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GETPWNAM(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		   GETPWNAM(3)

       getpwnam, getpwnam_r, getpwuid, getpwuid_r - get password file entry

       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <pwd.h>

       struct passwd *getpwnam(const char *name);

       struct passwd *getpwuid(uid_t uid);

       int getpwnam_r(const char *name, struct passwd *pwd,
		      char *buf, size_t buflen, struct passwd **result);

       int getpwuid_r(uid_t uid, struct passwd *pwd,
		      char *buf, size_t buflen, struct passwd **result);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       getpwnam_r(), getpwuid_r():
	       || /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE

       The getpwnam() function returns a pointer to a structure containing the
       broken-out fields of the record in the  password	 database  (e.g.,  the
       local  password file /etc/passwd, NIS, and LDAP) that matches the user-
       name name.

       The getpwuid() function returns a pointer to a structure containing the
       broken-out  fields  of the record in the password database that matches
       the user ID uid.

       The passwd structure is defined in <pwd.h> as follows:

	   struct passwd {
	       char   *pw_name;	      /* username */
	       char   *pw_passwd;     /* user password */
	       uid_t   pw_uid;	      /* user ID */
	       gid_t   pw_gid;	      /* group ID */
	       char   *pw_gecos;      /* user information */
	       char   *pw_dir;	      /* home directory */
	       char   *pw_shell;      /* shell program */

       See passwd(5) for more information about these fields.

       The getpwnam_r() and getpwuid_r() functions obtain the same information
       as  getpwnam() and getpwuid(), but store the retrieved passwd structure
       in the space pointed to by pwd.	The string fields pointed  to  by  the
       members	of  the	 passwd structure are stored in the buffer buf of size
       buflen.	A pointer to the result (in case of success) or NULL (in  case
       no entry was found or an error occurred) is stored in *result.

       The call


       returns either -1, without changing errno, or an initial suggested size
       for buf.	 (If this size is too small, the call fails  with  ERANGE,  in
       which case the caller can retry with a larger buffer.)

       The  getpwnam()	and  getpwuid() functions return a pointer to a passwd
       structure, or NULL if the matching entry	 is  not  found	 or  an	 error
       occurs.	 If an error occurs, errno is set appropriately.  If one wants
       to check errno after the call, it should be  set	 to  zero  before  the

       The  return value may point to a static area, and may be overwritten by
       subsequent calls to getpwent(3), getpwnam(), or	getpwuid().   (Do  not
       pass the returned pointer to free(3).)

       On  success, getpwnam_r() and getpwuid_r() return zero, and set *result
       to pwd.	If no matching password	 record	 was  found,  these  functions
       return  0 and store NULL in *result.  In case of error, an error number
       is returned, and NULL is stored in *result.

       0 or ENOENT or ESRCH or EBADF or EPERM or ...
	      The given name or uid was not found.

       EINTR  A signal was caught; see signal(7).

       EIO    I/O error.

       EMFILE The per-process limit on the number of open file descriptors has
	      been reached.

       ENFILE The system-wide limit on the total number of open files has been

       ENOMEM Insufficient memory to allocate passwd structure.

       ERANGE Insufficient buffer space supplied.

	      local password database file

       For  an	explanation  of	 the  terms  used   in	 this	section,   see

       |Interface     | Attribute     | Value			    |
       |getpwnam()    | Thread safety | MT-Unsafe race:pwnam locale |
       |getpwuid()    | Thread safety | MT-Unsafe race:pwuid locale |
       |getpwnam_r(), | Thread safety | MT-Safe locale		    |
       |getpwuid_r()  |		      |				    |
       POSIX.1-2001,  POSIX.1-2008,  SVr4,  4.3BSD.  The pw_gecos field is not
       specified in POSIX, but is present on most implementations.

       The formulation given above under "RETURN VALUE" is from	 POSIX.1-2001.
       It  does not call "not found" an error, and hence does not specify what
       value errno might have in this situation.  But that makes it impossible
       to  recognize  errors.	One  might argue that according to POSIX errno
       should be left unchanged if an entry is not found.  Experiments on var-
       ious UNIX-like systems show that lots of different values occur in this
       situation: 0, ENOENT, EBADF, ESRCH, EWOULDBLOCK,	 EPERM,	 and  probably

       The  pw_dir field contains the name of the initial working directory of
       the user.  Login programs use the value of this field to initialize the
       HOME  environment  variable  for	 the login shell.  An application that
       wants to determine its user's home directory should inspect  the	 value
       of  HOME	 (rather than the value getpwuid(getuid())->pw_dir) since this
       allows the user to modify their notion of "the home directory" during a
       login  session.	 To  determine the (initial) home directory of another
       user, it is necessary to use getpwnam("username")->pw_dir or similar.

       The program below demonstrates the use of getpwnam_r() to find the full
       username	 and user ID for the username supplied as a command-line argu-

       #include <pwd.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <errno.h>

       main(int argc, char *argv[])
	   struct passwd pwd;
	   struct passwd *result;
	   char *buf;
	   size_t bufsize;
	   int s;

	   if (argc != 2) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s username\n", argv[0]);

	   bufsize = sysconf(_SC_GETPW_R_SIZE_MAX);
	   if (bufsize == -1)	       /* Value was indeterminate */
	       bufsize = 16384;	       /* Should be more than enough */

	   buf = malloc(bufsize);
	   if (buf == NULL) {

	   s = getpwnam_r(argv[1], &pwd, buf, bufsize, &result);
	   if (result == NULL) {
	       if (s == 0)
		   printf("Not found\n");
	       else {
		   errno = s;

	   printf("Name: %s; UID: %ld\n", pwd.pw_gecos, (long) pwd.pw_uid);

       endpwent(3), fgetpwent(3), getgrnam(3), getpw(3),  getpwent(3),	getsp-
       nam(3), putpwent(3), setpwent(3), passwd(5)

       This  page  is  part of release 4.10 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, information about reporting bugs,  and  the
       latest	  version     of     this    page,    can    be	   found    at

GNU				  2016-03-15			   GETPWNAM(3)