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sane(7)			 SANE Scanner Access Now Easy		       sane(7)

       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners

       SANE  is an application programming interface (API) that provides stan-
       dardized access to any raster image scanner hardware. The  standardized
       interface  makes	 it possible to write just one driver for each scanner
       device instead of one driver for each scanner and application.

       While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX  environment,	 the  standard
       has been carefully designed to make it possible to implement the API on
       virtually any hardware or operating system.

       This manual page provides a summary of the information available	 about

       If  you	have  trouble getting your scanner detected, read the PROBLEMS

       An application that uses the SANE interface is called a SANE  frontend.
       A  driver  that implements the SANE interface is called a SANE backend.
       A meta backend provides some means to manage one or  more  other	 back-

       The  package  `sane-backends' contains a lot of backends, documentation
       (including the SANE standard), networking support, and the command line
       frontend	  `scanimage'.	  The	frontends  `xscanimage',  `xcam',  and
       `scanadf' are included in the package `sane-frontends'.	Both  packages
       can   be	  downloaded   from   the   SANE   homepage  (http://www.sane-
       project.org/).  Information about other frontends and backends can also
       be found on the SANE homepage.

       The  following  sections	 provide  short descriptions and links to more
       information about several aspects of SANE.  A name  with	 a  number  in
       parenthesis (e.g.  `sane-dll(5)') points to a manual page. In this case
       `man   5	  sane-dll'   will   display   the    page.    Entries	  like
       `/usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.18/sane.tex'  are  references to text
       files  that  were  copied   to	the   SANE   documentation   directory
       (/usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.18/)  during installation. Everything
       else is a URL to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
	 Information on all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link to
	 the  SANE  FAQ	 can  be  found on the SANE homepage: http://www.sane-

       SANE device lists
	 The SANE device lists contain information about the  status  of  SANE
	 support  for  a  specific device. If your scanner is not listed there
	 (either supported or unsupported), please contact us. See section HOW
	 CAN  YOU HELP SANE for details. There are lists for specific releases
	 of SANE, for the current development version  and  a  search  engine:
	 http://www.sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html.   The	 lists
	 are  also  installed  on  your	 system	 at  /usr/share/doc/sane-back-

       SANE mailing list
	 There	is a mailing list for the purpose of discussing the SANE stan-
	 dard and its implementations: sane-devel.  Despite its name, the list
	 is  not  only	intended for developers, but also for users. There are
	 also some more lists for special topics, however,  for	 users,	 sane-
	 devel	 is   the  right  list.	 How  to  subscribe  and  unsubscribe:

       SANE IRC channel
	 The IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channel	#sane  can  be	found  on  the
	 Freenode  network  (irc.freenode.net). It's for discussing SANE prob-
	 lems, talking about development and general  SANE  related  chatting.
	 Before asking for help, please read the other documentation mentioned
	 in this manual page. The channel's topic is also used	for  announce-
	 ments	of  problems  with  SANE  infrastructure  (mailing  lists, web
	 server, etc.).

       Compiling and installing SANE
	 Look at /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.18/README and the  os-depen-
	 dent  README  files  for  information	about compiling and installing

       SCSI configuration
	 For information about various systems and SCSI controllers see	 sane-

       USB configuration
	 For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).

	 Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

	 SANE network daemon that allows remote clients to access image acqui-
	 sition devices available on the local host. See saned(8).

	 Command-line tool to find SCSI and USB scanners and  determine	 their
	 Unix device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also,  have a look at the sane-frontends package (including xscanimage,
       xcam,   and   scanadf)	and   the   frontend   information   page   at

	 The SANE backend for Abaton flatbed scanners supports the Scan 300/GS
	 (8bit, 256 levels of gray) and	 the  Scan  300/S  (black  and	white,
	 untested). See sane-abaton(5) for details.

	 This  backend	supports  AGFA	Focus  scanners	 and the Siemens S9036
	 (untested).  See sane-agfafocus(5) for details.

	 The SANE backend for Apple flatbed scanners  supports	the  following
	 scanners:  AppleScanner,  OneScanner  and  ColorOneScanner. See sane-
	 apple(5) for details.

	 The SANE Artec backend supports  several  Artec/Ultima	 SCSI  flatbed
	 scanners  as  well as the BlackWidow BW4800SP and the Plustek 19200S.
	 See sane-artec(5) for details.

	 The SANE artec_eplus48u backend supports the scanner Artec E+ 48U and
	 re-badged  models like Tevion MD 9693, Medion MD 9693, Medion MD 9705
	 and Trust Easy Webscan 19200. See sane-artec_eplus48u(5) for details.

	 This is a SANE backend for using the Artec AS6E parallel port	inter-
	 face scanner. See sane-as6e(5) for details.

	 This  backend	supports several Avision based scanners. This includes
	 the original Avision scanners (like AV 630, AV 620, ...) as  well  as
	 the  HP  ScanJet 53xx and 74xx series, Fujitsu ScanPartner, some Mit-
	 subishi and Minolta film-scanners.  See sane-avision(5) for details.

	 The bh backend provides access to Bell+Howell Copiscan II series doc-
	 ument scanners. See sane-bh(5) for details.

	 The  canon  backend  supports	the  CanoScan  300,  CanoScan 600, and
	 CanoScan 2700F SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

	 The canon630u backend supports the CanoScan 630u and 636u  USB	 scan-
	 ners.	See sane-canon630u(5) for details.

	 The  canon_pp backend supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and
	 N640P parallel port scanners.	See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

	 This is a SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan  film-scanners.  See	 sane-
	 coolscan(5) for details.

	 This  is  a SANE backend for Nikon Coolscan film-scanners.  See sane-
	 coolscan2(5) or http://coolscan2.sourceforge.net for details.

	 The SANE epson backend provides support for Epson SCSI, parallel port
	 and USB flatbed scanners. See sane-epson(5) for details.

	 The  fujitsu  backend provides support for most Fujitsu SCSI and USB,
	 flatbed and adf scanners. See sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

	 The genesys backend  provides	support	 for  scanners	based  on  the
	 Genesys Logic GL646 and GL841 chips like the Medion 6471 and Hewlett-
	 Packard 2300c.	 Support for GL841 based scanners is  far  from	 being
	 complete. See sane-genesys(5) for details.

	 The  gt68xx  backend  provides	 support  for  scanners	 based	on the
	 Grandtech GT-6801 and GT-6816 chips like the Artec  Ultima  2000  and
	 several  Mustek  BearPaw  CU  and  TA	models.	 Some Genius, Lexmark,
	 Medion, Packard Bell, Plustek, and Trust scanners are also supported.
	 See sane-gt68xx(5) for details.

	 The  SANE hp backend provides access to Hewlett-Packard ScanJet scan-
	 ners which support SCL (Scanner Control Language by  HP).  See	 sane-
	 hp(5) for details.

	 The  SANE  backend  for  the  Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 5S scanner. See
	 sane-hpsj5s(5) for details.

	 The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard  ScanJet  3500  series.  See
	 sane-hp3500(5) for details.

	 The  SANE  backend  for  the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet 4200 series. See
	 sane-hp4200(5) for details.

	 The SANE backend for the Hewlett-Packard ScanJet  54XXC  series.  See
	 sane-hp5400(5) for details.

	 The  SANE  backend  for  some	IBM and Ricoh SCSI scanners. See sane-
	 ibm(5) for details.

	 This backend supports the Leo S3 and the Across FS-1130, which	 is  a
	 re-badged LEO FS-1130 scanner. See sane-leo(5) for details.

	 This  backend	supports the Lexmark X1100 series of USB scanners. See
	 sane-lexmark(5) for details.

	 The ma1509 backend supports the  Mustek  BearPaw  1200F  USB  flatbed
	 scanner. See sane-ma1509(5) for details.

	 This  backend	supports  some Panasonic KVSS high speed scanners. See
	 sane-matsushita(5) for details.

	 The microtek backend  provides	 access	 to  the  "second  generation"
	 Microtek  scanners  with SCSI-1 command set. See sane-microtek(5) for

	 The microtek2 backend provides access to some Microtek scanners  with
	 a SCSI-2 command set. See sane-microtek2(5) for details.

	 The  SANE  mustek  backend supports most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners
	 including the Paragon and ScanExpress series and the 600 II N and 600
	 II  EP	 (non-SCSI). Some Trust scanners are also supported. See sane-
	 mustek(5) for details.

	 The mustek_pp backend provides access to Mustek parallel port flatbed
	 scanners. See sane-mustek_pp(5) for details.

	 The mustek_usb backend provides access to some Mustek ScanExpress USB
	 flatbed scanners. See sane-mustek_usb(5) for details.

	 The mustek_usb2 backend provides access to scanners using  the	 SQ113
	 chipset  like the Mustek BearPaw 2448 TA Pro USB flatbed scanner. See
	 sane-mustek_usb2(5) for details.

	 The SANE nec backend supports the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI	 scanner.  See
	 sane-nec(5) for details.

	 The niash backend supports the Agfa Snapscan Touch and the HP ScanJet
	 3300c, 3400c, and 4300c USB flatbed scanners. See  sane-niash(5)  for

	 The  pie  backend  provides access to Pacific Image Electronics (PIE)
	 and Devcom SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-pie(5) for details.

	 The pixma backend supports  Canon  PIXMA  MP  series  (multi-function
	 devices).  See	 sane-pixma(5) or http://home.arcor.de/wittawat/pixma/
	 for details.

	 The SANE plustek backend supports USB flatbed scanners that  use  the
	 National  Semiconductor  LM983[1/2/3]-chipset	aka  Merlin.  Scanners
	 using this LM983x chips include some models from Plustek, KYE/Genius,
	 Hewlett-Packard,  Mustek, Umax, Epson, and Canon. See sane-plustek(5)
	 for details.

	 The SANE plustek_pp backend supports Plustek  parallel	 port  flatbed
	 scanners.  Scanners using the Plustek ASIC P96001, P96003, P98001 and
	 P98003 include some models  from  Plustek,  KYE/Genius,  Primax.  See
	 sane-plustek_pp(5) for details.

	 The  ricoh  backend  provides	access	to the following Ricoh flatbed
	 scanners: IS50 and IS60. See sane-ricoh(5) for details.

	 The s9036 backend provides access to Siemens 9036  flatbed  scanners.
	 See sane-s9036(5) for details.

	 The  sceptre  backend	provides  access  to the Sceptre S1200 flatbed
	 scanner. See sane-sceptre(5) for details.

	 The SANE sharp	 backend  supports  Sharp  SCSI	 scanners.  See	 sane-
	 sharp(5) for details.

	 The  SANE  sm3600  backend  supports  the Microtek ScanMaker 3600 USB
	 scanner. See sane-sm3600(5) for details.

	 The SANE sm3840 backend supports  the	Microtek  ScanMaker  3840  USB
	 scanner.  See sane-sm3840(5) for details.

	 The  snapscan	backend	 supports  AGFA SnapScan flatbed scanners. See
	 sane-snapscan(5) for details.

	 This backend supports the Fujitsu FCPA ScanPartner 15C flatbed	 scan-
	 ner. See sane-sp15c(5) for details.

	 The  sane-st400  backend  provides access to Siemens ST400 and ST800.
	 See sane-st400(5) for details.

	 The SANE tamarack backend supports Tamarack  Artiscan	flatbed	 scan-
	 ners. See sane-tamarack(5) for details.

       teco1 teco2 teco3
	 The  SANE teco1, teco2 and teco3 backends support some TECO scanners,
	 usually sold under the Relisys, Trust, Primax, Piotech, Dextra names.
	 See sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5) and sane-teco3(5) for details.

	 The sane-u12 backend provides USB flatbed scanners based on Plustek's
	 ASIC 98003 (parallel-port ASIC) and  a	 GeneSys  Logics'  USB-parport
	 bridge	 chip  like  the  Plustek OpticPro U(T)12. See sane-u12(5) for

	 The sane-umax backend provides access to  several  UMAX-SCSI-scanners
	 and some Linotype Hell SCSI-scanners. See sane-umax(5) for details.

	 The  sane-umax_pp  backend  provides  access  to  Umax	 parallel port
	 flatbed scanners and the HP 3200C. See sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

	 The sane-umax1220u  backend  supports	the  UMAX  Astra  1220U	 (USB)
	 flatbed  scanner  (and also the UMAX Astra 2000U, sort of). See sane-
	 umax1220u(5) for details.

       Also, have a look at the backend information page  at  http://www.sane-
       project.org/sane-supported-devices.html	and  the  list	of projects in

	 Backend for Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

	 Backend for Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See sane-dc240(5).

	 Backend for Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See sane-dc25(5).

	 Backend for the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See sane-dmc(5).

	 Backend for digital cameras supported by the gphoto2 library package.
	 (See  http://www.gphoto.org  for  more information and a list of sup-
	 ported cameras.)  Gphoto2 supports over 140 different camera  models.
	 However,  please  note	 that  more  development and testing is needed
	 before all of these cameras will be supported by SANE	backend.   See

	 Backend for Connectix QuickCam cameras. See sane-qcam(5).

	 The sane-st680 backend provides access to webcams with a stv680 chip.
	 See sane-st680(5) for details.

       Also, have a look at the backend information page  at  http://www.sane-
       project.org/sane-supported-devices.html	and  the  list	of projects in

	 The sane-dll library implements a SANE backend that  provides	access
	 to an arbitrary number of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See

	 The SANE network daemon saned provides access to scanners located  on
	 different  computers  in  connection  with the net backend. See sane-
	 net(5) and saned(8).

	 PNM image reader pseudo-backend. The purpose of this backend is  pri-
	 marily to aid in debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

	 Backend  for  scanners	 that  use the PINT (Pint Is Not Twain) device
	 driver.  The PINT driver is being actively developed on  the  OpenBSD
	 platform, and has been ported to a few other *nix-like operating sys-
	 tems. See sane-pint(5).

	 The SANE test backend is for testing frontends and the SANE installa-
	 tion.	 It provides test pictures and various test options. See sane-

	 The sane-v4l library implements a SANE backend that provides  generic
	 access	 to  video  cameras and similar equipment using the V4L (Video
	 for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also, have a look at the backend information page  at  http://www.sane-
       project.org/sane-supported-devices.html	and  the  list	of projects in

       By default, all SANE backends (drivers) are loaded dynamically  by  the
       sane-dll	 meta  backend.	 If  you  have any questions about the dynamic
       loading, read sane-dll(5).  SANE frontend can also be linked  to	 other
       backends	 directly  by  copying	or  linking a backend to libsane.so in

       It's not hard to write a SANE backend. It can take some time,  however.
       You  should  have  basic	 knowledge  of	C  and enough patience to work
       through the documentation and find out how your scanner works. Appended
       is a list of some documents that help to write backends and frontends.

       The  SANE  standard defines the application programming interface (API)
       that is used to communicate between frontends and backends. It  can  be
       found   at  /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.18/sane.ps	(if  latex  is
       installed on your system) and on	 the  SANE  website:  http://www.sane-
       project.org/html/ (HTML), or http://www.sane-project.org/sane.ps (Post-

       There is some more information for programmers in  /usr/share/doc/sane-
       backends-1.0.18/backend-writing.txt.   Most  of	the internal SANE rou-
       tines  (sanei)	are   documented   using   doxygen:   http://www.sane-
       project.org/sanei/.   Before  a	new  backend  or  frontend  project is
       started, have a	look  at  /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.18/PROJECTS
       for projects that are planned or not yet included into the SANE distri-
       bution and  at  our  bug-tracking  system:  http://www.http://www.sane-

       There  are  some links on how to find out about the protocol of a scan-
       ner: http://www.meier-geinitz.de/sane/misc/develop.html.

       If you start writing a backend or frontend or any other part  of	 SANE,
       please contact the sane-devel mailing list for coordination so the same
       work isn't done twice.

	      The backend configuration files.

	      The static libraries implementing the backends.

	      The shared libraries implementing the backends (present on  sys-
	      tems that support dynamic loading).

	      SANE  documentation: The standard, READMEs, text files for back-
	      ends etc.

       If your device isn't found but you know that it is supported, make sure
       that  it	 is  detected by your operating system. For SCSI and USB scan-
       ners, use the  sane-find-scanner	 tool  (see  sane-find-scanner(1)  for
       details).  It prints one line for each scanner it has detected and some
       comments (#). If sane-find-scanner finds your scanner only as root  but
       not  as	normal	user,  the  permissions	 for  the device files are not
       adjusted correctly. If the scanner isn't found at  all,	the  operating
       system hasn't detected it and may need some help. Depending on the type
       of your scanner, read sane-usb(5) or sane-scsi(5).  If your scanner (or
       other device) is not connected over the SCSI bus or USB, read the back-
       end's manual page for details on how to set it up.

       Now your scanner is detected by the operating system but not  by	 SANE?
       Try  scanimage  -L.   If the scanner is not found, check that the back-
       end's name is mentioned in  /etc/sane.d/dll.conf.   Some	 backends  are
       commented  out  by default. Remove the comment sign for your backend in
       this case. Also some backends aren't compiled at all if	one  of	 their
       prerequisites  are  missing.  Examples  include dc210, dc240, canon_pp,
       hpsj5s, gphoto2, pint, qcam, v4l, net, sm3600, snapscan,	 pnm.  If  you
       need  one  of  these backends and they aren't available, read the build
       instructions in the README file and the individual manual pages of  the

       Another	reason for not being detected by scanimage -L may be a missing
       or wrong configuration in the backend's configuration file. While  SANE
       tries  to  automatically	 find  most scanners, some can't be setup cor-
       rectly without the intervention of  the	administrator.	Also  on  some
       operating systems auto-detection may not work. Check the backend's man-
       ual page for details.

       If your scanner is still not found, try setting the various environment
       variables  that	are available to assist in debugging.  The environment
       variables are documented in the relevant manual pages.  For example, to
       get  the maximum amount of debug information when testing a Mustek SCSI
       scanner, set environment variables  SANE_DEBUG_DLL,  SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK,
       and  SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI  to  128 and then invoke scanimage -L .  The
       debug messages for the dll backend tell if the mustek backend was found
       and  loaded at all. The mustek messages explain what the mustek backend
       is doing while the SCSI debugging shows the low level handling. If  you
       can't find out what's going on by checking the messages carefully, con-
       tact the sane-devel mailing list for help (see REPORTING BUGS below).

       Now that your scanner is found by scanimage -L, try to do a scan: scan-
       image  >image.pnm.   This command starts a scan for the default scanner
       with default settings. All the available options are listed by  running
       scanimage  --help.   If	scanning aborts with an error message, turn on
       debugging as mentioned above. Maybe the configuration file  needs  some
       tuning,	e.g.  to  setup	 the path to a firmware that is needed by some
       scanners. See the backend's manual page for details. If you can't  find
       out what's wrong, contact sane-devel.

       To  check  that	the SANE libraries are installed correctly you can use
       the test backend, even if you  don't  have  a  scanner  or  other  SANE

	      scanimage -d test -T

       You  should  get	 a list of PASSed tests. You can do the same with your
       backend by changing "test" to your backend's name.

       So now scanning with scanimage works and you want to  use  one  of  the
       graphical  frontends  like  xsane, xscanimage, or quiteinsane but those
       frontends don't detect  your  scanner?  One  reason  may	 be  that  you
       installed two versions of SANE.	E.g. the version that was installed by
       your distribution  in  /usr  and	 one  you  installed  from  source  in
       /usr/local/.   Make  sure  that	only one version is installed. Another
       possible reason is, that your system's dynamic loader  can't  find  the
       SANE  libraries.	 For  Linux,  make  sure that /etc/ld.so.conf contains
       /usr/local/lib and does not contain /usr/local/lib/sane.	 See also  the
       documentation of the frontends.

       We  appreciate  any help we can get. Please have a look at our web page
       about contributing to SANE: http://www.sane-project.org/contrib.html

       For reporting bugs or requesting new  features,	please	use  our  bug-
       tracking	 system:  http://www.sane-project.org/bugs.html.  You can also
       contact the author of your backend directly. Usually the email  address
       can be found in the /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.18/AUTHORS file or
       the backend's manpage. For general discussion about  SANE,  please  use
       the SANE mailing list sane-devel (see http://www.sane-project.org/mail-
       ing-lists.html for details).

       saned(8),  sane-find-scanner(1),	 scanimage(1),	sane-abaton(5),	 sane-
       agfafocus(5),   sane-apple(5),  sane-artec(5),  sane-artec_eplus48u(5),
       sane-as6e(5),   sane-avision(5),	  sane-bh(5),	sane-canon(5),	 sane-
       canon630u(5),  sane-canon_pp(5),	 sane-coolscan2(5),  sane-coolscan(5),
       sane-dc210(5), sane-dc240(5), sane-dc25(5),  sane-dll(5),  sane-dmc(5),
       sane-epson(5), sane-fujitsu(5), sane-genesys(5), sane-gphoto2(5), sane-
       gt68xx(5), sane-hp(5), sane-hpsj5s(5), sane-hp3500(5),  sane-hp4200(5),
       sane-hp5400(5),	 sane-ibm(5),	sane-leo(5),   sane-lexmark(5),	 sane-
       ma1509(5),  sane-matsushita(5),	sane-microtek2(5),   sane-microtek(5),
       sane-mustek(5),	   sane-mustek_pp(5),	  sane-mustek_usb(5),	 sane-
       mustek_usb2(5), sane-nec(5), sane-net(5),  sane-niash(5),  sane-pie(5),
       sane-pint(5),  sane-plustek(5),	sane-plustek_pp(5), sane-pnm(5), sane-
       qcam(5), sane-ricoh(5), sane-s9036(5),  sane-sceptre(5),	 sane-scsi(5),
       sane-sharp(5),  sane-sm3600(5), sane-sm3840(5), sane-snapscan(5), sane-
       sp15c(5),  sane-st400(5),   sane-stv680(5),   sane-tamarack(5),	 sane-
       teco1(5),   sane-teco2(5),  sane-teco3(5),  sane-test(5),  sane-u12(5),
       sane-umax1220u(5), sane-umax(5),	 sane-umax_pp(5),  sane-usb(5),	 sane-

       David  Mosberger-Tang and many many more (see /usr/share/doc/sane-back-
       ends-1.0.18/AUTHORS for details).  This man page was written by Henning
       Meier-Geinitz.  Quite  a	 lot of text was taken from the SANE standard,
       several man pages, and README files.

sane-backends 1.0.18		16 October 2005			       sane(7)