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BOOTPARAM(7)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		  BOOTPARAM(7)

       bootparam - introduction to boot time parameters of the Linux kernel

       The  Linux  kernel accepts certain 'command-line options' or 'boot time
       parameters' at the moment it is started.	 In general, this is  used  to
       supply  the  kernel with information about hardware parameters that the
       kernel would not be able to determine on its own, or to	avoid/override
       the values that the kernel would otherwise detect.

       When the kernel is booted directly by the BIOS, you have no opportunity
       to specify any parameters.  So, in order to take advantage of this pos-
       sibility you have to use a boot loader that is able to pass parameters,
       such as GRUB.

   The argument list
       The kernel command line is parsed into a list of	 strings  (boot	 argu-
       ments) separated by spaces.  Most of the boot arguments have the form:


       where  'name' is a unique keyword that is used to identify what part of
       the kernel the associated values (if any) are to be given to.  Note the
       limit  of  10  is real, as the present code handles only 10 comma sepa-
       rated parameters per keyword.  (However, you can reuse the same keyword
       with  up to an additional 10 parameters in unusually complicated situa-
       tions, assuming the setup function supports it.)

       Most of the sorting is coded in the  kernel  source  file  init/main.c.
       First,  the  kernel checks to see if the argument is any of the special
       arguments 'root=', 'nfsroot=',  'nfsaddrs=',  'ro',  'rw',  'debug'  or
       'init'.	The meaning of these special arguments is described below.

       Then  it	 walks a list of setup functions to see if the specified argu-
       ment string (such as 'foo') has been associated with a  setup  function
       ('foo_setup()')	for a particular device or part of the kernel.	If you
       passed the kernel the line foo=3,4,5,6 then the kernel would search the
       bootsetups  array  to  see if 'foo' was registered.  If it was, then it
       would call the setup function associated with 'foo'  (foo_setup())  and
       hand  it	 the  arguments	 3, 4, 5, and 6 as given on the kernel command

       Anything of the form 'foo=bar' that is not accepted as a setup function
       as described above is then interpreted as an environment variable to be
       set.  A (useless?) example would be to use 'TERM=vt100' as a boot argu-

       Any  remaining arguments that were not picked up by the kernel and were
       not interpreted as environment variables are then passed	 onto  PID  1,
       which is usually the init(1) program.  The most common argument that is
       passed to the init process is the word 'single' which instructs	it  to
       boot  the  computer  in	single user mode, and not launch all the usual
       daemons.	 Check the manual page for the version of init(1) installed on
       your system to see what arguments it accepts.

   General non-device-specific boot arguments
	      This  sets the initial command to be executed by the kernel.  If
	      this is not set,	or  cannot  be	found,	the  kernel  will  try
	      /sbin/init,  then	 /etc/init,  then  /bin/init, then /bin/sh and
	      panic if all of this fails.

	      This sets the NFS boot address to the given string.   This  boot
	      address is used in case of a net boot.

	      This sets the NFS root name to the given string.	If this string
	      does not begin with '/' or ',' or a digit, then it  is  prefixed
	      by '/tftpboot/'.	This root name is used in case of a net boot.

	      This  argument tells the kernel what device is to be used as the
	      root filesystem while booting.  The default of this  setting  is
	      determined at compile time, and usually is the value of the root
	      device of the system that the kernel was built on.  To  override
	      this  value,  and	 select	 the  second  floppy drive as the root
	      device, one would use 'root=/dev/fd1'.

	      The root device can be specified symbolically or numerically.  A
	      symbolic	specification  has the form /dev/XXYN, where XX desig-
	      nates the device type (e.g., 'hd'	 for  ST-506  compatible  hard
	      disk,  with  Y in 'a'-'d'; 'sd' for SCSI compatible disk, with Y
	      in 'a'-'e'), Y the driver letter or number, and N the number (in
	      decimal) of the partition on this device.

	      Note  that  this has nothing to do with the designation of these
	      devices on your filesystem.  The '/dev/' part is purely  conven-

	      The  more awkward and less portable numeric specification of the
	      above possible  root  devices  in	 major/minor  format  is  also
	      accepted.	  (For	example, /dev/sda3 is major 8, minor 3, so you
	      could use 'root=0x803' as an alternative.)

	      This parameter sets the  delay  (in  seconds)  to	 pause	before
	      attempting to mount the root filesystem.

	      This  parameter  sets  the  mount	 option	 string	 for  the root
	      filesystem (see also fstab(5)).

	      The 'rootfstype' option tells  the  kernel  to  mount  the  root
	      filesystem  as  if  it where of the type specified.  This can be
	      useful (for example) to mount an ext3  filesystem	 as  ext2  and
	      then  remove the journal in the root filesystem, in fact revert-
	      ing its format from ext3 to ext2 without the need	 to  boot  the
	      box from alternate media.

       'ro' and 'rw'
	      The 'ro' option tells the kernel to mount the root filesystem as
	      'read-only' so that filesystem consistency check programs (fsck)
	      can  do  their work on a quiescent filesystem.  No processes can
	      write to files  on  the  filesystem  in  question	 until	it  is
	      'remounted'  as read/write capable, for example, by 'mount -w -n
	      -o remount /'.  (See also mount(8).)

	      The 'rw' option tells the kernel to mount	 the  root  filesystem
	      read/write.  This is the default.

	      This  tells  the kernel the location of the suspend-to-disk data
	      that you want the machine	 to  resume  from  after  hibernation.
	      Usually,	it  is the same as your swap partition or file.	 Exam-


	      This is used to protect I/O port regions from probes.  The  form
	      of the command is:


	      In  some	machines it may be necessary to prevent device drivers
	      from checking for devices (auto-probing) in a  specific  region.
	      This  may	 be because of hardware that reacts badly to the prob-
	      ing, or hardware that would be mistakenly identified, or	merely
	      hardware you don't want the kernel to initialize.

	      The reserve boot-time argument specifies an I/O port region that
	      shouldn't be probed.  A device driver will not probe a  reserved
	      region,  unless  another boot argument explicitly specifies that
	      it do so.

	      For example, the boot line

		  reserve=0x300,32  blah=0x300

	      keeps all device drivers except the driver for 'blah' from prob-
	      ing 0x300-0x31f.

	      By  default,  the kernel will not reboot after a panic, but this
	      option will cause a kernel reboot	 after	N  seconds  (if	 N  is
	      greater than zero).  This panic timeout can also be set by

		  echo N > /proc/sys/kernel/panic

	      Since  Linux  2.0.22, a reboot is by default a cold reboot.  One
	      asks for the old default with 'reboot=warm'.  (A cold reboot may
	      be required to reset certain hardware, but might destroy not yet
	      written data in a disk cache.  A warm reboot may be faster.)  By
	      default,	a reboot is hard, by asking the keyboard controller to
	      pulse the reset line low, but there is  at  least	 one  type  of
	      motherboard  where  that doesn't work.  The option 'reboot=bios'
	      will instead jump through the BIOS.

       'nosmp' and 'maxcpus=N'
	      (Only when  __SMP__  is  defined.)   A  command-line  option  of
	      'nosmp'  or 'maxcpus=0' will disable SMP activation entirely; an
	      option 'maxcpus=N' limits the maximum number of  CPUs  activated
	      in SMP mode to N.

   Boot arguments for use by kernel developers
	      Kernel  messages	are  handed off to a daemon (e.g., klogd(8) or
	      similar) so that they may be logged to disk.   Messages  with  a
	      priority above console_loglevel are also printed on the console.
	      (For a discussion of log levels, see  syslog(2).)	  By  default,
	      console_loglevel	is  set	 to log messages at levels higher than
	      KERN_DEBUG.  This boot argument will cause the  kernel  to  also
	      print messages logged at level KERN_DEBUG.  The console loglevel
	      can also be set  on  a  booted  system  via  the	/proc/sys/ker-
	      nel/printk  file	(described  in	syslog(2)), the syslog(2) SYS-
	      LOG_ACTION_CONSOLE_LEVEL operation, or dmesg(8).

	      It is possible to enable a kernel	 profiling  function,  if  one
	      wishes  to find out where the kernel is spending its CPU cycles.
	      Profiling is enabled by setting the  variable  prof_shift	 to  a
	      nonzero value.  This is done either by specifying CONFIG_PROFILE
	      at compile time, or by giving the 'profile='  option.   Now  the
	      value that prof_shift gets will be N, when given, or CONFIG_PRO-
	      FILE_SHIFT, when that is given, or 2, the default.  The signifi-
	      cance  of	 this variable is that it gives the granularity of the
	      profiling: each clock tick, if the system was  executing	kernel
	      code, a counter is incremented:

		  profile[address >> prof_shift]++;

	      The  raw	profiling  information can be read from /proc/profile.
	      Probably you'll want to use a  tool  such	 as  readprofile.c  to
	      digest it.  Writing to /proc/profile will clear the counters.

   Boot arguments for ramdisk use
       (Only  if the kernel was compiled with CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM.)  In general
       it is a bad idea to use a ramdisk  under	 Linux--the  system  will  use
       available  memory  more	efficiently  itself.  But while booting, it is
       often useful to load the floppy contents into  a	 ramdisk.   One	 might
       also have a system in which first some modules (for filesystem or hard-
       ware) must be loaded before the main disk can be accessed.

       In Linux 1.3.48, ramdisk handling was  changed  drastically.   Earlier,
       the memory was allocated statically, and there was a 'ramdisk=N' param-
       eter to tell its size.  (This could also be set in the kernel image  at
       compile	time.)	 These	days  ram disks use the buffer cache, and grow
       dynamically.  For a lot of information on the  current  ramdisk	setup,
       see the kernel source file Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt (Documen-
       tation/ramdisk.txt in older kernels).

       There are four parameters, two boolean and two integral.

	      If N=1, do load a ramdisk.  If  N=0,  do	not  load  a  ramdisk.
	      (This is the default.)

	      If  N=1,	do  prompt  for insertion of the floppy.  (This is the
	      default.)	 If N=0, do not	 prompt.   (Thus,  this	 parameter  is
	      never needed.)

       'ramdisk_size=N' or (obsolete) 'ramdisk=N'
	      Set  the maximal size of the ramdisk(s) to N kB.	The default is
	      4096 (4 MB).

	      Sets the starting block number (the offset on the	 floppy	 where
	      the  ramdisk  starts)  to N.  This is needed in case the ramdisk
	      follows a kernel image.

	      (Only if the kernel was  compiled	 with  CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM  and
	      CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD.)	These  days  it is possible to compile
	      the kernel to use initrd.	 When this  feature  is	 enabled,  the
	      boot  process  will load the kernel and an initial ramdisk; then
	      the kernel converts initrd into a	 "normal"  ramdisk,  which  is
	      mounted  read-write  as  root device; then /linuxrc is executed;
	      afterward the "real" root filesystem is mounted, and the	initrd
	      filesystem  is  moved  over  to  /initrd; finally the usual boot
	      sequence (e.g., invocation of /sbin/init) is performed.

	      For a detailed description of the initrd feature, see the kernel
	      source file Documentation/initrd.txt.

	      The 'noinitrd' option tells the kernel that although it was com-
	      piled for operation with initrd, it should not  go  through  the
	      above steps, but leave the initrd data under /dev/initrd.	 (This
	      device can be used only once: the data is freed as soon  as  the
	      last process that used it has closed /dev/initrd.)

   Boot arguments for SCSI devices
       General notation for this section:

       iobase  --  the	first I/O port that the SCSI host occupies.  These are
       specified in hexadecimal notation, and usually lie in  the  range  from
       0x200 to 0x3ff.

       irq  --	the  hardware  interrupt  that	the card is configured to use.
       Valid values will be dependent on the card in question, but  will  usu-
       ally be 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 15.  The other values are usually used
       for common peripherals like IDE hard disks, floppies, serial ports, and
       so on.

       scsi-id	-- the ID that the host adapter uses to identify itself on the
       SCSI bus.  Only some host adapters allow you to change this  value,  as
       most have it permanently specified internally.  The usual default value
       is 7, but the Seagate and Future Domain TMC-950 boards use 6.

       parity -- whether the SCSI host adapter expects the attached devices to
       supply a parity value with all information exchanges.  Specifying a one
       indicates parity checking is enabled, and a zero disables parity check-
       ing.  Again, not all adapters will support selection of parity behavior
       as a boot argument.

	      A SCSI device can have a number of 'subdevices' contained within
	      itself.	The most common example is one of the new SCSI CD-ROMs
	      that handle more than one disk at a time.	 Each CD is  addressed
	      as a 'Logical Unit Number' (LUN) of that particular device.  But
	      most devices, such as hard disks, tape drives and such are  only
	      one device, and will be assigned to LUN zero.

	      Some poorly designed SCSI devices cannot handle being probed for
	      LUNs not equal to zero.  Therefore,  if  the  compile-time  flag
	      CONFIG_SCSI_MULTI_LUN  is not set, newer kernels will by default
	      probe only LUN zero.

	      To specify the  number  of  probed  LUNs	at  boot,  one	enters
	      'max_scsi_luns=n' as a boot arg, where n is a number between one
	      and eight.  To avoid problems as described above, one would  use
	      n=1 to avoid upsetting such broken devices.

       SCSI tape configuration
	      Some  boot  time	configuration  of  the SCSI tape driver can be
	      achieved by using the following:


	      The first two numbers are specified in units of kB.  The default
	      buf_size	is 32kB, and the maximum size that can be specified is
	      a ridiculous 16384kB.  The write_threshold is the value at which
	      the  buffer  is committed to tape, with a default value of 30kB.
	      The maximum number of buffers varies with the number  of	drives
	      detected, and has a default of two.  An example usage would be:


	      Full  details can be found in the file Documentation/scsi/st.txt
	      (or drivers/scsi/README.st for older kernels) in the Linux  ker-
	      nel source.

   Hard disks
       IDE Disk/CD-ROM Driver Parameters
	      The  IDE driver accepts a number of parameters, which range from
	      disk geometry specifications, to support for  broken  controller
	      chips.   Drive-specific  options	are  specified by using 'hdX='
	      with X in 'a'-'h'.

	      Non-drive-specific options are specified with the prefix	'hd='.
	      Note that using a drive-specific prefix for a non-drive-specific
	      option will still work, and the option will just be  applied  as

	      Also  note  that 'hd=' can be used to refer to the next unspeci-
	      fied drive in the (a, ..., h) sequence.  For the following  dis-
	      cussions,	 the  'hd=' option will be cited for brevity.  See the
	      file  Documentation/ide/ide.txt  (or  Documentation/ide.txt   in
	      older  kernels,  or drivers/block/README.ide in ancient kernels)
	      in the Linux kernel source for more details.

       The 'hd=cyls,heads,sects[,wpcom[,irq]]' options
	      These options are used to specify the physical geometry  of  the
	      disk.   Only  the	 first	three values are required.  The cylin-
	      der/head/sectors values will be those used by fdisk.  The	 write
	      precompensation  value  is ignored for IDE disks.	 The IRQ value
	      specified will be the IRQ used for the interface that the	 drive
	      resides on, and is not really a drive-specific parameter.

       The 'hd=serialize' option
	      The  dual	 IDE interface CMD-640 chip is broken as designed such
	      that when drives on the secondary interface are used at the same
	      time  as	drives	on the primary interface, it will corrupt your
	      data.  Using this option tells the driver to make sure that both
	      interfaces are never used at the same time.

       The 'hd=noprobe' option
	      Do not probe for this drive.  For example,

		  hdb=noprobe hdb=1166,7,17

	      would disable the probe, but still specify the drive geometry so
	      that it would be registered as a valid block device,  and	 hence

       The 'hd=nowerr' option
	      Some  drives  apparently have the WRERR_STAT bit stuck on perma-
	      nently.  This enables a work-around for these broken devices.

       The 'hd=cdrom' option
	      This tells the IDE driver that there is an ATAPI compatible  CD-
	      ROM  attached in place of a normal IDE hard disk.	 In most cases
	      the CD-ROM is identified automatically, but  if  it  isn't  then
	      this may help.

       Standard ST-506 Disk Driver Options ('hd=')
	      The  standard  disk driver can accept geometry arguments for the
	      disks similar to the IDE driver.	Note however that  it  expects
	      only  three  values  (C/H/S);  any  more or any less and it will
	      silently ignore you.  Also, it accepts only 'hd='	 as  an	 argu-
	      ment,  that is, 'hda=' and so on are not valid here.  The format
	      is as follows:


	      If there are two disks installed, the above is repeated with the
	      geometry parameters of the second disk.

   Ethernet devices
       Different  drivers  make	 use  of different parameters, but they all at
       least share having an IRQ, an I/O port base value, and a name.  In  its
       most generic form, it looks something like this:


       The first nonnumeric argument is taken as the name.  The param_n values
       (if applicable) usually have  different	meanings  for  each  different
       card/driver.   Typical  param_n	values are used to specify things like
       shared memory address, interface selection, DMA channel and the like.

       The most common use of this parameter is to force probing for a	second
       ethercard, as the default is to probe only for one.  This can be accom-
       plished with a simple:


       Note that the values of zero for the IRQ and  I/O  base	in  the	 above
       example tell the driver(s) to autoprobe.

       The  Ethernet-HowTo has extensive documentation on using multiple cards
       and on the card/driver-specific implementation of  the  param_n	values
       where  used.   Interested  readers  should refer to the section in that
       document on their particular card.

   The floppy disk driver
       There are many floppy driver options, and they are all listed in	 Docu-
       mentation/blockdev/floppy.txt  (or  Documentation/floppy.txt  in	 older
       kernels, or drivers/block/README.fd for ancient kernels) in  the	 Linux
       kernel source.  See that file for the details.

   The sound driver
       The  sound  driver  can also accept boot arguments to override the com-
       piled-in values.	 This is not recommended, as it is rather complex.  It
       is   described	in   the   Linux   kernel   source   file   Documenta-
       tion/sound/oss/README.OSS (drivers/sound/Readme.linux in	 older	kernel
       versions).  It accepts a boot argument of the form:


	      where each deviceN value is of the following format 0xTaaaId and
	      the bytes are used as follows:

	      T - device type: 1=FM, 2=SB,  3=PAS,  4=GUS,  5=MPU401,  6=SB16,

	      aaa - I/O address in hex.

	      I - interrupt line in hex (i.e., 10=a, 11=b, ...)

	      d - DMA channel.

	      As  you can see, it gets pretty messy, and you are better off to
	      compile in your own personal values  as  recommended.   Using  a
	      boot  argument  of  'sound=0'  will  disable  the	 sound	driver

   The line printer driver


	      You can tell the printer driver what ports to use and what ports
	      not  to  use.   The  latter comes in handy if you don't want the
	      printer driver to claim all available parallel  ports,  so  that
	      other drivers (e.g., PLIP, PPA) can use them instead.

	      The format of the argument is multiple port names.  For example,
	      lp=none,parport0 would use the first parallel port for lp1,  and
	      disable  lp0.   To  disable the printer driver entirely, one can
	      use lp=0.

       klogd(8), mount(8)

       For up-to-date information,  see	 the  kernel  source  file  Documenta-

       This  page  is  part of release 4.10 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest	  version     of     this    page,    can    be	   found    at

Linux				  2015-05-07			  BOOTPARAM(7)