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ZIP(1L)								       ZIP(1L)

       zip, zipcloak, zipnote, zipsplit - package and compress (archive) files

       zip   [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]   [-b path]	 [-n suffixes]
       [-t mmddyyyy] [-tt mmddyyyy] [ zipfile [ file1 file2 ...]] [-xi list]

       zipcloak [-dhL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipnote [-hwL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipsplit [-hiLpst] [-n size] [-b path] zipfile

       zip  is	a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows NT, Minix, Atari and Macintosh, Amiga and Acorn RISC  OS.

       It  is  analogous to a combination of the UNIX commands tar(1) and com-
       press(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for  MSDOS  sys-

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1L)),  unpacks zip archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP, and	 PKZIP
       and  PKUNZIP  can work with archives produced by zip.  zip version 2.31
       is compatible with PKZIP 2.04.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10  cannot  extract
       files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 2.31. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or
       unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip,  run	each  without  specifying  any
       parameters on the command line.

       The  program  is	 useful for packaging a set of files for distribution;
       for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compress-
       ing unused files or directories.

       The  zip	 program  puts	one or more compressed files into a single zip
       archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time
       of  last modification, protection, and check information to verify file
       integrity).  An entire directory structure can be  packed  into	a  zip
       archive	with  a	 single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are
       common for text files.  zip has one compression method (deflation)  and
       can  also  store	 files without compression.  zip automatically chooses
       the better of the two for each file to be compressed.

       When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip will replace	 iden-
       tically	named entries in the zip archive or add entries for new names.
       For example, if foo.zip exists and contains  foo/file1  and  foo/file2,
       and the directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

	      zip -r foo foo

       will replace foo/file1 in foo.zip and add foo/file3 to foo.zip.	 After
       this,  foo.zip  contains	 foo/file1,  foo/file2,	 and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       If the file list is specified as -@, [Not on MacOS] zip takes the  list
       of  input  files	 from  standard input.	Under UNIX, this option can be
       used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find(1)	command.   For
       example, to archive all the C source files in the current directory and
       its subdirectories:

	      find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from  expanding
       it).  zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name, in
       which case it will write the zip file to standard output, allowing  the
       output to be piped to another program. For example:

	      zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to  be  com-
       pressed,	 in  which  case  it  will  read the file from standard input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

	      tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up  the	current	 directory. This generally produces better compression
       than the previous example using the -r option,  because	zip  can  take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

	      unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal,  zip  acts
       as  a filter, compressing standard input to standard output.  For exam-

	      tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

	      tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with  the  program
       funzip  which  is  provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
       provided in the gzip package. For example:

	      dd if=/dev/nrst0	ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary  file
       with the new contents, and only replace the old one when the process of
       creating the new version has been completed without error.

       If the name of the zip archive  does  not  contain  an  extension,  the
       extension  .zip	is  added.  If	the name already contains an extension
       other than .zip the existing extension is kept unchanged.

       -a     [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

       -A     Adjust self-extracting executable	 archive.   A  self-extracting
	      executable  archive  is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
	      existing archive. The -A option tells zip to  adjust  the	 entry
	      offsets  stored in the archive to take into account this "pream-
	      ble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a  special  case.   At
       present, only the Amiga port of Zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these without corrupting them.  -J can be used to remove the  SFX  stub
       if other updates need to be made.

       -B     [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
	      bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
	      bit 1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
	      bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
	      bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
	      bit 8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
	      Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For	 exam-

		     zip -b /tmp stuff *

	      will  put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp, copy-
	      ing over stuff.zip to the	 current  directory  when  done.  This
	      option is only useful when updating an existing archive, and the
	      file system containing this old archive  does  not  have	enough
	      space to hold both old and new archives at the same time.

       -c     Add  one-line  comments for each file.  File operations (adding,
	      updating) are done first, and the user is then  prompted	for  a
	      one-line	comment	 for each file.	 Enter the comment followed by
	      return, or just return for no comment.

       -d     Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

	      will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that	 start
	      with  foo/harry/,	 and all of the files that end with .o (in any
	      path).  Note that shell pathname expansion  has  been  inhibited
	      with  backslashes,  so  that zip can see the asterisks, enabling
	      zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead  of  the
	      contents of the current directory.

	      Under systems where the shell does not expand wildcards, such as
	      MSDOS, the backslashes are not needed.  The above would then be

		     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/* *.o

	      Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names  in  the
	      zip  archive.  This requires that file names be entered in upper
	      case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.

       -df    [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
	      Good   for   exporting   files   to  foreign  operating-systems.
	      Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

       -D     Do not create  entries  in  the  zip  archive  for  directories.
	      Directory	  entries   are	 created  by  default  so  that	 their
	      attributes can be saved in the  zip  archive.   The  environment
	      variable	ZIPOPT	can be used to change the default options. For
	      example under Unix with sh:

		     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

	      (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option except -i and -x
	      and  can	include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand
	      for -x "*/" but the latter cannot	 be  set  as  default  in  the
	      ZIPOPT environment variable.

       -e     Encrypt  the  contents of the zip archive using a password which
	      is entered on the terminal in response to a  prompt  (this  will
	      not  be  echoed;	if  standard error is not a tty, zip will exit
	      with an error).  The password prompt is  repeated	 to  save  the
	      user from typing errors.

       -E     [OS/2]  Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as file-

       -f     Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive  only  if
	      it  has  been modified more recently than the version already in
	      the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
	      files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -f foo

	      This  command  should  be run from the same directory from which
	      the original zip command was run,	 since	paths  stored  in  zip
	      archives are always relative.

	      Note  that  the  timezone	 environment variable TZ should be set
	      according to the local timezone in order for the -f , -u and  -o
	      options to work correctly.

	      The  reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with
	      the differences between the Unix-format file  times  (always  in
	      GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time)
	      and the necessity to compare the two.  A	typical	 TZ  value  is
	      ''MET-1MEST''  (Middle  European	time with automatic adjustment
	      for ''summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

       -F     Fix the zip archive. This option can be used if some portions of
	      the  archive  are	 missing. It is not guaranteed to work, so you
	      MUST make a backup of the original archive first.

	      When doubled as in -FF the compressed  sizes  given  inside  the
	      damaged archive are not trusted and zip scans for special signa-
	      tures to identify the limits between the	archive	 members.  The
	      single  -F  is more reliable if the archive is not too much dam-
	      aged, for example if it has only been  truncated,	 so  try  this
	      option first.

	      Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
	      transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
	      the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
	      Such files cannot be recovered; you can  remove  them  from  the
	      archive using the -d option of zip.

       -g     Grow  (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating
	      a new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore  the
	      archive  to  its	original  state. If the restoration fails, the
	      archive might become corrupted.  This  option  is	 ignored  when
	      there's  no existing archive or when at least one archive member
	      must be updated or deleted.

       -h     Display the zip help information (this also appears  if  zip  is
	      run with no arguments).

       -i files
	      Include only the specified files, as in:

		     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

	      which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current
	      directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
	      equivalent command is

		     pkzip -rP foo *.c

	      PKZIP  does  not	allow  recursion in directories other than the
	      current one.)  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitu-
	      tion,  so	 that  the  name  matching  is performed by zip at all
	      directory levels.	 Not escaping  wildcards  on  shells  that  do
	      wildcard	substitution before zip gets the command line may seem
	      to work but files in subdirectories matching  the	 pattern  will
	      never  be checked and so not matched.  For shells, such as Win32
	      command prompts, that do not replace  file  patterns  containing
	      wildcards with the respective file names, zip will do the recur-
	      sion and escaping the wildcards is not needed.

	      Also possible:

		     zip -r foo	 . -i@include.lst

	      which will only include the files in the current	directory  and
	      its   subdirectories   that  match  the  patterns	 in  the  file

       -I     [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used,  zip
	      will  not	 consider  Image  files	 (eg.  DOS partitions or Spark
	      archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but  will	 store
	      them as single files.

	      For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
	      will result in a zipfile containing a directory  (and  its  con-
	      tent)  while  using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile con-
	      taining a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be
	      obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.

       -j     Store  just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
	      store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
	      (relative to the current path).

       -jj    [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
	      volume will be stored. By default	 the  relative	path  will  be

       -J     Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

       -k     Attempt  to  convert  the	 names	and paths to conform to MSDOS,
	      store only the MSDOS attribute (just the	user  write  attribute
	      from  UNIX), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
	      it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS	 which
	      cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

       -l     Translate	 the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS con-
	      vention CR LF. This option should not be used on	binary	files.
	      This  option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for
	      PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain  CR  LF,
	      this option adds an extra CR. This ensures that unzip -a on Unix
	      will get back an exact copy of the original file,	 to  undo  the
	      effect  of  zip  -l.   See  the note on binary detection for -ll

       -ll    Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
	      should  not be used on binary files and a warning will be issued
	      when a file is converted that later is detected  to  be  binary.
	      This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for
	      unzip under Unix.

	      In Zip 2.31 binary detection has been changed from a simple per-
	      centage  of  binary characters being considered binary to a more
	      selective method that should consider files  in  many  character
	      sets, including UTF-8, that only include text characters in that
	      character set to be text.	 This allows unzip -a to convert these

       -L     Display the zip license.

       -m     Move  the	 specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
	      deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
	      zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
	      files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
	      until zip has created the archive without error.	This is useful
	      for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
	      recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
	      before removing all input files.

       -n suffixes
	      Do not attempt to compress files named with the given  suffixes.
	      Such  files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip
	      file, so that zip doesn't waste  its  time  trying  to  compress
	      them.   The  suffixes  are  separated  by either colons or semi-
	      colons.  For example:

		     zip -rn .Z:.zip:.tiff:.gif:.snd  foo foo

	      will copy everything from foo into foo.zip, but will  store  any
	      files  that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
	      to compress them (image and sound files  often  have  their  own
	      specialized compression methods).	 By default, zip does not com-
	      press	files	  with	   extensions	  in	 the	  list
	      .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj.   Such files are stored directly in
	      the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
	      to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

		     setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"

	      To attempt compression on all files, use:

		     zip -n : foo

	      The  maximum  compression option -9 also attempts compression on
	      all files regardless of extension.

	      On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes  (3
	      hex  digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
	      filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files  and
	      PackDir files).

       -N     [Amiga,  MacOS]  Save  Amiga  or MacOS filenotes as zipfile com-
	      ments. They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip.  If
	      -c  is  used  also, you are prompted for comments only for those
	      files that do not have filenotes.

       -o     Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive  to  the	latest
	      (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
	      archive.	This can be used  without  any	other  operations,  if
	      desired.	For example:

		     zip -o foo

	      will change the last modified time of foo.zip to the latest time
	      of the entries in foo.zip.

       -P password
	      use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).	 THIS IS INSE-
	      CURE!   Many  multi-user	operating systems provide ways for any
	      user to see the current command line of any other user; even  on
	      stand-alone  systems  there  is  always  the threat of over-the-
	      shoulder peeking.	 Storing the plaintext password as part	 of  a
	      command  line  in	 an  automated script is even worse.  Whenever
	      possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter pass-
	      words.   (And  where  security  is  truly	 important, use strong
	      encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
	      weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     Quiet   mode;   eliminate	 informational	messages  and  comment
	      prompts.	(Useful, for example, in shell scripts and  background

       -Qn    [QDOS]  store information about the file in the file header with
	      n defined as
	      bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
	      bit  1: Add headers for all files
	      bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

       -r     Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

		     zip -r foo foo

	      In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved  in
	      a zip archive named foo.zip, including files with names starting
	      with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name
	      substitution  mechanism.	If you wish to include only a specific
	      subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
	      the  -i  option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.
	      You should not use -r with the name  ".*",  since	 that  matches
	      ".."   which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (proba-
	      bly not what was intended).

       -R     Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the  cur-
	      rent directory; for example:

		     zip -R foo '*.c'

	      In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
	      the current directory  are  stored  into	a  zip	archive	 named
	      foo.zip.	Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

		     pkzip -rP foo *.c

       -S     [MSDOS,  OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
	      [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored  oth-

       -t mmddyyyy
	      Do  not  operate	on files modified prior to the specified date,
	      where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
	      and  yyyy	 is  the year.	The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is
	      also accepted.  For example:

		     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

		     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

	      will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories  that  were
	      last  modified  on  or after 7 December 1991, to the zip archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
	      Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
	      where mm is the month (0-12), dd is the day of the month (1-31),
	      and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601 date	format	yyyy-mm-dd  is
	      also accepted.  For example:

		     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

		     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

	      will  add	 all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
	      last modified before the 30 November 1995, to  the  zip  archive

       -T     Test  the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the
	      old zip file is unchanged and (with  the	-m  option)  no	 input
	      files are removed.

       -u     Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
	      has been modified more recently than the version already in  the
	      zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -u stuff *

	      will  add any new files in the current directory, and update any
	      files which have been modified since the zip  archive  stuff.zip
	      was  last	 created/modified  (note that zip will not try to pack
	      stuff.zip into itself when you do this).

	      Note that the -u option with  no	arguments  acts	 like  the  -f
	      (freshen) option.

       -v     Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

	      Normally,	 when  applied to real operations, this option enables
	      the display of  a	 progress  indicator  during  compression  and
	      requests	verbose	 diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddi-

	      When -v is the only command line argument, and either  stdin  or
	      stdout  is  not  redirected  to  a  file, a diagnostic screen is
	      printed. In addition to the  help	 screen	 header	 with  program
	      name,  version,  and release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP
	      home and distribution sites are given. Then, it  shows  informa-
	      tion about the target environment (compiler type and version, OS
	      version, compilation date and the enabled optional features used
	      to create the zip executable.

       -V     [VMS]  Save  VMS	file  attributes  and  use portable form.  zip
	      archives created with this option are truncated at EOF but still
	      may  not	be usable on other systems depending on the file types
	      being zipped.

       -VV    [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  zip archives created with  this
	      option  include  the  entire file and should be able to recreate
	      most VMS files on VMS systems but these archives will  generally
	      not be usable on other systems.

       -w     [VMS]  Append  the  version  number  of  the  files to the name,
	      including multiple versions of files.  (default:	use  only  the
	      most recent version of a specified file).

       -x files
	      Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

		     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

	      which  will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while exclud-
	      ing all the files that end in  .o.   The	backslash  avoids  the
	      shell  filename  substitution, so that the name matching is per-
	      formed by zip at all directory levels.  If  you  do  not	escape
	      wildcards in patterns it may seem to work but files in subdirec-
	      tories will not be checked for matches.

	      Also possible:

		     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

	      which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while  exclud-
	      ing   all	 the  files  that  match  the  patterns	 in  the  file
	      exclude.lst (each file pattern on a separate line).

       -X     Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on	 OS/2,
	      uid/gid and file times on Unix).

       -y     Store symbolic links as such in the zip archive, instead of com-
	      pressing and storing the file referred  to  by  the  link	 (UNIX

       -z     Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
	      comment is ended by a line containing just a period, or  an  end
	      of  file condition (^D on UNIX, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VAX/VMS).
	      The comment can be taken from a file:

		     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -#     Regulate the speed of compression using the specified  digit  #,
	      where  -0	 indicates  no compression (store all files), -1 indi-
	      cates the fastest compression method (less compression)  and  -9
	      indicates	 the  slowest compression method (optimal compression,
	      ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

       -!     [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to  obtain  all  aspects  of
	      WinNT security.

       -@     Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one file-
	      name per line.

       -$     [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the	volume	label  for  the	 drive
	      holding the first file to be compressed.	If you want to include
	      only the volume label or to force	 a  specific  drive,  use  the
	      drive name as first file name, as in:

		     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

	      zip stuff *

       creates the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the  .zip
       suffix  is added automatically, unless that archive name given contains
       a dot already; this allows the explicit	specification  of  other  suf-

       Because of the way the shell does filename substitution, files starting
       with "." are not included; to include these as well:

	      zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the  current	direc-

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

	      zip -r foo foo

       creates	the  archive foo.zip, containing all the files and directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that	contains  the  files  in  foo,
       without	recording  the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

	      zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to  hold
       both  the  original  directory  and  the	 corresponding	compressed zip
       archive.	 In this case, you can create the archive in steps  using  the
       -m  option.   If	 foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry,
       you can:

	      zip -rm foo foo/tom
	      zip -rm foo foo/dick
	      zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates foo.zip, and the next two  add  to  it.
       At  the	completion  of	each  zip command, the last created archive is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       This section applies only to UNIX, though the  ?,  *,  and  []  special
       characters  are implemented on other systems including MSDOS and Win32.
       Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.

       The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename substitution on  command
       arguments.  The special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character in the range indicated within the brackets
	      (example: [a-f], [0-9]).

       When these characters are encountered (without  being  escaped  with  a
       backslash  or  quotes),	the  shell will look for files relative to the
       current path that match the pattern, and replace the  argument  with  a
       list of the names that matched.

       The  zip	 program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip
       archive being modified or, in the  case	of  the	 -x  (exclude)	or  -i
       (include)  options,  on	the  list of files to be operated on, by using
       backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the  name  expansion.
       In  general,  when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it
       first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it,  it  then
       adds  it	 to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks
       for the name in the zip archive being modified (if  it  exists),	 using
       the  pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each
       match, it will add that name to the list	 of  files  to	be  processed,
       unless  this  name  matches  one	 given with the -x option, or does not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names  that  end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that
       the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or  the
       entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In  general, use backslash to make zip do the pattern matching with the
       -f (freshen) and -d  (delete)  options,	and  sometimes	after  the  -x
       (exclude)  option when used with an appropriate operation (add, -u, -f,
       or -d).

       ZIPOPT contains default options that will be used when running zip

       ZIP    [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

	      [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

	      [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that  will	 cause
	      native  filenames	 with  one  of	the specified extensions to be
	      added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.  zip

	      [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

	      0	     normal; no errors or warnings detected.

	      2	     unexpected end of zip file.

	      3	     a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
		     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

	      4	     zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
		     during program initialization.

	      5	     a	severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing probably failed immediately.

	      6	     entry too large to split (with zipsplit), read, or write

	      7	     invalid comment format

	      8	     zip -T failed or out of memory

	      9	     the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or simi-

	      10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

	      11     read or seek error

	      12     zip has nothing to do

	      13     missing or empty zip file

	      14     error writing to a file

	      15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

	      16     bad command line parameters

	      18     zip could not open a specified file to read

       VMS  interprets	standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so zip instead maps them into VMS-style	status	codes.
       The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success) for normal exit,
	and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_zip_exit_status) for all errors, where the
       '?' is 0 (warning) for zip value 12, 2 (error) for the zip values 3, 6,
       7, 9, 13, 16, 18, and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones.

       zip  2.31  is  not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce
       zip files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 2.31 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or	 PKZIP
       1.10,  if  they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced
       in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of  the	new  compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.	  Only
       stream-LF  format  zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can
       be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.	This  version  of  zip
       handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to trans-
       fer zip files from Vax to MSDOS, type "set file type block" on the Vax.
       When  transfering  from MSDOS to Vax, type "set file type fixed" on the
       Vax.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under VMS, zip hangs for file specification  that  uses	DECnet	syntax

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an excla-
       mation mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself:  the	32-bit
       DosFindFirst/Next  don't	 find  such names.  Other programs such as GNU
       tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is  (for
       compatibility)  the  amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQuery-
       PathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA	 sizes
       when  DIRing  a	file.	However,  the structure layout returned by the
       32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different,  it  uses	extra  padding
       bytes  and  link	 pointers  (it's  a linked list) to have all fields on
       4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.	There-
       fore  the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) dif-
       fers from that reported by DIR.	 zip  stores  the  32-bit  format  for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Development of Zip 3.0 is underway.  See that source  distribution  for
       many new features and the latest bug fixes.

       Copyright (C) 1997-2005 Info-ZIP.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno van der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John  Bush  and
       Paul  Kienitz.	Permission is granted to any individual or institution
       to use, copy, or redistribute this software so long as all of the orig-
       inal  files are included, that it is not sold for profit, and that this
       copyright notice is retained.


       Please  send bug reports and comments to: zip-bugs at www.info-zip.org.
       For bug reports, please include the version of zip  (see	 zip -h),  the
       make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the machine and operating
       system in use, and as much additional information as possible.

       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which	inspired  this
       project,	 and  from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
       for placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression  for-
       mat,  and  .ZIP	filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
       the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the	 deflate  for-
       mat;  to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful
       ideas for the compression algorithm; to	Keith  Petersen,  Rich	Wales,
       Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site
       for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly,  to	 the  Info-ZIP
       group  itself  (listed  in the file infozip.who) without whose tireless
       testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been  pos-
       sible.	Finally	 we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator,
       David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess	in  the	 first	place.
       The manual page was rewritten for UNIX by R. P. C. Rodgers.

Info-ZIP		   27 February 2005 (v2.31)		       ZIP(1L)
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