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STRTOUL(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		    STRTOUL(3)

       strtoul, strtoull, strtouq - convert a string to an unsigned long inte-

       #include <stdlib.h>

       unsigned long int strtoul(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       unsigned long long int strtoull(const char *nptr, char **endptr,
				       int base);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

	   _ISOC99_SOURCE ||
	       || /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _SVID_SOURCE || _BSD_SOURCE

       The strtoul() function converts the initial part of the string in  nptr
       to  an  unsigned long int value according to the given base, which must
       be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

       The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as deter-
       mined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional '+' or '-' sign.  If
       base is zero or 16, the string may then include a "0x" prefix, and  the
       number  will  be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10
       (decimal) unless the next character is '0', in which case it  is	 taken
       as 8 (octal).

       The  remainder of the string is converted to an unsigned long int value
       in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is	not  a
       valid  digit  in the given base.	 (In bases above 10, the letter 'A' in
       either uppercase or lowercase represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and  so
       forth, with 'Z' representing 35.)

       If  endptr  is  not  NULL,  strtoul()  stores  the address of the first
       invalid character in *endptr.  If there were no	digits	at  all,  str-
       toul()  stores  the  original value of nptr in *endptr (and returns 0).
       In particular, if *nptr is not '\0' but **endptr is '\0' on return, the
       entire string is valid.

       The  strtoull()	function  works	 just  like the strtoul() function but
       returns an unsigned long long int value.

       The strtoul() function returns either the result of the conversion  or,
       if  there  was  a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the
       conversion represented as an unsigned value, unless the original	 (non-
       negated)	 value	would  overflow; in the latter case, strtoul() returns
       ULONG_MAX and sets errno to ERANGE.  Precisely the same holds for  str-
       toull() (with ULLONG_MAX instead of ULONG_MAX).

       EINVAL (not in C99) The given base contains an unsupported value.

       ERANGE The resulting value was out of range.

       The  implementation  may also set errno to EINVAL in case no conversion
       was performed (no digits seen, and 0 returned).

       For  an	explanation  of	 the  terms  used   in	 this	section,   see

       |Interface			 | Attribute	 | Value	  |
       |strtoul(), strtoull(), strtouq() | Thread safety | MT-Safe locale |
       strtoul(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C89, C99 SVr4.

       strtoull(): POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, C99.

       Since  strtoul() can legitimately return 0 or ULONG_MAX (ULLONG_MAX for
       strtoull()) on both success and failure, the calling program should set
       errno  to 0 before the call, and then determine if an error occurred by
       checking whether errno has a nonzero value after the call.

       In locales other than the "C" locale, other strings  may	 be  accepted.
       (For example, the thousands separator of the current locale may be sup-

       BSD also has

	   u_quad_t strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

       with completely analogous definition.  Depending on the wordsize of the
       current	architecture,  this may be equivalent to strtoull() or to str-

       Negative values are considered valid input and are  silently  converted
       to the equivalent unsigned long int value.

       See  the example on the strtol(3) manual page; the use of the functions
       described in this manual page is similar.

       a64l(3), atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtol(3)

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       latest	 version    of	  this	  page,	   can	   be	  found	    at

GNU				  2016-07-17			    STRTOUL(3)