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GROFF(1)		    General Commands Manual		      GROFF(1)

       groff - front-end for the groff document formatting system

       groff [-abcegijklpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-D arg] [-f fam] [-F dir]
	     [-I dir] [-K arg] [-L arg] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list]
	     [-P arg] [-r cn] [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]
       groff -h | --help
       groff -v | --version [option ...]

       This  document  describes the groff program, the main front-end for the
       groff document formatting system.  The groff program and macro suite is
       the implementation of a roff(7) system within the free software collec-
       tion GNU <http://www.gnu.org>.  The groff system has  all  features  of
       the classical roff, but adds many extensions.

       The  groff  program allows to control the whole groff system by command
       line options.  This is a great  simplification  in  comparison  to  the
       classical case (which uses pipes only).

       The  command line is parsed according to the usual GNU convention.  The
       whitespace between a command line option and its argument is  optional.
       Options	can be grouped behind a single `-' (minus character).  A file-
       name of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.

       As groff is a wrapper program for troff both programs share  a  set  of
       options.	 But the groff program has some additional, native options and
       gives a new meaning to some troff options.  On the other hand, not  all
       troff options can be fed into groff.

   Native groff Options
       The  following options either do not exist for troff or are differently
       interpreted by groff.

       -D arg Set default input encoding used by preconv to arg.  Implies -k.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.  Implies -p.

       --help Print a help message.

       -I dir This option may be used to specify a  directory  to  search  for
	      files  (both  those on the command line and those named in .psbb
	      and .so requests, and \X'ps: import' and \X'ps: file'  escapes).
	      The current directory is always searched first.  This option may
	      be specified more than once; the directories are searched in the
	      order  specified.	  No  directory	 search is performed for files
	      specified using an absolute path.	 This option  implies  the  -s

       -j     Preprocess with chem.  Implies -p.

       -k     Preprocess  with	preconv.   This	 is  run before any other pre-
	      processor.  Please refer to preconv's manual page for its behav-
	      iour if no -K (or -D) option is specified.

       -K arg Set input encoding used by preconv to arg.  Implies -k.

       -l     Send  the output to a spooler program for printing.  The command
	      that should be used for this is specified by the	print  command
	      in the device description file, see groff_font(5).  If this com-
	      mand is not present, the output is piped into the lpr(1) program
	      by default.  See options -L and -X.

       -L arg Pass  arg	 to  the spooler program.  Several arguments should be
	      passed with a separate -L option each.  Note that groff does not
	      prepend  `-'  (a	minus  sign)  to  arg before passing it to the
	      spooler program.

       -N     Don't allow newlines within eqn delimiters.  This is the same as
	      the -N option in eqn.

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -P -option
       -P -option -P arg
	      Pass  -option  or	 -option arg to the postprocessor.  The option
	      must be specified with the necessary preceding minus sign(s) `-'
	      or `--' because groff does not prepend any dashes before passing
	      it to the postprocessor.	For example, to pass a	title  to  the
	      gxditview postprocessor, the shell command

		     groff -X -P -title -P 'groff it' foo

	      is equivalent to

		     groff -X -Z foo | gxditview -title 'groff it' -

       -R     Preprocess  with	refer.	 No  mechanism is provided for passing
	      arguments to refer because most refer  options  have  equivalent
	      language	elements  that	can  be specified within the document.
	      See refer(1) for more details.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass the -S option to pic and disable the following
	      troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy, and .pi.  For security
	      reasons, safer mode is enabled by default.

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -T dev Set output device to dev.	 For this device, troff generates  the
	      intermediate output; see groff_out(5).  Then groff calls a post-
	      processor to convert troff's intermediate output	to  its	 final
	      format.  Real devices in groff are

		     dvi    TeX DVI format (postprocessor is grodvi).

		     xhtml  HTML  and  XHTML  output (preprocessors are soelim
			    and pre-grohtml, postprocessor is post-grohtml).

		     lbp    Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser
			    printers; postprocessor is grolbp).

		     lj4    HP LaserJet4 compatible (or other PCL5 compatible)
			    printers (postprocessor is grolj4).

		     ps	    PostScript output (postprocessor is grops).

		     pdf    Portable Document Format (PDF) output (postproces-
			    sor is gropdf).

	      For  the	following  TTY output devices (postprocessor is always
	      grotty), -T selects the output encoding:

		     ascii  7bit ASCII.

		     cp1047 Latin-1 character set for EBCDIC hosts.

		     latin1 ISO 8859-1.

		     utf8   Unicode character set in UTF-8 encoding.

	      The following arguments select gxditview as the  `postprocessor'
	      (it is rather a viewing program):

		     X75    75dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

		     X75-12 75dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

		     X100   100dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

			    100dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

	      The default device is ps.

       -U     Unsafe  mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe behaviour; see option

	      Output version information of groff and of all programs that are
	      run  by  it;  that  is,  the given command line is parsed in the
	      usual way, passing -v to all subprograms.

       -V     Output the pipeline that would be run by	groff  (as  a  wrapper
	      program)	on  the	 standard  output,  but do not execute it.  If
	      given more than once, the commands are both printed on the stan-
	      dard error and run.

       -X     Use  gxditview  instead  of  using  the  usual  postprocessor to
	      (pre)view a document.  The printing spooler behavior as outlined
	      with options -l and -L is carried over to gxditview(1) by deter-
	      mining an argument for the -printCommand option of gxditview(1).
	      This  sets  the  default Print action and the corresponding menu
	      entry to that value.  -X only produces good results  with	 -Tps,
	      -TX75,  -TX75-12, -TX100, and -TX100-12.	The default resolution
	      for previewing -Tps output is 75dpi;  this  can  be  changed  by
	      passing the -resolution option to gxditview, for example

		     groff -X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1

       -z     Suppress	output	generated  by  troff.  Only error messages are

       -Z     Do not automatically postprocess groff  intermediate  output  in
	      the usual manner.	 This will cause the troff output to appear on
	      standard output, replacing the usual postprocessor  output;  see

   Transparent Options
       The  following  options	are transparently handed over to the formatter
       program troff that is called by groff subsequently.  These options  are
       described in more detail in troff(1).

       -a     ASCII approximation of output.

       -b     Backtrace on error or warning.

       -c     Disable color output.  Please consult the grotty(1) man page for
	      more details.

       -C     Enable compatibility mode.

       -d cs
       -d name=s
	      Define string.

       -E     Disable troff error messages.

       -f fam Set default font family.

       -F dir Set path for font DESC files.

       -i     Process standard input after the specified input files.

       -m name
	      Include  macro  file  name.tmac	(or   tmac.name);   see	  also

       -M dir Path for macro files.

       -n num Number the first page num.

       -o list
	      Output only pages in list.

       -r cn
       -r name=n
	      Set number register.

       -w name
	      Enable warning name.  See troff(1) for names.

       -W name
	      disable warning name.  See troff(1) for names.

       The  groff  system implements the infrastructure of classical roff; see
       roff(7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general.  Due to the
       front-end  programs  available  within the groff system, using groff is
       much easier than classical roff.	 This section gives an overview of the
       parts  that  constitute	the groff system.  It complements roff(7) with
       groff-specific features.	 This section can be regarded as  a  guide  to
       the documentation around the groff system.

   Paper Size
       The  virtual paper size used by troff to format the input is controlled
       globally with the requests .po, .pl, and .ll.   See  groff_tmac(5)  for
       the `papersize' macro package which provides a convenient interface.

       The  physical  paper  size,  giving  the actual dimensions of the paper
       sheets, is controlled by output devices like  grops  with  the  command
       line  options  -p  and  -l.  See groff_font(5) and the man pages of the
       output devices for more details.	 groff uses the command line option -P
       to  pass	 options to output devices; for example, the following selects
       A4 paper in landscape orientation for the PS device:

	      groff -Tps -P-pa4 -P-l ...

       The groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It	allows
       to  specify the preprocessors by command line options and automatically
       runs the postprocessor that is appropriate  for	the  selected  device.
       Doing  so,  the sometimes tedious piping mechanism of classical roff(7)
       can be avoided.

       The grog(1) program can be used for guessing the correct groff  command
       line to format a file.

       The  groffer(1)	program	 is an allround-viewer for groff files and man

       The groff preprocessors are reimplementations  of  the  classical  pre-
       processors  with	 moderate extensions.  The standard preprocessors dis-
       tributed with the groff package are

       eqn(1) for mathematical formulae,

       grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,

       pic(1) for drawing diagrams,

	      for chemical structure diagrams,

	      for bibliographic references,

	      for including macro files from standard locations,


       tbl(1) for tables.

       A new preprocessor not available in classical troff is preconv(1) which
       converts various input encodings to something groff can understand.  It
       is always run first before any other preprocessor.

       Besides these, there are some internal preprocessors that are automati-
       cally run with some devices.  These aren't visible to the user.

   Macro Packages
       Macro  packages	can be included by option -m.  The groff system imple-
       ments and extends all classical macro packages in a compatible way  and
       adds  some packages of its own.	Actually, the following macro packages
       come with groff:

       man    The traditional man page format; see groff_man(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -man or -m man.

       mandoc The  general  package for man pages; it automatically recognizes
	      whether the documents uses  the  man  or	the  mdoc  format  and
	      branches	to  the corresponding macro package.  It can be speci-
	      fied on the command line as -mandoc or -m mandoc.

       mdoc   The BSD-style man page format; see  groff_mdoc(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -mdoc or -m mdoc.

       me     The  classical  me  document format; see groff_me(7).  It can be
	      specified on the command line as -me or -m me.

       mm     The classical mm document format; see groff_mm(7).   It  can  be
	      specified on the command line as -mm or -m mm.

       ms     The  classical  ms  document format; see groff_ms(7).  It can be
	      specified on the command line as -ms or -m ms.

       www    HTML-like macros for inclusion in arbitrary groff documents; see

       Details	on  the naming of macro files and their placement can be found
       in groff_tmac(5); this man page also documents some other, minor auxil-
       iary macro packages not mentioned here.

   Programming Language
       General concepts common to all roff programming languages are described
       in roff(7).

       The groff extensions to the classical troff language are documented  in

       The  groff  language  as a whole is described in the (still incomplete)
       groff info file; a short (but  complete)	 reference  can	 be  found  in

       The  central  roff  formatter  within the groff system is troff(1).  It
       provides the features of both the classical troff and nroff, as well as
       the  groff  extensions.	The command line option -C switches troff into
       compatibility mode which tries to emulate classical  roff  as  much  as

       There  is a shell script nroff(1) that emulates the behavior of classi-
       cal nroff.  It tries to automatically select the proper	output	encod-
       ing, according to the current locale.

       The formatter program generates intermediate output; see groff_out(7).

       In  roff,  the  output  targets	are called devices.  A device can be a
       piece of hardware, e.g., a printer,  or	a  software  file  format.   A
       device  is  specified  by the option -T.	 The groff devices are as fol-

       ascii  Text output using the ascii(7) character set.

       cp1047 Text output using the EBCDIC code page IBM cp1047 (e.g.,	OS/390

       dvi    TeX DVI format.

       html   HTML output.

       latin1 Text  output  using  the ISO Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) character set;
	      see iso_8859_1(7).

       lbp    Output for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and  LBP-8	 series	 laser

       lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other PCL5-compatible) printers.

       ps     PostScript  output;  suitable  for  printers and previewers like

       pdf    PDF files; suitable for viewing with tools such as evince(1) and

       utf8   Text  output  using  the	Unicode (ISO 10646) character set with
	      UTF-8 encoding; see unicode(7).

       xhtml  XHTML output.

       X75    75dpi  X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers
	      xditview(1x)  and	 gxditview(1).	 A variant for a 12pt document
	      base font is X75-12.

       X100   100dpi X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers
	      xditview(1x)  and	 gxditview(1).	 A variant for a 12pt document
	      base font is X100-12.

       The postprocessor to be used for a device is specified by  the  postpro
       command in the device description file; see groff_font(5).  This can be
       overridden with the -X option.

       The default device is ps.

       groff provides 3 hardware postprocessors:

	      for some Canon printers,

	      for printers compatible to the HP LaserJet 4 and PCL5,

	      for text output using various encodings, e.g., on	 text-oriented
	      terminals or line-printers.

       Today,  most  printing  or drawing hardware is handled by the operating
       system, by device drivers, or by software interfaces, usually accepting
       PostScript.  Consequently, there isn't an urgent need for more hardware
       device postprocessors.

       The groff software devices for conversion into other document file for-
       mats are

	      for the DVI format,

	      for HTML and XHTML formats,

	      for PostScript.

	      for PDF.

       Combined	 with  the  many existing free conversion tools this should be
       sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data

       The following utility programs around groff are available.

	      Add  information	to  troff  font description files for use with

	      Create font description files for PostScript device.

	      Convert an eqn image into a cropped image.

	      Mark differences between groff, nroff, or troff files.

	      Convert a grap diagram into a cropped bitmap image.

	      General viewer program for groff files and man pages.

	      The groff X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.

	      Create font description files for lj4 device.

	      Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.

	      Search bibliographic databases.

	      Interactively search bibliographic databases.

	      Create PDF documents using groff.

	      Translate a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII.

	      Convert a pic diagram into a cropped image.

	      Create font description files for TeX DVI device.

	      roff viewer distributed with X window.

	      Convert X font metrics into GNU troff font metrics.

       Normally, the path separator in the following environment variables  is
       the  colon; this may vary depending on the operating system.  For exam-
       ple, DOS and Windows use a semicolon instead.

	      This search path, followed by $PATH, is used for	commands  that
	      are  executed  by	 groff.	  If  it is not set then the directory
	      where the groff binaries were installed is prepended to PATH.

	      When there is a need to run different  roff  implementations  at
	      the same time groff provides the facility to prepend a prefix to
	      most of its programs that could provoke name  clashings  at  run
	      time  (default  is to have none).	 Historically, this prefix was
	      the character g, but it can be anything.	 For  example,	gtroff
	      stood  for groff's troff, gtbl for the groff version of tbl.  By
	      setting GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the  different
	      roff installations can be addressed.  More exactly, if it is set
	      to prefix xxx then groff as a wrapper program  internally	 calls
	      xxxtroff	instead of troff.  This also applies to the preproces-
	      sors eqn, grn, pic, refer, tbl, soelim,  and  to	the  utilities
	      indxbib  and  lookbib.   This feature does not apply to any pro-
	      grams different from the ones above (most notably groff  itself)
	      since they are unique to the groff package.

	      The  value  of  this  environment value is passed to the preconv
	      preprocessor to select the encoding  of  input  files.   Setting
	      this  option  implies  groff's  command line option -k (this is,
	      groff actually always calls preconv).  If set without  a	value,
	      groff  calls  preconv without arguments.	An explicit -K command
	      line option overrides the value  of  GROFF_ENCODING.   See  pre-
	      conv(1) for details.

	      A	 list of directories in which to search for the devname direc-
	      tory  in	addition  to  the  default  ones.   See	 troff(1)  and
	      groff_font(5) for more details.

	      A	 list  of  directories	in  which to search for macro files in
	      addition	to  the	 default  directories.	  See	troff(1)   and
	      groff_tmac(5) for more details.

	      The  directory in which temporary files are created.  If this is
	      not set but the environment variable TMPDIR  instead,  temporary
	      files  are created in the directory $TMPDIR.  On MS-DOS and Win-
	      dows 32 platforms, the environment variables TMP	and  TEMP  (in
	      that  order)  are	 searched also, after GROFF_TMPDIR and TMPDIR.
	      Otherwise, temporary files are created in /tmp.	The  refer(1),
	      groffer(1),  grohtml(1),	and  grops(1)  commands	 use temporary

	      Preset the default device.  If this is not set the ps device  is
	      used  as default.	 This device name is overwritten by the option

       There are some directories in which groff  installs  all	 of  its  data
       files.	Due  to	 different  installation habits on different operating
       systems, their locations are not absolutely fixed, but  their  function
       is clearly defined and coincides on all systems.

   groff Macro Directory
       This  contains  all  information	 related to macro packages.  Note that
       more than a single directory is searched for those files as  documented
       in  groff_tmac(5).   For	 the  groff installation corresponding to this
       document, it is located at /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac.	 The following
       files contained in the groff macro directory have a special meaning:

	      Initialization  file  for	 troff.	  This is interpreted by troff
	      before reading the macro sets and any input.

	      Final startup file for troff.  It is parsed after all macro sets
	      have been read.

	      Macro file for macro package name.

   groff Font Directory
       This  contains  all  information	 related to output devices.  Note that
       more than a single directory is searched for those files; see troff(1).
       For  the	 groff	installation  corresponding  to	 this  document, it is
       located at /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/font.	 The following files contained
       in the groff font directory have a special meaning:

	      Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).

	      Font file for font F of device name.

       The  following  example illustrates the power of the groff program as a
       wrapper around troff.

       To process a roff file using the preprocessors tbl and pic and  the  me
       macro set, classical troff had to be called by

	      pic foo.me | tbl | troff -me -Tlatin1 | grotty

       Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command

	      groff -p -t -me -T latin1 foo.me

       An  even	 easier	 way  to call this is to use grog(1) to guess the pre-
       processor and macro options and execute the generated command (by using
       backquotes to specify shell command substitution)

	      `grog -Tlatin1 foo.me`

       The simplest way is to view the contents in an automated way by calling

	      groffer foo.me

       On  EBCDIC  hosts  (e.g., OS/390 Unix), output devices ascii and latin1
       aren't available.  Similarly, output for EBCDIC code page cp1047 is not
       available on ASCII based operating systems.

       Report  bugs  to	 the groff maling list <bug-groff@gnu.org>.  Include a
       complete, self-contained example that allows the bug to be  reproduced,
       and say which version of groff you are using.

       Information on how to get groff and related information is available at
       the groff GNU website  <http://www.gnu.org/software/groff>.   The  most
       recent  released version of groff is available at the groff development
       site <http://groff.ffii.org/groff/devel/groff-current.tar.gz>.

       Three groff mailing lists are available:

	      for reporting bugs <bug-groff@gnu.org>.

	      for general discussion of groff, <groff@gnu.org>.

	      the groff commit list <groff-commit@ffii.org>, a read-only  list
	      showing logs of commitments to the CVS repository.

       Details	on CVS access and much more can be found in the file README at
       the top directory of the groff source package.

       There is a free implementation of the grap preprocessor, written by Ted
       Faber  <faber@lunabase.org>.   The  actual  version can be found at the
       grap   website	<http://www.lunabase.org/~faber/Vault/software/grap/>.
       This is the only grap version supported by groff.

       Copyright (C) 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation License) version 1.3 or later.	 You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

       This document is based on the original groff man page written by	 James
       Clark  <jjc@jclark.com>.	 It was rewritten, enhanced, and put under the
       FDL license by  Bernd  Warken  <groff-bernd.warken-72@web.de>.	It  is
       maintained by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>.

       groff  is  a GNU free software project.	All parts of the groff package
       are protected by GNU copyleft licenses.	The software  files  are  dis-
       tributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL), while
       the documentation files mostly use the GNU Free	Documentation  License

       The groff info file contains all information on the groff system within
       a single document, providing many examples and background  information.
       See info(1) on how to read it.

       Due  to	its  complex  structure,  the groff system has many man pages.
       They can be read with man(1) or groffer(1).

       Introduction, history and further readings:

       Viewer for groff files:
	      groffer(1), gxditview(1), xditview(1x).

       Wrapper programs for formatters:
	      groff(1), grog(1).

       Roff preprocessors:
	      eqn(1),	grn(1),	  pic(1),   chem(1),   preconv(1),   refer(1),
	      soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).

       Roff language with the groff extensions:
	      groff(7), groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).

       Roff formatter programs:
	      nroff(1), troff(1), ditroff(7).

       The intermediate output language:

       Postprocessors for the output devices:
	      grodvi(1),   grohtml(1),	 grolbp(1),   grolj4(1),  lj4_font(5),
	      grops(1), gropdf(1), grotty(1).

       Groff macro packages and macro-specific utilities:
	      groff_tmac(5),   groff_man(7),	groff_mdoc(7),	  groff_me(7),
	      groff_mm(7),     groff_mmse(7),	 groff_mom(7),	  groff_ms(7),
	      groff_www(7), groff_trace(7), mmroff(7).

       The following utilities are available:
	      addftinfo(1),	afmtodit(1),	 eqn2graph(1),	   gdiffmk(1),
	      grap2graph(1),	 groffer(1),	 gxditview(1),	  hpftodit(1),
	      indxbib(1),  lkbib(1),   lookbib(1),   pdfroff(1),   pfbtops(1),
	      pic2graph(1), tfmtodit(1), xtotroff(1).

Groff Version 1.22.2		7 February 2013			      GROFF(1)