xemacs manpage

Search topic Section

XEMACS(1)		    General Commands Manual		     XEMACS(1)

       xemacs - Emacs: The Next Generation

       xemacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]

       XEmacs  is  a  version  of  Emacs,  compatible with and containing many
       improvements over GNU Emacs, written by Richard Stallman	 of  the  Free
       Software	 Foundation.   It  was originally based on an early release of
       GNU Emacs Version 19, and has tracked subsequent releases of GNU	 Emacs
       as they have become available.

       The  primary documentation of XEmacs is in the XEmacs Reference Manual,
       which you can read on-line using Info, a subsystem of  XEmacs.	Please
       look  there  for complete and up-to-date documentation.	Complete docu-
       mentation on using Emacs Lisp is available on-line through  the	XEmacs
       Lisp  Programmer's Manual.  Both manuals also can be printed out nicely
       using the TeX formatting package.

       The user functionality of XEmacs	 encompasses  everything  other	 Emacs
       editors	do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands are
       written in Lisp.

       XEmacs has an extensive interactive help	 facility,  but	 the  facility
       assumes	that  you  know	 how to manipulate XEmacs windows and buffers.
       CTRL-h enters the Help facility.	 Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) requests  an
       interactive  tutorial  which  can  teach	 beginners the fundamentals of
       XEmacs in a few minutes.	 Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a com-
       mand  given  its functionality, Help Key Binding (CTRL-h k) describes a
       given key sequence's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)  describes  a
       given  Lisp  function  specified	 by  name.   You  can also look up key
       sequences in the XEmacs	Reference  Manual  using  Lookup  Key  Binding
       (CTRL-h CTRL-k), and look up Lisp functions in the XEmacs Lisp Program-
       mer's Manual using Lookup Function (CTRL-h CTRL-f).  All of these  help
       functions,  and more, are available on the Help menu if you are using a
       window system.

       XEmacs has extensive GUI (graphical user interface) support  when  run-
       ning  under  a window system such as X, including multiple frames (top-
       level windows), a menubar, a toolbar, horizontal and  vertical  scroll-
       bars, dialog boxes, and extensive mouse support.

       XEmacs  has  full support for multiple fonts and colors, variable-width
       fonts, and variable-height lines, and allows for pixmaps to be inserted
       into a buffer. (This is used in the W3 web-browsing package and in some
       of the debugger and outlining interfaces, among other things.)

       XEmacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to	your  buffers,
       so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       XEmacs's many special packages handle mail reading (VM, MH-E and RMail)
       and sending (Mail), Usenet news reading and posting (GNUS), World  Wide
       Web  browsing  (W3),  specialized  modes for editing source code in all
       common programming languages, syntax highlighting  for  many  languages
       (Font-Lock),  compiling (Compile), running subshells within XEmacs win-
       dows (Shell), outline editing (Outline), running a Lisp read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There  is  an  extensive	 reference  manual, but users of other Emacsen
       should have little trouble adapting even without a copy.	 Users new  to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       XEmacs Options

       XEmacs accepts all standard X Toolkit command line options when run  in
       an  X  Windows  environment.   In  addition,  the following options are
       accepted (when options imply a sequence of actions to perform, they are
       performed in the order encountered):

       -t file Use  specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/std-
	       out.  This implies -nw.

       -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages  to  stdout.
	       You  must use the -l, -f, and -eval options to specify files to
	       execute and functions to call.

       -nw     Inhibit the use of any window-system-specific display code: use
	       the current TTY.

	       Enter the debugger if an error occurs loading the init file.

	       Do not map the initial frame.

	       Do not load the site-specific init file (site-start.el).

       -q, -no-init-file
	       Do not load an init file.

	       Do not process the early packages.

	       Load  no extra files at startup.	 Equivalent to the combination
	       of -q , -no-site-file , and -no-early-packages

       -u user, -user user
	       Load user's init file.

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go to the line specified by  number  (do	 not  insert  a	 space
	       between the "+" sign and the number).

       -help   Print a help message and exit.

       -V, -version,
	       Print the version number and exit.

       -f function, -funcall function
	       Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file, -load file
	       Load the Lisp code in the file file.

       -eval form
	       Evaluate the Lisp form form.

       -i file, -insert file
	       Insert file into the current buffer.

       -kill   Exit XEmacs (useful with -batch).

       Using XEmacs with X Windows

       XEmacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.	If you
       run XEmacs from under X windows, it will create its  own	 X  window  to
       display in.

       XEmacs can be started with the following standard X options:

       -visual <visualname><bitdepth>
	      Select the visual that XEmacs will attempt to use.  <visualname>
	      should  be  one  of  the	strings	 "StaticColor",	  "TrueColor",
	      "GrayScale",  "PseudoColor"  or  "DirectColor",  and  <bitdepth>
	      should be the number of bits per pixel (example, "-visual	 True-
	      Color24"	for a 24bit TrueColor visual) See X(1) for more infor-

	      Require XEmacs to create and use a private colormap for display.
	      This  will  keep XEmacs from taking colors from the default col-
	      ormap and keeping them from other clients, at the cost of	 caus-
	      ing  annoying  flicker  when the focus changes.  Use this option
	      only if your X server does not support 24 bit visuals.

       -geometry ##x##+##+##
	      Specify the geometry of the initial window.  The ##'s  represent
	      a number; the four numbers are width (characters), height (char-
	      acters), X offset (pixels), and Y offset (pixels), respectively.
	      Partial  specifications  of  the	form  ##x## or +##+## are also
	      allowed. (The geometry specification is in the standard  X  for-
	      mat; see X(1) for more information.)

	      Specifies that the initial window should initially appear iconi-

       -name name
	       Specifies the program name which should be used when looking up
	       defaults in the user's X resources.

       -title title, -T title, -wn title
	       Specifies the title which should be assigned to the XEmacs win-

       -d displayname, -display displayname
	       Create the XEmacs window on the display specified  by  display-
	       name.  Must be the first option specified in the command line.

       -font font, -fn font
	       Set  the	 XEmacs	 window's font to that specified by font.  You
	       will find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts	direc-
	       tory.  XEmacs works with either fixed- or variable-width fonts,
	       but will probably look better with a fixed-width font.

       -scrollbar-width pixels
	       Specify the width of the vertical scrollbars.

       -scrollbar-height pixels
	       Specify the height of the horizontal scrollbars.

       -bw pixels, -borderwidth pixels
	       Set the XEmacs window's border width to the  number  of	pixels
	       specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the

       -ib pixels, -internal-border-width pixels
	       Specify the width between a frame's border  and	its  text,  in
	       pixels.	Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

       -fg color, -foreground color
	       Sets the color of the text.

	       See  the	 file  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for a list of valid color

       -bg color, -background color
	       Sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
	       Sets the color of the window's border.

       -mc color
	       Sets the color of the mouse pointer.

       -cr color
	       Sets the color of the text cursor.

       -rv, -reverse
	       Reverses the foreground and background colors (reverse  video).
	       Consider	 explicitly setting the foreground and background col-
	       ors instead of using this option.

       -xrm argument
	       This allows you to set an arbitrary  resource  on  the  command
	       line.  argument should be a resource specification, as might be
	       found in your .Xresources or .Xdefaults file.

       You can also set resources, i.e.	 X default  values,  for  your	XEmacs
       windows	in your .Xresources or .Xdefaults file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the
       following format:




       where value specifies the default value of  keyword.   (Some  resources
       need the former format; some the latter.)

       You can also set resources for a particular frame by using the format


       where framename is the resource name assigned to that particular frame.
       (Certain packages, such as VM, give their frames unique resource names,
       in this case "VM".)

       XEmacs lets you set default values for the following keywords:

       default.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
	       Sets the window's text font.

       default.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
	       Sets the window's text color.

       default.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
	       Sets the window's background color.

       face.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
	       Sets  the  font	for  face, which should be the name of a face.
	       Common face names are

	       FACE	       PURPOSE
	       default	       Normal text.
	       bold	       Bold text.
	       italic	       Italicized text.
	       bold-italic     Bold and italicized text.
	       modeline	       Modeline text.
	       zmacs-region    Text selected with the mouse.
	       highlight       Text highlighted when the mouse passes over.
	       left-margin     Text in the left margin.
	       right-margin    Text in the right margin.
	       isearch	       Text highlighted during incremental search.
	       info-node       Text of Info menu items.
	       info-xref       Text of Info cross references.

       face.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
	       Sets the foreground color for face.

       face.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
	       Sets the background color for face.

       face.attributeBackgroundPixmap (class Face.AttributeBackgroundPixmap)
	       Sets the background pixmap (stipple) for face.

       face.attributeUnderline (class Face.AttributeUnderline)
	       Whether face should be underlined.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
	       If set to on, the window will be displayed  in  reverse	video.
	       Consider	 explicitly setting the foreground and background col-
	       ors instead of using this resource.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorderWidth (class InternalBorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       Sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
	       Sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
	       Sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       emacsVisual (class EmacsVisual)
	       Sets the default visual XEmacs will try to  use	(as  described

       privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
	       If set, XEmacs will default to using a private colormap.

       geometry (class Geometry)
	       Sets the geometry of the XEmacs window (as described above).

       iconic (class Iconic)
	       If  set	to  on,	 the XEmacs window will initially appear as an

       menubar (class Menubar)
	       Whether the XEmacs window will have  a  menubar.	  Defaults  to

       initiallyUnmapped (class InitiallyUnmapped)
	       Whether	XEmacs	will  leave the initial frame unmapped when it
	       starts up.

       barCursor (class BarCursor)
	       Whether the cursor should be a bar instead of  the  traditional

       title (class Title)
	       Sets the title of the XEmacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
	       Sets the icon name for the XEmacs window icon.

       scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
	       Sets  the width of the vertical scrollbars, in pixels.  A width
	       of 0 means no vertical scrollbars.

       scrollBarHeight (class ScrollBarHeight)
	       Sets the height of the horizontal  scrollbars,  in  pixels.   A
	       height of 0 means no horizontal scrollbars.

       scrollBarPlacement (class ScrollBarPlacement)
	       Sets  the  position  of	vertical  and  horizontal  scrollbars.
	       Should be one of the strings "top-left",	 "bottom-left",	 "top-
	       right",	or  "bottom-right".  The default is "bottom-right" for
	       the Motif and Lucid scrollbars and "bottom-left" for the Athena

       topToolBarHeight (class TopToolBarHeight)
	       Sets  the height of the top toolbar, in pixels.	0 means no top

       bottomToolBarHeight (class BottomToolBarHeight)
	       Sets the height of the bottom toolbar, in pixels.  0  means  no
	       bottom toolbar.

       leftToolBarWidth (class LeftToolBarWidth)
	       Sets the width of the left toolbar, in pixels.  0 means no left

       rightToolBarWidth (class RightToolBarWidth)
	       Sets the width of the right toolbar, in	pixels.	  0  means  no
	       right toolbar.

       topToolBarShadowColor (class TopToolBarShadowColor)
	       Sets  the  color	 of the top shadows for the toolbars. (For all
	       toolbars, not just the toolbar at the top of the frame.)

       bottomToolBarShadowColor (class BottomToolBarShadowColor)
	       Sets the color of the bottom shadows for the toolbars. (For all
	       toolbars, not just the toolbar at the bottom of the frame.)

       topToolBarShadowPixmap (class TopToolBarShadowPixmap)
	       Sets  the  pixmap of the top shadows for the toolbars. (For all
	       toolbars, not just the toolbar at the top  of  the  frame.)  If
	       set, this resource overrides the corresponding color resource.

       bottomToolBarShadowPixmap (class BottomToolBarShadowPixmap)
	       Sets  the  pixmap  of the bottom shadows for the toolbars. (For
	       all toolbars, not just the toolbar at the bottom of the frame.)
	       If   set,  this	resource  overrides  the  corresponding	 color

       toolBarShadowThickness (class ToolBarShadowThickness)
	       Thickness of the shadows around the toolbars, in pixels.

       visualBell (class VisualBell)
	       Whether XEmacs should flash the screen rather  than  making  an
	       audible beep.

       bellVolume (class BellVolume)
	       Volume of the audible beep.  Range is 0 through 100.

       useBackingStore (class UseBackingStore)
	       Whether	XEmacs should set the backing-store attribute of the X
	       windows it creates.  This increases the memory usage of	the  X
	       server  but  decreases  the  amount  of	X traffic necessary to
	       update the screen, and is useful when the connection to	the  X
	       server  goes  over a low-bandwidth line such as a modem connec-

       textPointer (class Cursor)
	       The cursor to use when the mouse is over text.

       selectionPointer (class Cursor)
	       The cursor to use when the mouse is  over  a  mouse-highlighted
	       text region.

       spacePointer (class Cursor)
	       The  cursor  to	use  when the mouse is over a blank space in a
	       buffer (that is, after the end of a line or after  the  end-of-

       modeLinePointer (class Cursor)
	       The cursor to use when the mouse is over a mode line.

       gcPointer (class Cursor)
	       The cursor to display when a garbage-collection is in progress.

       scrollbarPointer (class Cursor)
	       The cursor to use when the mouse is over the scrollbar.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
	       The foreground color of the mouse cursor.

       pointerBackground (class Background)
	       The background color of the mouse cursor.

       Using the Mouse

       The  following  lists  the  mouse button bindings for the XEmacs window
       under X11.

       left		    Set point or make a text selection.
       middle		    Paste text.
       right		    Pop up a menu of options.
       SHIFT-left	    Extend a selection.
       CTRL-left	    Make a selection and insert it at point.
       CTRL-middle	    Set point and move selected text there.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left	    Make a selection, delete  it,  and	insert	it  at
       META-left	    Make a rectangular selection.

       Lisp code is read at startup from the user's init file, $HOME/.emacs.

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem
       of XEmacs) to refer to.	The complete text of the XEmacs Reference Man-
       ual and the XEmacs Lisp Programmer's Manual is included in a convenient
       tree structured form.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/info  -  the  Info  files	 may  be  here

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/lisp/*  - Lisp source files and compiled
       files that define most editing commands.	 The files  are	 contained  in
       subdirectories,	categorized  by	 function or individual package.  Some
       are preloaded; others are autoloaded from these directories when used.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc - some files of information,	pixmap
       files, other data files used by certain packages, etc.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION  -	 various programs that
       are used with XEmacs.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION/DOC - contains the	 docu-
       mentation  strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions
       of XEmacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of XEmacs proper.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs/site-lisp - locally-provided Lisp files.

       There is a newsgroup, comp.emacs.xemacs, for reporting XEmacs bugs  and
       fixes  and  requesting  help.  But before reporting something as a bug,
       please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not  a  misunderstanding
       or  a  deliberate  feature.  We ask you to read the section ``Reporting
       XEmacs Bugs'' near the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for
       hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number
       of the XEmacs you are running and the system you are running it	on  in
       every  bug  report that you send in.  Finally, the more you can isolate
       the cause of a bug and the conditions it happens under, the more likely
       it is to be fixed, so please take the time to do so.

       The newsgroup is bidirectionally gatewayed to and from the mailing list
       xemacs@xemacs.org.  You can read the list instead of the	 newsgroup  if
       you  do not have convenient Usenet news access.	To request to be added
       to the mailing list, send mail to  xemacs-request@xemacs.org.  (Do  not
       send mail to the list itself.)

       The XEmacs maintainers read the newsgroup regularly and will attempt to
       fix bugs reported in a timely fashion.  However, not every message will
       get  a  response from one of the maintainers.  Note that there are many
       people other than the maintainers who read the newsgroup, and will usu-
       ally be of assistance in helping with any problems encountered.

       If  you need more personal assistance than can be provided by the news-
       group, look in the SERVICE file (see above) for a list  of  people  who
       offer it.

       For   more  information	about  XEmacs  mailing	lists,	see  the  file

       XEmacs is free; anyone may redistribute	copies	of  XEmacs  to	anyone
       under  the terms stated in the XEmacs General Public License, a copy of
       which accompanies each copy of XEmacs and which	also  appears  in  the
       reference manual.

       Copies  of XEmacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions
       of Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of  any  license
       covering	 those	systems.   Such	 inclusion violates the terms on which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public  License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restric-
       tions to redistribution of XEmacs.

       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1), emacs(1), vi(1)

       XEmacs was written by Steve Baur	 <steve@xemacs.org>,  Martin  Buchholz
       <martin@xemacs.org>,   Richard  Mlynarik	 <mly@adoc.xerox.com>,	Hrvoje
       Niksic <hniksic@xemacs.org>, Chuck  Thompson  <cthomp@xemacs.org>,  Ben
       Wing  <ben@xemacs.org>,	Jamie Zawinski <jwz@jwz.org>, and many others.
       It was based on an early version of GNU Emacs Version  19,  written  by
       Richard Stallman <rms@gnu.org> of the Free Software Foundation, and has
       tracked subsequent releases of GNU Emacs as they have become available.
       It  was originally written by Lucid, Inc.  (now defunct) and was called
       Lucid Emacs.

       Chuck Thompson wrote the XEmacs redisplay engine, maintains the	XEmacs
       FTP  and	 WWW sites, and has put out all releases of XEmacs since 19.11
       (the first release called XEmacs).  Ben Wing wrote  the	Asian-language
       support, the on-line documentation (including this man page and much of
       the FAQ), the external widget code, and retooled or rewrote most of the
       basic,  low-level  XEmacs  subsystems.	Jamie  Zawinski	 put  out  all
       releases of Lucid  Emacs,  from	the  first  (19.0)  through  the  last
       (19.10),	 and  was  the	primary	 code  contributor  for	 all  of these
       releases.  Richard Mlynarik rewrote the XEmacs  Lisp-object  allocation
       system,	improved  the  keymap and minibuffer code, and did the initial
       synching of XEmacs with GNU Emacs Version 19.

       Many others have also contributed  significantly.   For	more  detailed
       information,  including	a  long	 history of XEmacs from multiple view-
       points and pretty pictures and bios of the major	 XEmacs	 contributors,
       see the XEmacs About Page (the About XEmacs option on the Help menu).

       For more information about XEmacs, see the XEmacs About Page (mentioned
       above), look in the  file  /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc/NEWS,  or
       point your Web browser at


       for up-to-the-minute information about XEmacs.

       The  XEmacs  FAQ	 (Frequently  Asked Questions) can be found at the Web
       site just listed.  A possibly out-of-date version  is  also  accessible
       through the Info system inside of XEmacs.

       The latest version of XEmacs can be downloaded using anonymous FTP from


       or  from	 a  mirror site near you.  Mirror sites are listed in the file
       etc/FTP in the XEmacs distribution or see the Web site  for  an	up-to-
       date list of mirror sites.

4th Berkeley Distribution	  2000-09-20			     XEMACS(1)