Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

       The  following  is  a  complete table of the capabilities included in a
       terminfo description block and available to  terminfo-using  code.   In
       each line of the table,

       The  variable  is  the  name  by	 which the programmer (at the terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and  is
       used  by	 a  person updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now  superseded	 by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or very similar
       names).	Semantics are also intended to match those of  the  specifica-

       The  termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of  5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of  the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in  the  description  field  indicates that the string is passed
	      through tparm with parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the  number  of
	      lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
	       Booleans		     name	Code
       auto_left_margin		     bw		bw	  cub1 wraps from col-
							  umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin	     am		am	  terminal has auto-
							  matic margins
       back_color_erase		     bce	ut	  screen erased with
							  background color
       can_change		     ccc	cc	  terminal can re-
							  define existing col-
       ceol_standout_glitch	     xhp	xs	  standout not erased
							  by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch		     xhpa	YA	  only positive motion
							  for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res		     cpix	YF	  changing character
							  pitch changes reso-
       cr_cancels_micro_mode	     crxm	YB	  using cr turns off
							  micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso	     xt		xt	  tabs destructive,
							  magic so char
       eat_newline_glitch	     xenl	xn	  newline ignored
							  after 80 cols (con-
       erase_overstrike		     eo		eo	  can erase over-
							  strikes with a blank
       generic_type		     gn		gn	  generic line type
       hard_copy		     hc		hc	  hardcopy terminal

       hard_cursor		     chts	HC	  cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key		     km		km	  Has a meta key
							  (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel		     daisy	YC	  printer needs opera-
							  tor to change char-
							  acter set
       has_status_line		     hs		hs	  has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation	     hls	hl	  terminal uses only
							  HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch	     in		in	  insert mode distin-
							  guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res		     lpix	YG	  changing line pitch
							  changes resolution
       memory_above		     da		da	  display may be
							  retained above the
       memory_below		     db		db	  display may be
							  retained below the
       move_insert_mode		     mir	mi	  safe to move while
							  in insert mode
       move_standout_mode	     msgr	ms	  safe to move while
							  in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff		     nxon	nx	  padding will not
							  work, xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc		     xsb	xb	  beehive (f1=escape,
							  f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char		     npc	NP	  pad character does
							  not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region	     ndscr	ND	  scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup		     nrrmc	NR	  smcup does not
							  reverse rmcup
       over_strike		     os		os	  terminal can over-
       prtr_silent		     mc5i	5i	  printer will not
							  echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch		     xvpa	YD	  only positive motion
							  for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin	     sam	YE	  printing in last
							  column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok	     eslok	es	  escape can be used
							  on the status line
       tilde_glitch		     hz		hz	  cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline	     ul		ul	  underline character
       xon_xoff			     xon	xo	  terminal uses
							  xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
		Numeric		     name	Code
       columns			     cols	co	  number of columns in
							  a line
       init_tabs		     it		it	  tabs initially every
							  # spaces
       label_height		     lh		lh	  rows in each label
       label_width		     lw		lw	  columns in each

       lines			     lines	li	  number of lines on
							  screen or page
       lines_of_memory		     lm		lm	  lines of memory if >
							  line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch	     xmc	sg	  number of blank
							  characters left by
							  smso or rmso
       max_attributes		     ma		ma	  maximum combined
							  attributes terminal
							  can handle
       max_colors		     colors	Co	  maximum number of
							  colors on screen
       max_pairs		     pairs	pa	  maximum number of
							  color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows		     wnum	MW	  maximum number of
							  defineable windows
       no_color_video		     ncv	NC	  video attributes
							  that cannot be used
							  with colors
       num_labels		     nlab	Nl	  number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate	     pb		pb	  lowest baud rate
							  where padding needed
       virtual_terminal		     vt		vt	  virtual terminal
							  number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line	     wsl	ws	  number of columns in
							  status line

       The following numeric capabilities  are	present	 in  the  SVr4.0  term
       structure,  but	are  not yet documented in the man page.  They came in
       with SVr4's printer support.

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
		Numeric		     name	Code
       bit_image_entwining	     bitwin	Yo	  number of passes for
							  each bit-image row
       bit_image_type		     bitype	Yp	  type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity		     bufsz	Ya	  numbers of bytes
							  buffered before
       buttons			     btns	BT	  number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing		     spinh	Yc	  spacing of dots hor-
							  izontally in dots
							  per inch
       dot_vert_spacing		     spinv	Yb	  spacing of pins ver-
							  tically in pins per
       max_micro_address	     maddr	Yd	  maximum value in
       max_micro_jump		     mjump	Ye	  maximum value in
       micro_col_size		     mcs	Yf	  character step size
							  when in micro mode
       micro_line_size		     mls	Yg	  line step size when
							  in micro mode
       number_of_pins		     npins	Yh	  numbers of pins in
       output_res_char		     orc	Yi	  horizontal resolu-
							  tion in units per

       output_res_horz_inch	     orhi	Yk	  horizontal resolu-
							  tion in units per
       output_res_line		     orl	Yj	  vertical resolution
							  in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch	     orvi	Yl	  vertical resolution
							  in units per inch
       print_rate		     cps	Ym	  print rate in char-
							  acters per second
       wide_char_size		     widcs	Yn	  character step size
							  when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

	       Variable		     Cap-	TCap	      Description
		String		     name	Code
       acs_chars		     acsc	ac	  graphics charset
							  pairs, based on
       back_tab			     cbt	bt	  back tab (P)
       bell			     bel	bl	  audible signal
							  (bell) (P)
       carriage_return		     cr		cr	  carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch	     cpi	ZA	  Change number of
							  characters per inch
							  to #1
       change_line_pitch	     lpi	ZB	  Change number of
							  lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz		     chr	ZC	  Change horizontal
							  resolution to #1
       change_res_vert		     cvr	ZD	  Change vertical res-
							  olution to #1
       change_scroll_region	     csr	cs	  change region to
							  line #1 to line #2
       char_padding		     rmp	rP	  like ip but when in
							  insert mode
       clear_all_tabs		     tbc	ct	  clear all tab stops
       clear_margins		     mgc	MC	  clear right and left
							  soft margins
       clear_screen		     clear	cl	  clear screen and
							  home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol			     el1	cb	  Clear to beginning
							  of line
       clr_eol			     el		ce	  clear to end of line
       clr_eos			     ed		cd	  clear to end of
							  screen (P*)
       column_address		     hpa	ch	  horizontal position
							  #1, absolute (P)
       command_character	     cmdch	CC	  terminal settable
							  cmd character in
							  prototype !?
       create_window		     cwin	CW	  define a window #1
							  from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address		     cup	cm	  move to row #1 col-
							  umns #2
       cursor_down		     cud1	do	  down one line
       cursor_home		     home	ho	  home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible		     civis	vi	  make cursor invisi-

       cursor_left		     cub1	le	  move left one space
       cursor_mem_address	     mrcup	CM	  memory relative cur-
							  sor addressing, move
							  to row #1 columns #2
       cursor_normal		     cnorm	ve	  make cursor appear
							  normal (undo
       cursor_right		     cuf1	nd	  non-destructive
							  space (move right
							  one space)
       cursor_to_ll		     ll		ll	  last line, first
							  column (if no cup)
       cursor_up		     cuu1	up	  up one line
       cursor_visible		     cvvis	vs	  make cursor very
       define_char		     defc	ZE	  Define a character
							  #1, #2 dots wide,
							  descender #3
       delete_character		     dch1	dc	  delete character
       delete_line		     dl1	dl	  delete line (P*)
       dial_phone		     dial	DI	  dial number #1
       dis_status_line		     dsl	ds	  disable status line
       display_clock		     dclk	DK	  display clock
       down_half_line		     hd		hd	  half a line down
       ena_acs			     enacs	eA	  enable alternate
							  char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode	     smacs	as	  start alternate
							  character set (P)
       enter_am_mode		     smam	SA	  turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode		     blink	mb	  turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode		     bold	md	  turn on bold (extra
							  bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode		     smcup	ti	  string to start pro-
							  grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode	     smdc	dm	  enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode		     dim	mh	  turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode	     swidm	ZF	  Enter double-wide
       enter_draft_quality	     sdrfq	ZG	  Enter draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode	     smir	im	  enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode	     sitm	ZH	  Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode	     slm	ZI	  Start leftward car-
							  riage motion
       enter_micro_mode		     smicm	ZJ	  Start micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality     snlq	ZK	  Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality	     snrmq	ZL	  Enter normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode	     prot	mp	  turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode	     rev	mr	  turn on reverse
							  video mode
       enter_secure_mode	     invis	mk	  turn on blank mode
							  (characters invisi-
       enter_shadow_mode	     sshm	ZM	  Enter shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode	     smso	so	  begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode	     ssubm	ZN	  Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode	     ssupm	ZO	  Enter superscript
       enter_underline_mode	     smul	us	  begin underline mode

       enter_upward_mode	     sum	ZP	  Start upward car-
							  riage motion
       enter_xon_mode		     smxon	SX	  turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars		     ech	ec	  erase #1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode	     rmacs	ae	  end alternate char-
							  acter set (P)
       exit_am_mode		     rmam	RA	  turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode	     sgr0	me	  turn off all
       exit_ca_mode		     rmcup	te	  strings to end pro-
							  grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode		     rmdc	ed	  end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode	     rwidm	ZQ	  End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode		     rmir	ei	  exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode	     ritm	ZR	  End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode	     rlm	ZS	  End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode		     rmicm	ZT	  End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode		     rshm	ZU	  End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode	     rmso	se	  exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode	     rsubm	ZV	  End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode	     rsupm	ZW	  End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode	     rmul	ue	  exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode		     rum	ZX	  End reverse charac-
							  ter motion
       exit_xon_mode		     rmxon	RX	  turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause		     pause	PA	  pause for 2-3 sec-
       flash_hook		     hook	fh	  flash switch hook
       flash_screen		     flash	vb	  visible bell (may
							  not move cursor)
       form_feed		     ff		ff	  hardcopy terminal
							  page eject (P*)
       from_status_line		     fsl	fs	  return from status
       goto_window		     wingo	WG	  go to window #1
       hangup			     hup	HU	  hang-up phone
       init_1string		     is1	i1	  initialization
       init_2string		     is2	is	  initialization
       init_3string		     is3	i3	  initialization
       init_file		     if		if	  name of initializa-
							  tion file
       init_prog		     iprog	iP	  path name of program
							  for initialization
       initialize_color		     initc	Ic	  initialize color #1
							  to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair		     initp	Ip	  Initialize color
							  pair #1 to
       insert_character		     ich1	ic	  insert character (P)
       insert_line		     il1	al	  insert line (P*)
       insert_padding		     ip		ip	  insert padding after
							  inserted character
       key_a1			     ka1	K1	  upper left of keypad
       key_a3			     ka3	K3	  upper right of key-
       key_b2			     kb2	K2	  center of keypad

       key_backspace		     kbs	kb	  backspace key
       key_beg			     kbeg	@1	  begin key
       key_btab			     kcbt	kB	  back-tab key
       key_c1			     kc1	K4	  lower left of keypad
       key_c3			     kc3	K5	  lower right of key-
       key_cancel		     kcan	@2	  cancel key
       key_catab		     ktbc	ka	  clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear		     kclr	kC	  clear-screen or
							  erase key
       key_close		     kclo	@3	  close key
       key_command		     kcmd	@4	  command key
       key_copy			     kcpy	@5	  copy key
       key_create		     kcrt	@6	  create key
       key_ctab			     kctab	kt	  clear-tab key
       key_dc			     kdch1	kD	  delete-character key
       key_dl			     kdl1	kL	  delete-line key
       key_down			     kcud1	kd	  down-arrow key
       key_eic			     krmir	kM	  sent by rmir or smir
							  in insert mode
       key_end			     kend	@7	  end key
       key_enter		     kent	@8	  enter/send key
       key_eol			     kel	kE	  clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos			     ked	kS	  clear-to-end-of-
							  screen key
       key_exit			     kext	@9	  exit key
       key_f0			     kf0	k0	  F0 function key
       key_f1			     kf1	k1	  F1 function key
       key_f10			     kf10	k;	  F10 function key
       key_f11			     kf11	F1	  F11 function key
       key_f12			     kf12	F2	  F12 function key
       key_f13			     kf13	F3	  F13 function key
       key_f14			     kf14	F4	  F14 function key
       key_f15			     kf15	F5	  F15 function key
       key_f16			     kf16	F6	  F16 function key
       key_f17			     kf17	F7	  F17 function key
       key_f18			     kf18	F8	  F18 function key
       key_f19			     kf19	F9	  F19 function key
       key_f2			     kf2	k2	  F2 function key
       key_f20			     kf20	FA	  F20 function key
       key_f21			     kf21	FB	  F21 function key
       key_f22			     kf22	FC	  F22 function key
       key_f23			     kf23	FD	  F23 function key
       key_f24			     kf24	FE	  F24 function key
       key_f25			     kf25	FF	  F25 function key
       key_f26			     kf26	FG	  F26 function key
       key_f27			     kf27	FH	  F27 function key
       key_f28			     kf28	FI	  F28 function key
       key_f29			     kf29	FJ	  F29 function key
       key_f3			     kf3	k3	  F3 function key
       key_f30			     kf30	FK	  F30 function key
       key_f31			     kf31	FL	  F31 function key
       key_f32			     kf32	FM	  F32 function key
       key_f33			     kf33	FN	  F33 function key
       key_f34			     kf34	FO	  F34 function key
       key_f35			     kf35	FP	  F35 function key
       key_f36			     kf36	FQ	  F36 function key
       key_f37			     kf37	FR	  F37 function key
       key_f38			     kf38	FS	  F38 function key
       key_f39			     kf39	FT	  F39 function key
       key_f4			     kf4	k4	  F4 function key
       key_f40			     kf40	FU	  F40 function key
       key_f41			     kf41	FV	  F41 function key
       key_f42			     kf42	FW	  F42 function key
       key_f43			     kf43	FX	  F43 function key

       key_f44			     kf44	FY	  F44 function key
       key_f45			     kf45	FZ	  F45 function key
       key_f46			     kf46	Fa	  F46 function key
       key_f47			     kf47	Fb	  F47 function key
       key_f48			     kf48	Fc	  F48 function key
       key_f49			     kf49	Fd	  F49 function key
       key_f5			     kf5	k5	  F5 function key
       key_f50			     kf50	Fe	  F50 function key
       key_f51			     kf51	Ff	  F51 function key
       key_f52			     kf52	Fg	  F52 function key
       key_f53			     kf53	Fh	  F53 function key
       key_f54			     kf54	Fi	  F54 function key
       key_f55			     kf55	Fj	  F55 function key
       key_f56			     kf56	Fk	  F56 function key
       key_f57			     kf57	Fl	  F57 function key
       key_f58			     kf58	Fm	  F58 function key
       key_f59			     kf59	Fn	  F59 function key
       key_f6			     kf6	k6	  F6 function key
       key_f60			     kf60	Fo	  F60 function key
       key_f61			     kf61	Fp	  F61 function key
       key_f62			     kf62	Fq	  F62 function key
       key_f63			     kf63	Fr	  F63 function key
       key_f7			     kf7	k7	  F7 function key
       key_f8			     kf8	k8	  F8 function key
       key_f9			     kf9	k9	  F9 function key
       key_find			     kfnd	@0	  find key
       key_help			     khlp	%1	  help key
       key_home			     khome	kh	  home key
       key_ic			     kich1	kI	  insert-character key
       key_il			     kil1	kA	  insert-line key
       key_left			     kcub1	kl	  left-arrow key
       key_ll			     kll	kH	  lower-left key (home
       key_mark			     kmrk	%2	  mark key
       key_message		     kmsg	%3	  message key
       key_move			     kmov	%4	  move key
       key_next			     knxt	%5	  next key
       key_npage		     knp	kN	  next-page key
       key_open			     kopn	%6	  open key
       key_options		     kopt	%7	  options key
       key_ppage		     kpp	kP	  previous-page key
       key_previous		     kprv	%8	  previous key
       key_print		     kprt	%9	  print key
       key_redo			     krdo	%0	  redo key
       key_reference		     kref	&1	  reference key
       key_refresh		     krfr	&2	  refresh key
       key_replace		     krpl	&3	  replace key
       key_restart		     krst	&4	  restart key
       key_resume		     kres	&5	  resume key
       key_right		     kcuf1	kr	  right-arrow key
       key_save			     ksav	&6	  save key
       key_sbeg			     kBEG	&9	  shifted begin key
       key_scancel		     kCAN	&0	  shifted cancel key
       key_scommand		     kCMD	*1	  shifted command key
       key_scopy		     kCPY	*2	  shifted copy key
       key_screate		     kCRT	*3	  shifted create key
       key_sdc			     kDC	*4	  shifted delete-char-
							  acter key
       key_sdl			     kDL	*5	  shifted delete-line
       key_select		     kslt	*6	  select key
       key_send			     kEND	*7	  shifted end key
       key_seol			     kEOL	*8	  shifted clear-to-
							  end-of-line key
       key_sexit		     kEXT	*9	  shifted exit key
       key_sf			     kind	kF	  scroll-forward key

       key_sfind		     kFND	*0	  shifted find key
       key_shelp		     kHLP	#1	  shifted help key
       key_shome		     kHOM	#2	  shifted home key
       key_sic			     kIC	#3	  shifted insert-char-
							  acter key
       key_sleft		     kLFT	#4	  shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage		     kMSG	%a	  shifted message key
       key_smove		     kMOV	%b	  shifted move key
       key_snext		     kNXT	%c	  shifted next key
       key_soptions		     kOPT	%d	  shifted options key
       key_sprevious		     kPRV	%e	  shifted previous key
       key_sprint		     kPRT	%f	  shifted print key
       key_sr			     kri	kR	  scroll-backward key
       key_sredo		     kRDO	%g	  shifted redo key
       key_sreplace		     kRPL	%h	  shifted replace key
       key_sright		     kRIT	%i	  shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume		     kRES	%j	  shifted resume key
       key_ssave		     kSAV	!1	  shifted save key
       key_ssuspend		     kSPD	!2	  shifted suspend key
       key_stab			     khts	kT	  set-tab key
       key_sundo		     kUND	!3	  shifted undo key
       key_suspend		     kspd	&7	  suspend key
       key_undo			     kund	&8	  undo key
       key_up			     kcuu1	ku	  up-arrow key
       keypad_local		     rmkx	ke	  leave 'key-
							  board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit		     smkx	ks	  enter 'key-
							  board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0			     lf0	l0	  label on function
							  key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1			     lf1	l1	  label on function
							  key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10			     lf10	la	  label on function
							  key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2			     lf2	l2	  label on function
							  key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3			     lf3	l3	  label on function
							  key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4			     lf4	l4	  label on function
							  key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5			     lf5	l5	  label on function
							  key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6			     lf6	l6	  label on function
							  key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7			     lf7	l7	  label on function
							  key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8			     lf8	l8	  label on function
							  key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9			     lf9	l9	  label on function
							  key f9 if not f9
       label_format		     fln	Lf	  label format
       label_off		     rmln	LF	  turn off soft labels
       label_on			     smln	LO	  turn on soft labels
       meta_off			     rmm	mo	  turn off meta mode
       meta_on			     smm	mm	  turn on meta mode
							  (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address	     mhpa	ZY	  Like column_address
							  in micro mode
       micro_down		     mcud1	ZZ	  Like cursor_down in
							  micro mode
       micro_left		     mcub1	Za	  Like cursor_left in
							  micro mode
       micro_right		     mcuf1	Zb	  Like cursor_right in
							  micro mode

       micro_row_address	     mvpa	Zc	  Like row_address #1
							  in micro mode
       micro_up			     mcuu1	Zd	  Like cursor_up in
							  micro mode
       newline			     nel	nw	  newline (behave like
							  cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins		     porder	Ze	  Match software bits
							  to print-head pins
       orig_colors		     oc		oc	  Set all color pairs
							  to the original ones
       orig_pair		     op		op	  Set default pair to
							  its original value
       pad_char			     pad	pc	  padding char
							  (instead of null)
       parm_dch			     dch	DC	  delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line		     dl		DL	  delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor		     cud	DO	  down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro		     mcud	Zf	  Like parm_down_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_ich			     ich	IC	  insert #1 characters
       parm_index		     indn	SF	  scroll forward #1
							  lines (P)
       parm_insert_line		     il		AL	  insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor		     cub	LE	  move #1 characters
							  to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro		     mcub	Zg	  Like parm_left_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor	     cuf	RI	  move #1 characters
							  to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro		     mcuf	Zh	  Like parm_right_cur-
							  sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex		     rin	SR	  scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor		     cuu	UP	  up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro		     mcuu	Zi	  Like parm_up_cursor
							  in micro mode
       pkey_key			     pfkey	pk	  program function key
							  #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local		     pfloc	pl	  program function key
							  #1 to execute string
       pkey_xmit		     pfx	px	  program function key
							  #1 to transmit
							  string #2
       plab_norm		     pln	pn	  program label #1 to
							  show string #2
       print_screen		     mc0	ps	  print contents of
       prtr_non			     mc5p	pO	  turn on printer for
							  #1 bytes
       prtr_off			     mc4	pf	  turn off printer
       prtr_on			     mc5	po	  turn on printer
       pulse			     pulse	PU	  select pulse dialing
       quick_dial		     qdial	QD	  dial number #1 with-
							  out checking
       remove_clock		     rmclk	RC	  remove clock
       repeat_char		     rep	rp	  repeat char #1 #2
							  times (P*)
       req_for_input		     rfi	RF	  send next input char
							  (for ptys)
       reset_1string		     rs1	r1	  reset string
       reset_2string		     rs2	r2	  reset string
       reset_3string		     rs3	r3	  reset string
       reset_file		     rf		rf	  name of reset file

       restore_cursor		     rc		rc	  restore cursor to
							  position of last
       row_address		     vpa	cv	  vertical position #1
							  absolute (P)
       save_cursor		     sc		sc	  save current cursor
							  position (P)
       scroll_forward		     ind	sf	  scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse		     ri		sr	  scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set		     scs	Zj	  Select character
							  set, #1
       set_attributes		     sgr	sa	  define video
							  attributes #1-#9
       set_background		     setb	Sb	  Set background color
       set_bottom_margin	     smgb	Zk	  Set bottom margin at
							  current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm	     smgbp	Zl	  Set bottom margin at
							  line #1 or (if smgtp
							  is not given) #2
							  lines from bottom
       set_clock		     sclk	SC	  set clock, #1 hrs #2
							  mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair		     scp	sp	  Set current color
							  pair to #1
       set_foreground		     setf	Sf	  Set foreground color
       set_left_margin		     smgl	ML	  set left soft margin
							  at current col-
							  umn.	      See
							  smgl. (ML is not in
							  BSD termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm	     smglp	Zm	  Set left (right)
							  margin at column #1
       set_right_margin		     smgr	MR	  set right soft mar-
							  gin at current col-
       set_right_margin_parm	     smgrp	Zn	  Set right margin at
							  column #1
       set_tab			     hts	st	  set a tab in every
							  row, current columns
       set_top_margin		     smgt	Zo	  Set top margin at
							  current line
       set_top_margin_parm	     smgtp	Zp	  Set top (bottom)
							  margin at row #1
       set_window		     wind	wi	  current window is
							  lines #1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image		     sbim	Zq	  Start printing bit
							  image graphics
       start_char_set_def	     scsd	Zr	  Start character set
							  definition #1, with
							  #2 characters in the
       stop_bit_image		     rbim	Zs	  Stop printing bit
							  image graphics
       stop_char_set_def	     rcsd	Zt	  End definition of
							  character set #1
       subscript_characters	     subcs	Zu	  List of subscript-
							  able characters
       superscript_characters	     supcs	Zv	  List of superscript-
							  able characters
       tab			     ht		ta	  tab to next 8-space
							  hardware tab stop

       these_cause_cr		     docr	Zw	  Printing any of
							  these characters
							  causes CR
       to_status_line		     tsl	ts	  move to status line,
							  column #1
       tone			     tone	TO	  select touch tone
       underline_char		     uc		uc	  underline char and
							  move past it
       up_half_line		     hu		hu	  half a line up
       user0			     u0		u0	  User string #0
       user1			     u1		u1	  User string #1
       user2			     u2		u2	  User string #2
       user3			     u3		u3	  User string #3
       user4			     u4		u4	  User string #4
       user5			     u5		u5	  User string #5
       user6			     u6		u6	  User string #6
       user7			     u7		u7	  User string #7
       user8			     u8		u8	  User string #8
       user9			     u9		u9	  User string #9
       wait_tone		     wait	WA	  wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character		     xoffc	XF	  XOFF character
       xon_character		     xonc	XN	  XON character
       zero_motion		     zerom	Zx	  No motion for subse-
							  quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.

	       Variable		     Cap-	  TCap	       Description
		String		     name	  Code
       alt_scancode_esc		     scesa	  S8	    Alternate escape
							    for scancode emu-
       bit_image_carriage_return     bicr	  Yv	    Move to beginning
							    of same row
       bit_image_newline	     binel	  Zz	    Move to next row
							    of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat		     birep	  Xy	    Repeat bit image
							    cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names		     csnm	  Zy	    Produce #1'th item
							    from list of char-
							    acter set names
       code_set_init		     csin	  ci	    Init sequence for
							    multiple codesets
       color_names		     colornm	  Yw	    Give name for
							    color #1
       define_bit_image_region	     defbi	  Yx	    Define rectan-
							    gualar bit image
       device_type		     devt	  dv	    Indicate lan-
							    guage/codeset sup-
       display_pc_char		     dispc	  S1	    Display PC charac-
							    ter #1
       end_bit_image_region	     endbi	  Yy	    End a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode	     smpch	  S2	    Enter PC character
							    display mode
       enter_scancode_mode	     smsc	  S4	    Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode	     rmpch	  S3	    Exit PC character
							    display mode
       exit_scancode_mode	     rmsc	  S5	    Exit PC scancode

       get_mouse		     getm	  Gm	    Curses should get
							    button events,
							    parameter #1 not
       key_mouse		     kmous	  Km	    Mouse event has
       mouse_info		     minfo	  Mi	    Mouse status
       pc_term_options		     pctrm	  S6	    PC terminal
       pkey_plab		     pfxl	  xl	    Program function
							    key #1 to type
							    string #2 and show
							    string #3
       req_mouse_pos		     reqmp	  RQ	    Request mouse
       scancode_escape		     scesc	  S7	    Escape for scan-
							    code emulation
       set0_des_seq		     s0ds	  s0	    Shift to codeset 0
							    (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq		     s1ds	  s1	    Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq		     s2ds	  s2	    Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq		     s3ds	  s3	    Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background		     setab	  AB	    Set background
							    color to #1, using
							    ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground		     setaf	  AF	    Set foreground
							    color to #1, using
							    ANSI escape
       set_color_band		     setcolor	  Yz	    Change to ribbon
							    color #1
       set_lr_margin		     smglr	  ML	    Set both left and
							    right margins to
							    #1, #2.  (ML is
							    not in BSD term-
       set_page_length		     slines	  YZ	    Set page length to
							    #1 lines
       set_tb_margin		     smgtb	  MT	    Sets both top and
							    bottom margins to
							    #1, #2

	The  XSI Curses standard added these.  They are some post-4.1 versions
	of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  The ncurses term-
	cap names for them are invented; according to the XSI Curses standard,
	they have no termcap names.  If your  compiled	terminfo  entries  use
	these,	they  may  not	be  binary-compatible  with  System V terminfo
	entries after SVr4.1; beware!

		Variable	      Cap-	 TCap	      Description
		 String		      name	 Code
	enter_horizontal_hl_mode      ehhlm	 Xh	  Enter horizontal
							  highlight mode
	enter_left_hl_mode	      elhlm	 Xl	  Enter left highlight
	enter_low_hl_mode	      elohlm	 Xo	  Enter low highlight
	enter_right_hl_mode	      erhlm	 Xr	  Enter right high-
							  light mode
	enter_top_hl_mode	      ethlm	 Xt	  Enter top highlight
	enter_vertical_hl_mode	      evhlm	 Xv	  Enter vertical high-
							  light mode

	set_a_attributes	      sgr1	 sA	  Define second set of
							  video attributes
	set_pglen_inch		      slength	 sL	  YI Set page length
							  to #1 hundredth of
							  an inch

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative  of  what a terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
	     colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
	     cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
	     cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
	     ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
	     ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
	     kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
	     kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
	     kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
	     kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
	     kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
	     op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
	     rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
	     s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
	     sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
	     u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at  the
       beginning  of  each line except the first.  Comments may be included on
       lines beginning with ``#''.  Capabilities  in  terminfo	are  of	 three
       types:  Boolean	capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some
       particular feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the	termi-
       nal  or	the  size of particular delays, and string capabilities, which
       give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal opera-

   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals have automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return  and	 line-
       feed  when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability
       am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.	 Numeric  capabilities
       are  followed  by  the  character  `#' and then a positive value.  Thus
       cols, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value  `80' for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,	 string	 valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line
       sequence) are given by the two-character	 code,	an  `=',  and  then  a
       string ending at the next following `,'.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there.  Both \E and \e map to  an
       ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the
       sequences \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline, line-feed, return,  tab,
       backspace,  form-feed,  and  space.  Other escapes include \^ for ^, \\
       for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and \0 for null.	(\0 will produce \200,
       which  does  not	 terminate a string but behaves as a null character on
       most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.   See  stty(1).)   Finally,
       characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A  delay	 in  milliseconds  may appear anywhere in a string capability,
       enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>,  and  padding  characters
       are  supplied by tputs to provide this delay.  The delay must be a num-
       ber with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be followed  by
       suffixes `*' or '/' or both.  A `*' indicates that the padding required
       is proportional to the number of lines affected by the  operation,  and
       the  amount  given  is the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the
       case of insert character, the factor  is	 still	the  number  of	 lines
       affected.)   Normally,  padding	is  advisory if the device has the xon
       capability; it is used  for  cost  computation  but  does  not  trigger
       delays.	 A  `/'	 suffix	 indicates  that  the padding is mandatory and
       forces a delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices  for
       which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.	 For example, see  the	second
       ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If  the	environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the
       pathname of a directory containing the  compiled	 description  you  are
       working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       If TERMINFO is not set, the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code
       will instead look in  the  directory  $HOME/.terminfo  for  a  compiled
       description.   If it fails to find one there, and the environment vari-
       able TERMINFO_DIRS is set, it will interpret the contents of that vari-
       able as a list of colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty
       entry is interpreted as a command to search  /usr/share/terminfo).   If
       no  description	is  found in any of the TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the
       fetch fails.

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will
       be the system terminfo directory, /usr/share/terminfo.

       (Neither	 the  $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS extensions are
       supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of	terminals.   The  most
       effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar	 terminal  in  terminfo	 and  to  build	 up  a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.	Be aware  that
       a  very	unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit  a	 large	file  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The  number  of	columns	 on each line for the terminal is given by the
       cols numeric capability.	 If the terminal is a CRT, then the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next  line	when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the	 home  position,  then
       this  is	 given	by the clear string capability.	 If the terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position when  a	 character  is	struck
       over)  then  it	should	have  the os capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os
       applies	to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as cub1.   Similarly,	 codes
       to  move	 to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1, cuu1, and
       cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would	 not normally use `cuf1= ' because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo	 are  undefined	 at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       bw  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll  text	 down,	a  program  goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the ri (reverse index) string.	The strings ind and ri
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions	of  the	 scrolling  sequences are indn and rin
       which have the same semantics as ind and ri except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many lines.	They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of
       the  screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left	edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.	 If bw is  not	given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.	 If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic  margins,  the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of	the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It
       does not matter if the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if the terminal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to
       craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
	    bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
	    am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
	    ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string capability, with  printf(3)
       like  escapes  %x  in  it.  For example, to address the cursor, the cup
       capability is given, using  two	parameters:  the  row  and  column  to
       address	to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)	If the
       terminal	 has  memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated
       by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to  manipulate
       it.   Typically	a  sequence  will  push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.	Print (e.g., "%d") is  a  spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are  often  necessary,
       e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs `%'

	    as	in  printf, flags are [-+#] and space.	Use a `:' to allow the
	    next character to be a `-' flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as  an

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

	    push i'th parameter

	    set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

	    set static variable [a-z] to pop()

	    get static variable [a-z] and push it

	    The	 terms	"static"  and "dynamic" are misleading.	 Historically,
	    these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
	    not reset between calls to tparm.  However, that fact is not docu-
	    mented in other implementations.  Relying  on  it  will  adversely
	    impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

	    integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+ %- %* %/ %m
	    arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %& %| %^
	    bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %= %> %<
	    logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
	    logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %! %~
	    unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
	    This forms an if-then-else.	 The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually
	    the %? expr part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  %t  pops  it
	    from  the  stack,  testing if it is nonzero (true).	 If it is zero
	    (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

	    It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
	    %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

	    where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

	    Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the  structure  of  if-
	    the-else's.	  Some strings, e.g., sgr can be very complicated when
	    written on one line.  The -f option splits the string  into	 lines
	    with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations  are	in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider	 the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of  the
       rows  and  columns  is  inverted	 here, and that the row and column are
       printed	 as   two   digits.	Thus	its    cup    capability    is

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a  ^T,  with  the  row	and   column   simply	encoded	  in   binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".   Terminals	which  use  "%c"  need	to  be able to
       backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on  the
       screen  (cuu1).	 This  is  necessary  because it is not always safe to
       transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may change or discard them.	  (The
       library	routines  dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
       never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be  essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".	 After sending
       `\E=',  this  pushes  the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous	 values) and outputs that value as a character.	 Then the same
       is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is  possible
       using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If  the	terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast  way
       of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
       home  position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single  parameter  capabilities  hpa	 (horizontal  position
       absolute)  and  vpa  (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general  two  parameter  sequence	(as  with  the
       hp2645)	and can be used in preference to cup.  If there are parameter-
       ized local motions (e.g., move n spaces to  the	right)	these  can  be
       given  as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how
       many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the	terminal  does
       not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the	terminal  needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be  given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example, from terminals
       like the Concept with more than one page of memory.   If	 the  terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the
       TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the command character to  be  the  one
       used  by	 terminfo.   If the smcup sequence will not restore the screen
       after an rmcup sequence is output (to the  state	 prior	to  outputting
       rmcup), specify nrrmc.

   Area Clears
       If  the	terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as  el.   If
       the  terminal  can  clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where  it	 is,  this  should  be
       given  as  el1.	If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.	  Ed  is  only
       defined from the first column of a line.	 (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not avail-

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If  the	terminal  can  open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as il1; this  is	 done  only  from  the
       first  position	of  a  line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which  the  cursor  is
       on,  then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like  the  vt100)  the
       command	to  set	 this  can be described with the csr capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on
       a properly chosen region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)  com-
       mands  may  be  useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the cursor.	 (Note that  the  ncurses(3X)  library
       does   this   synthesis	 automatically,	  so   you  need  not  compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation  of  index  with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen  can	also  be  done
       using  ri  or  ind on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling win-
       dow  is	effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write  something	 to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the
       region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom  of  the	region	by  the	 ri re-appears, then scrolling is non-
       destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that ind,  ri,  indn,  and
       rin  will  simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions
       you not to define csr unless this is true.  This curses	implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part  of  memory,
       which  all  commands  affect,  it  should be given as the parameterized
       string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines  in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability
       should be given; if display memory  can	be  retained  below,  then  db
       should  be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri  may
       bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There  are  two	basic  kinds  of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be  described	using  terminfo.   The
       most  common insert/delete character operations affect only the charac-
       ters on the current line and shift characters off the end of  the  line
       rigidly.	 Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting	 upon  an  insert  or  delete  only to an untyped blank on the
       screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two  untyped  blanks.
       You  can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen
       and then typing text separated by cursor	 motions.   Type  "abc	  def"
       using  local  cursor  motions  (not  spaces)  between the "abc" and the
       "def".  Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the  terminal
       in  insert  mode.   If typing characters causes the rest of the line to
       shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end,  then	your  terminal
       does  not  distinguish  between	blanks	and untyped positions.	If the
       "abc" shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the  end
       of  the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the sec-
       ond type of terminal, and should give the capability in,	 which	stands
       for  "insert  null".  While these are two logically separate attributes
       (one line versus multi-line  insert  mode,  and	special	 treatment  of
       untyped	spaces)	 we have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be
       described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have	an  insert  mode,  and
       terminals  which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as  rmir	 the  sequence	to  leave  insert  mode.  Now give as ich1 any
       sequence needed to be sent just before  sending	the  character	to  be
       inserted.   Most	 terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
       terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position  should  give
       it here.

       If  your	 terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.
       Technically, you should not give	 both  unless  the  terminal  actually
       requires	 both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some non-curses
       applications get confused if both are present; the symptom  is  doubled
       characters  in  an  update using insert.	 This requirement is now rare;
       most ich sequences do not require previous smir, and most  smir	insert
       modes  do  not  require ich1 before each character.  Therefore, the new
       curses actually assumes this is the case and uses either	 rmir/smir  or
       ich/ich1	 as appropriate (but not both).	 If you have to write an entry
       to be used under new curses for a terminal old  enough  to  need	 both,
       include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in ip (a string option).	 Any other sequence which may need to be  sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in ip.  If your
       terminal needs both to be placed into an `insert mode'  and  a  special
       code  to	 precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1
       can be given, and both will be used.   The  ich	capability,  with  one
       parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If  padding  is	necessary between characters typed while not in insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while  in  insert  mode  to
       delete  characters  on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion  while  in	insert
       mode  you  can  give  the  capability mir to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.   Some  terminals  (notably
       Datamedia's)  must  not	have  mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single	 character,  dch  with
       one  parameter,	n,  to	delete n characters, and delete mode by giving
       smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete  mode  (any  mode	 the  terminal
       needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A  command  to  erase  n	 characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be  represented	in  a number of different ways.	 You should choose one
       display form as standout mode,  representing  a	good,  high  contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes,  format  for  highlighting  error  messages and other
       attention getters.  (If you have a choice,  reverse  video  plus	 half-
       bright  is  good,  or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and
       exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso,  respectively.   If  the
       code  to	 change	 into  or  out of standout mode leaves one or even two
       blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray  1061  do,  then
       xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and
       rmul respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character  and  move  the  cursor  one  space to the right, such as the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting	 modes	include	 blink
       (blinking)  bold	 (bold or extra bright) dim (dim or half-bright) invis
       (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse video)  sgr0
       (turn  off  all	attribute  modes) smacs (enter alternate character set
       mode) and rmacs (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If  there  is  a	 sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this
       should be given as sgr (set attributes),	 taking	 9  parameters.	  Each
       parameter  is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on
       or off.	The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline,  reverse,
       blink,  dim,  bold,  blank,  protect, alternate character set.  Not all
       modes need be supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

 tparm parameter		attribute    escape sequence

 none				none	     \E[0m
 p1				standout     \E[0;1;7m
 p2				underline    \E[0;4m
 p3				reverse	     \E[0;7m
 p4				blink	     \E[0;5m
 p5				dim	     not available
 p6				bold	     \E[0;1m
 p7				invis	     \E[0;8m
 p8				protect	     not used
 p9				altcharset   ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We  begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since
       there is no quick way to determine whether they are  active.   Standout
       is  set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220 termi-
       nal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in  sgr  because
       it  protects  characters	 on  the screen from the host's erasures.  The
       altcharset mode also is different in  that  it  is  either  ^O  or  ^N,
       depending  on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is  out-
       put  when  either  p1  or  p3  is  true, that is, if either standout or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

sequence			when to output	   terminfo translation

\E[0			       always		   \E[0
;1			       if p1 or p6	   %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
;4			       if p2		   %?%p2%|%t;4%;
;5			       if p4		   %?%p4%|%t;5%;
;7			       if p1 or p3	   %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
;8			       if p7		   %?%p7%|%t;8%;
m			       always		   m
^N or ^O		       if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also	specify	 sgr0.	 Also,
       some  implementations  rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not all ter-
       minfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.	Many  terminfo
       entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals  with	the  ``magic  cookie''	glitch	(xmc)  deposit special
       ``cookies'' when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect  the
       display	algorithm  rather  than	 having extra bits for each character.
       Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout  mode
       when  they  move	 to  a	new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs
       using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving the	cursor
       or  sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate  an	 error
       quietly	(a  bell replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must
       not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is  not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an easier to find block or blinking underline) give  this  sequence  as
       cvvis.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that as civis.  The capability cnorm should be given which  undoes  the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If  your	 terminal  correctly  generates underlined characters (with no
       special codes needed) even though it  does  not	overstrike,  then  you
       should  give  the  capability  ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the  capability  os.   If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes  when	the  keys  are
       pressed,	 this  information can be given.  Note that it is not possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for  example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.	Other-
       wise  the  keypad is assumed to always transmit.	 The codes sent by the
       left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and  home	 keys  can  be
       given  as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there
       are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send can  be
       given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels other than the
       default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.
       The  codes  transmitted by certain other special keys can be given: kll
       (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab  (clear  the
       tab  stop  in  this  column),  kclr  (clear screen or erase key), kdch1
       (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert  mode),  kel
       (clear  to  end	of  line), ked (clear to end of screen), kich1 (insert
       character or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp	 (next	page),
       kpp  (previous  page),  kind  (scroll  forward/down), kri (scroll back-
       ward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this column).	In  addition,  if  the
       keypad  has  a  3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the
       other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,  kc1,  and  kc3.	 These
       keys  are  useful  when	the  effects  of  a 3 by 3 directional pad are

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.
       A  string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in	a  terminal  dependent
       manner.	 The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as	 the  user  typing  the	 given
       string;	pfloc  causes  the  string  to	be executed by the terminal in
       local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh	 define	 the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.	smln  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to  the  next
       tab  stop  can be given as ht (usually control I).  A ``back-tab'' com-
       mand which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop  can	 be  given  as
       cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
       expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the  terminal,  pro-
       grams should not use ht or cbt even if they are present, since the user
       may not have the tab stops properly set.	 If the terminal has  hardware
       tabs  which  are initially set every n spaces when the terminal is pow-
       ered up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of  spa-
       ces  the tabs are set to.  This is normally used by the tset command to
       determine whether to set the  mode  for	hardware  tab  expansion,  and
       whether	to  set the tab stops.	If the terminal has tab stops that can
       be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo  description  can	assume
       that they are properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
       for the terminal, iprog, the path name of a program to be run  to  ini-
       tialize	the  terminal, and if, the name of a file containing long ini-
       tialization strings.  These strings are expected to  set	 the  terminal
       into  modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They
       are normally sent to the terminal, by the init option of the tput  pro-
       gram,  each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the follow-
       ing order:

	      run the program

	      output is1 is2

	      set the margins using
		     mgc, smgl and smgr

	      set tabs using
		     tbc and hts

	      print the file

	      and finally
		     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal	modes  can  be
       set  up	without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in
       is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder  reset  from  a  totally  unknown
       state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if
       and is3 respectively.  These strings are output by the  reset  program,
       which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if  they  produce  annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam-
       ple, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be
       part  of is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not
       normally needed since the terminal is  usually  already	in  80	column

       The  reset  program  writes  strings including iprog, etc., in the same
       order as the init program, using rs1, etc., instead of  is1,  etc.   If
       any  of	rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing, the
       reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capabil-
       ity string.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
       tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column
       of  every  row).	  If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF  or  DTR
       handshaking,  including	hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
       (including, for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding	 char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically emits ^S back to the host	when  its  input  buffers  are
       close  to  full),  set xon.  This capability suppresses the emission of
       padding.	 You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices	effec-
       tively  that  do	 not  have  a speed limit.  Padding information should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below the value of pb.  If the entry has no  padding  baud  rate,  then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by xon.

       If  the	terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some  terminals	have an extra `status line' which is not normally used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but  not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status line of this kind, as would  a  24-line  VT100  with  a  23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to  access  the
       status  line.  These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
       tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the	status
       line.   The  capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor posi-
       tions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values  of
       sc  (save  cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as  the	 width
       of  the	terminal.   If	this  is  untrue,  you can specify it with the
       numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies  that  escape  sequences,	 tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The  ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for	forms-drawing.
       Terminfo	 and  curses  build in support for the drawing characters sup-
       ported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T	4410v1	added.
       This alternate character set may be specified by the acsc capability.

		  Glyph		    ACS		 Ascii		 VT100
		   Name		    Name	 Default	  Name
       UK pound sign		    ACS_STERLING f	  }
       arrow pointing down	    ACS_DARROW	 v	  .
       arrow pointing left	    ACS_LARROW	 <	  ,
       arrow pointing right	    ACS_RARROW	 >	  +
       arrow pointing up	    ACS_UARROW	 ^	  -
       board of squares		    ACS_BOARD	 #	  h
       bullet			    ACS_BULLET	 o	  ~
       checker board (stipple)	    ACS_CKBOARD	 :	  a
       degree symbol		    ACS_DEGREE	 \	  f
       diamond			    ACS_DIAMOND	 +	  `
       greater-than-or-equal-to	    ACS_GEQUAL	 >	  z
       greek pi			    ACS_PI	 *	  {
       horizontal line		    ACS_HLINE	 -	  q
       lantern symbol		    ACS_LANTERN	 #	  i
       large plus or crossover	    ACS_PLUS	 +	  n
       less-than-or-equal-to	    ACS_LEQUAL	 <	  y
       lower left corner	    ACS_LLCORNER +	  m
       lower right corner	    ACS_LRCORNER +	  j
       not-equal		    ACS_NEQUAL	 !	  |
       plus/minus		    ACS_PLMINUS	 #	  g
       scan line 1		    ACS_S1	 ~	  o
       scan line 3		    ACS_S3	 -	  p
       scan line 7		    ACS_S7	 -	  r
       scan line 9		    ACS_S9	 _	  s
       solid square block	    ACS_BLOCK	 #	  0
       tee pointing down	    ACS_TTEE	 +	  w
       tee pointing left	    ACS_RTEE	 +	  u
       tee pointing right	    ACS_LTEE	 +	  t
       tee pointing up		    ACS_BTEE	 +	  v
       upper left corner	    ACS_ULCORNER +	  l
       upper right corner	    ACS_URCORNER +	  k
       vertical line		    ACS_VLINE	 |	  x

       The  best  way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the  character	 which
       (when  emitted  between	smacs/rmacs  switches) will be rendered as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most  color  terminals  are either `Tektronix-like' or `HP-like'.  Tek-
       tronix-like terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where  N  usu-
       ally  8),  and can set character-cell foreground and background charac-
       ters independently, mixing them into N *	 N  color-pairs.   On  HP-like
       terminals,  the	use must set each color pair up separately (foreground
       and background are not independently settable).	Up  to	M  color-pairs
       may be set up from 2*M different colors.	 ANSI-compatible terminals are

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric	capabilities  colors  and pairs specify the maximum numbers of
       colors and color-pairs that can be displayed  simultaneously.   The  op
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.	 The oc string resets  all  colors  or
       color-pairs  to	their default values for the terminal.	Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent  background	 color	rather	than  the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To change the current foreground or background color  on	 a  Tektronix-
       type  terminal,	use  setaf  (set  ANSI foreground) and setab (set ANSI
       background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set background).	 These
       take one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes
       only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that "If  the  terminal  supports
       ANSI  escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be
       coded as setaf and setab, respectively.	If the terminal supports other
       escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded
       as setf and setb, respectively.	The vidputs() function and the refresh
       functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

       The  setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argu-
       ment each.  Argument values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined  as
       follows	(the  middle  column  is the symbolic #define available in the
       header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware  is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in color space.

		    Color	#define	      Value	  RGB
		    black     COLOR_BLACK	0     0, 0, 0
		    red	      COLOR_RED		1     max,0,0
		    green     COLOR_GREEN	2     0,max,0
		    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	3     max,max,0
		    blue      COLOR_BLUE	4     0,0,max
		    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	5     max,0,max
		    cyan      COLOR_CYAN	6     0,max,max
		    white     COLOR_WHITE	7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

		    Color	#define	      Value	  RGB
		    black     COLOR_BLACK	0     0, 0, 0
		    blue      COLOR_BLUE	1     0,0,max
		    green     COLOR_GREEN	2     0,max,0
		    cyan      COLOR_CYAN	3     0,max,max
		    red	      COLOR_RED		4     max,0,0
		    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA	5     max,0,max
		    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW	6     max,max,0
		    white     COLOR_WHITE	7     max,max,max
       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number	 parameter  to
       set which color pair is current.

       On  a  Tektronix-like  terminal,	 the  capability ccc may be present to
       indicate that colors can be modified.  If so, the initc capability will
       take  a	color  number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parameters which
       describe the color.  These three parameters  default  to	 being	inter-
       preted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.	 If the boolean capability hls
       is present, they	 are  instead  as  HLS	(Hue,  Lightness,  Saturation)
       indices.	 The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On  an  HP-like	terminal,  initp  may give a capability for changing a
       color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a  color-pair	number
       (0  to  max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first background and
       then foreground colors.	These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
       (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can reg-
       ister these collisions with the ncv capability.	This is a bit-mask  of
       attributes  not to be used when colors are enabled.  The correspondence
       with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:

		    Attribute			Bit    Decimal
		    A_STANDOUT			0     1
		    A_UNDERLINE			1     2
		    A_REVERSE			2     4
		    A_BLINK			3     8
		    A_DIM			4     16
		    A_BOLD			5     32
		    A_INVIS			6     64
		    A_PROTECT			7     128
		    A_ALTCHARSET		8     256

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute  collides
       with  the  foreground  color  blue  and is not available in color mode.
       These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and  optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.

       If  the	terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
       then this can be given as pad.  Only the first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.	If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC  variable;
       though  the  application	 may  set this value to something other than a
       null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has  no
       pad character.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).	This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this	as  ff
       (usually control L).

       If  there  is  a	 command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times (to save time transmitting a large number	of  identical  charac-
       ters)  this  can	 be  indicated with the parameterized string rep.  The
       first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second  is  the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025,  this can be indicated with cmdch.	 A prototype command character
       is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character  is	 given
       in  the	cmdch  capability to identify it.  The following convention is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC  variable,  and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind  of	 known
       terminal,  such	as  switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they  do
       not  know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions for which  the	escape	sequences  are

       If  the	terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift key, setting
       the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact  can	 be  indicated
       with  km.   Otherwise,  software will assume that the 8th bit is parity
       and it will usually be cleared.	If strings exist to turn  this	``meta
       mode'' on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A	 value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual  terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media  copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
       terminal can be given as mc0: print the contents of  the	 screen,  mc4:
       turn  off  the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the printer
       is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the	 printer.   It
       is  undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
       when the printer is on.	A variation  mc5p  takes  one  parameter,  and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All  text,  including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer while
       an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be  displayed
       should indicate hz.

       Terminals  which	 ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If el is required to get rid of standout	 (instead  of  merely  writing
       normal text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  Note: the  variable  indicating
       this  is	 now  `dest_tabs_magic_smso';  in  older versions, it was tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to  position  the  cursor  on  top of a ``magic cookie'', that to erase
       standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete  and	 insert	 line.
       The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
       or control C characters, has xsb, indicating that the f1	 key  is  used
       for  escape  and	 f2  for control C.  (Only certain Superbees have this
       problem, depending on the ROM.)	Note that in older terminfo  versions,
       this capability was called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other  specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capa-
       bilities of the form xx.

   Similar Terminals
       If there are two very similar  terminals,  one  (the  variant)  can  be
       defined	as  being  just	 like the other (the base) with certain excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability use can
       be  given  with	the name of the base terminal.	The capabilities given
       before use override those in the base type named by use.	 If there  are
       multiple	 use capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.  That is,
       the rightmost use reference is processed first, then  the  one  to  its
       left,  and  so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the entry over-
       ride those brought in by use references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use ref-
       erence  that  imports it, where xx is the capability.  For example, the

				2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and
       hence  does  not	 turn  on the function key labels when in visual mode.
       This is useful for different modes for a	 terminal,  or	for  different
       user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long  terminfo  entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.	Unfor-
       tunately,  the  termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to
       1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of  long	terminfo  entries  can
       cause problems.

       The  man	 pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.   The	 entry
       gets  null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum
       safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending  on  what
       the  application	 and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for  is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries	to  1023  bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with  it:	before
       "tc"  expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because  it
       affects	more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the  backslash-
       newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some term-
       cap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does	 not).
       Now suppose:

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       *    and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
	    the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
	    if it is the entry it wants,

       *    and	 tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either is the
	    long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long  entry,  or
	    does  not  appear  in  the	file  at all (so that tgetent() has to
	    search the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent() will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack,	 and  probably
       core  dump the program.	Programs like telnet are particularly vulnera-
       ble; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type  automati-
       cally.	The  results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library,
       like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages  when  it
       reads  an  overly  long	termcap entry.	If a termcap library truncates
       long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is  immune  to	dying  here  but  will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc	expansion"  length  will  have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since  tgetent() only does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes  can	cause,
       on  various  combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.	If it is too long even	before
       "tc"  expansion,	 it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not  have  a  termcap

       When  in	 -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of
       tic(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc	length	of  a  termcap
       translation  is	too  long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It is not wise to count	on  portability	 of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between	commercial  UNIX  versions.   The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX  and	 AIX)  which  diverged
       from  System  V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabili-
       ties to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with  Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.

       Some  SVr4  curses  implementations,  and  all previous to SVr4, do not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether msgr licenses  movement	 while	in  an
       alternate-character-set	mode  (such modes may, among other things, map
       CR and NL to characters	that  do  not  trigger	local  motions).   The
       ncurses	implementation	ignores	 msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises
       the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite	inter-
       pretation  may  need  terminfo  entries	made  for ncurses to have msgr
       turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in  a  slightly	non-standard way to get better update efficiency.  See
       the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock  and  display_clock  are  not
       documented  in  SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.	 They are deduced from
       the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be careful assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to inter-
       pret  it	 as  KEY_MOUSE,	 for use by terminals and emulators like xterm
       that  can  return  mouse-tracking  information  in  the	keyboard-input

       Different  commercial  ports  of	 terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI  --	Supports  the  SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
       capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabili-
       ties.   The  booleans  end  with xon_xoff; the numerics with width_sta-
       tus_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX  --  Supports  the	 SVr1  subset,	plus  the  SVr[234]   numerics
       num_labels,  label_height,  label_width,	 plus function keys 11 through
       63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and  label_off,  plus  some  incompatible
       extensions in the string table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
       a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*	files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1M), infocmp(1M), curses(3X), printf(3), term(5).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.