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STRTOL(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		     STRTOL(3)

       strtol, strtoll, strtoq - convert a string to a long integer

       #include <stdlib.h>

       long int strtol(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       long long int strtoll(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

	       || /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _SVID_SOURCE || _BSD_SOURCE

       The  strtol()  function converts the initial part of the string in nptr
       to a long integer value according to the	 given	base,  which  must  be
       between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as deter-
       mined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign.  If
       base  is zero or 16, the string may then include a "0x" prefix, and the
       number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken	as  10
       (decimal)  unless  the next character is '0', in which case it is taken
       as 8 (octal).

       The remainder of the string is converted to a long  int	value  in  the
       obvious	manner,	 stopping  at the first character which is not a valid
       digit in the given base.	 (In bases above 10, the letter 'A' in	either
       uppercase  or lowercase represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and so forth,
       with 'Z' representing 35.)

       If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
       character  in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, strtol() stores
       the original value of nptr in *endptr (and returns 0).  In  particular,
       if  *nptr is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the entire string
       is valid.

       The strtoll() function  works  just  like  the  strtol()	 function  but
       returns a long long integer value.

       The  strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
       value would underflow or overflow.  If an  underflow  occurs,  strtol()
       returns	LONG_MIN.   If	an overflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX.
       In both cases, errno is set to ERANGE.  Precisely the  same  holds  for
       strtoll()  (with	 LLONG_MIN  and	 LLONG_MAX  instead  of	 LONG_MIN  and

       EINVAL (not in C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.

       ERANGE The resulting value was out of range.

       The implementation may also set errno to EINVAL in case	no  conversion
       was performed (no digits seen, and 0 returned).

       For   an	  explanation	of   the  terms	 used  in  this	 section,  see

       |Interface		      | Attribute     | Value	       |
       |strtol(), strtoll(), strtoq() | Thread safety | MT-Safe locale |
       strtol(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C89, C99 SVr4, 4.3BSD.

       strtoll(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C99.

       Since  strtol()	can  legitimately  return  0,  LONG_MAX,  or  LONG_MIN
       (LLONG_MAX or LLONG_MIN for strtoll()) on both success and failure, the
       calling program should set errno to 0 before the call, and then	deter-
       mine if an error occurred by checking whether errno has a nonzero value
       after the call.

       According to POSIX.1, in locales other than the "C" and "POSIX",	 these
       functions may accept other, implementation-defined numeric strings.

       BSD also has

	   quad_t strtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       with completely analogous definition.  Depending on the wordsize of the
       current architecture, this may be equivalent to strtoll()  or  to  str-

       The  program  shown  below demonstrates the use of strtol().  The first
       command-line argument specifies a string	 from  which  strtol()	should
       parse  a	 number.  The second (optional) argument specifies the base to
       be used for the conversion.  (This argument  is	converted  to  numeric
       form  using atoi(3), a function that performs no error checking and has
       a simpler interface than strtol().)  Some examples of the results  pro-
       duced by this program are the following:

	   $ ./a.out 123
	   strtol() returned 123
	   $ ./a.out '	  123'
	   strtol() returned 123
	   $ ./a.out 123abc
	   strtol() returned 123
	   Further characters after number: abc
	   $ ./a.out 123abc 55
	   strtol: Invalid argument
	   $ ./a.out ''
	   No digits were found
	   $ ./a.out 4000000000
	   strtol: Numerical result out of range

   Program source

       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <limits.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <errno.h>

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
	   int base;
	   char *endptr, *str;
	   long val;

	   if (argc < 2) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s str [base]\n", argv[0]);

	   str = argv[1];
	   base = (argc > 2) ? atoi(argv[2]) : 10;

	   errno = 0;	 /* To distinguish success/failure after call */
	   val = strtol(str, &endptr, base);

	   /* Check for various possible errors */

	   if ((errno == ERANGE && (val == LONG_MAX || val == LONG_MIN))
		   || (errno != 0 && val == 0)) {

	   if (endptr == str) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "No digits were found\n");

	   /* If we got here, strtol() successfully parsed a number */

	   printf("strtol() returned %ld\n", val);

	   if (*endptr != '\0')	       /* Not necessarily an error... */
	       printf("Further characters after number: %s\n", endptr);


       atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)

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GNU				  2016-03-15			     STRTOL(3)