unzip manpage

Search topic Section

UNZIP(1L)							     UNZIP(1L)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

       unzip  [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a  ZIP  archive,  commonly
       found  on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
       extract into the current directory (and subdirectories  below  it)  all
       files  from  the	 specified ZIP archive.	 A companion program, zip(1L),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with	archives  cre-
       ated  by	 PKWARE's  PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.

	      Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If  the  file  specification	 is  a
	      wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
	      by the operating system (or file system).	 Only the filename can
	      be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
	      similar to those supported in commonly  used  Unix  shells  (sh,
	      ksh, csh) and may contain:

	      *	     matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

	      ?	     matches exactly 1 character

	      [...]  matches  any  single character found inside the brackets;
		     ranges are specified by a beginning character, a  hyphen,
		     and  an  ending  character.  If an exclamation point or a
		     caret (`!' or `^') follows the  left  bracket,  then  the
		     range  of	characters within the brackets is complemented
		     (that is,	anything  except  the  characters  inside  the
		     brackets  is  considered a match).	 To specify a verbatim
		     left bracket, the three-character sequence ``[[]'' has to
		     be used.

	      (Be  sure	 to quote any character that might otherwise be inter-
	      preted or modified by the operating system,  particularly	 under
	      Unix  and	 VMS.)	 If no matches are found, the specification is
	      assumed to be a literal filename; and if that  also  fails,  the
	      suffix  .zip  is	appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files
	      are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just  specify  the
	      .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

	      An  optional  list of archive members to be processed, separated
	      by spaces.  (VMS versions	 compiled  with	 VMSCLI	 defined  must
	      delimit  files  with  commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)
	      Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used  to  match  multiple
	      members;	see  above.   Again, be sure to quote expressions that
	      would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
	      An optional list of archive members to be excluded from process-
	      ing.   Since  wildcard characters normally match (`/') directory
	      separators (for exceptions see the option -W), this  option  may
	      be  used	to  exclude any files that are in subdirectories.  For
	      example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*'' would extract all C	source
	      files  in	 the  main  directory, but none in any subdirectories.
	      Without the -x option, all C source  files  in  all  directories
	      within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
	      An  optional  directory  to which to extract files.  By default,
	      all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current direc-
	      tory;  the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory
	      (always assuming one has permission to write to the  directory).
	      This  option  need not appear at the end of the command line; it
	      is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the nor-
	      mal  options),  immediately  after the zipfile specification, or
	      between the file(s) and the -x option.  The option and directory
	      may  be  concatenated  without any white space between them, but
	      note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.
	      In  particular,  ``-d ~''	 (tilde)  is expanded by Unix C shells
	      into the name of the  user's  home  directory,  but  ``-d~''  is
	      treated  as  a  literal subdirectory ``~'' of the current direc-

       Note that, in order to  support	obsolescent  hardware,	unzip's	 usage
       screen  is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered
       only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax  rather  than	an  exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L)  mode.   If  the first option on the command line is
	      -Z, the remaining options are taken to be	 zipinfo(1L)  options.
	      See  the	appropriate  manual  page  for	a description of these

       -A     [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the  DLL's  programming
	      interface (API).

       -c     extract  files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is simi-
	      lar to the -p option except  that	 the  name  of	each  file  is
	      printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-
	      EBCDIC conversion is  automatically  performed  if  appropriate.
	      This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen  existing	 files,	 i.e.,	extract	 only those files that
	      already exist on disk and that are newer than the	 disk  copies.
	      By  default  unzip queries before overwriting, but the -o option
	      may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many oper-
	      ating  systems,  the  TZ (timezone) environment variable must be
	      set correctly in order for -f and -u  to	work  properly	(under
	      Unix  the	 variable  is usually set automatically).  The reasons
	      for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
	      between  DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-for-
	      mat times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to  compare  the
	      two.   A	typical	 TZ value is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time with
	      automatic adjustment  for	 Daylight  Savings  Time  or  ``summer

       -l     list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
	      sizes and modification dates and times of	 the  specified	 files
	      are  printed,  along  with  totals  for all files specified.  If
	      UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS  defined,	 the  -l  option  also
	      lists  columns  for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes
	      (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).   In	addition,  the
	      zipfile  comment	and individual file comments (if any) are dis-
	      played.  If a file was archived from a single-case  file	system
	      (for  example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option
	      was given, the filename is converted to lowercase	 and  is  pre-
	      fixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract  files  to  pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is
	      sent to stdout, and the files are	 always	 extracted  in	binary
	      format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in
	      memory  and  compares  the  CRC  (cyclic	redundancy  check,  an
	      enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file's
	      stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that  of  the
	      newest  file  in each one.  This corresponds to zip's -go option
	      except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles  (e.g.,  ``unzip
	      -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update  existing	files  and  create  new	 ones if needed.  This
	      option performs the same function as the -f  option,  extracting
	      (with  query) files that are newer than those with the same name
	      on disk, and in addition it extracts those  files	 that  do  not
	      already  exist on disk.  See -f above for information on setting
	      the timezone properly.

       -v     list archive files (verbose format) or show  diagnostic  version
	      info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option
	      and a modifier.  As an option it has two purposes:  when a  zip-
	      file  is specified with no other options, -v lists archive files
	      verbosely, adding to the basic -l info the  compression  method,
	      compressed  size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In contrast
	      to most of the competing utilities, unzip removes the  12	 addi-
	      tional  header  bytes  of	 encrypted entries from the compressed
	      size numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and compression	 ratio
	      figures  are  independent	 of  the entry's encryption status and
	      show the correct compression performance.	 (The complete size of
	      the  encrypted  compressed  data	stream	for zipfile entries is
	      reported by the more verbose zipinfo(1L) reports, see the	 sepa-
	      rate  manual.)   When no zipfile is specified (that is, the com-
	      plete command is simply ``unzip -v''), a	diagnostic  screen  is
	      printed.	In addition to the normal header with release date and
	      version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp  site	and  where  to
	      find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating
	      system for which it was compiled,	 as  well  as  (possibly)  the
	      hardware	on  which  it  was  compiled, the compiler and version
	      used, and the compilation date; any special compilation  options
	      that  might  affect the program's operation (see also DECRYPTION
	      below); and any options stored  in  environment  variables  that
	      might  do	 the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).  As a modi-
	      fier it works in conjunction with other options  (e.g.,  -t)  to
	      produce  more verbose or debugging output; this is not yet fully
	      implemented but will be in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted  exactly
	      as  they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The -a option causes
	      files identified by zip as text files (those with the `t'	 label
	      in  zipinfo  listings,  rather  than  `b')  to  be automatically
	      extracted as such, converting line endings, end-of-file  charac-
	      ters  and	 the character set itself as necessary.	 (For example,
	      Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL)  and  have
	      no  end-of-file  (EOF)  marker; Macintoshes use carriage returns
	      (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs
	      and  control-Z  for  EOF.	  In  addition, IBM mainframes and the
	      Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more	common
	      ASCII  character set, and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that zip's
	      identification of text  files  is	 by  no	 means	perfect;  some
	      ``text''	files  may  actually  be binary and vice versa.	 unzip
	      therefore prints ``[text]'' or ``[binary]'' as  a	 visual	 check
	      for  each	 file  it  extracts when using the -a option.  The -aa
	      option forces all files to be extracted as text,	regardless  of
	      the supposed file type.  On VMS, see also -S.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This
	      is a shortcut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type  180	 ('C')
	      when  extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
	      enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to	 fixed-length,
	      512-byte	record	format.	  Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
	      files to be extracted in this format. When extracting  to	 stan-
	      dard  output (-c or -p option in effect), the default conversion
	      of text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp.  all
	      (-bb) files.

       -B     [when  compiled  with  UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of
	      each overwritten file. The backup file is gets the name  of  the
	      target file with a tilde and optionally a unique sequence number
	      (up to 5 digits) appended.  The sequence number is applied when-
	      ever  another  file  with	 the  original name plus tilde already
	      exists.  When used together with the "overwrite all" option  -o,
	      numbered	backup	files  are  never  created.  In this case, all
	      backup files are named as the original  file  with  an  appended
	      tilde,  existing	backup files are deleted without notice.  This
	      feature works similarly to the default behavior of  emacs(1)  in
	      many locations.

	      Example: the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to ``foo~''.

	      Warning:	Users should be aware that the -B option does not pre-
	      vent loss of existing data under all circumstances.   For	 exam-
	      ple,  when  unzip	 is  run  in  overwrite-all  mode, an existing
	      ``foo~'' file is deleted before unzip attempts to rename ``foo''
	      to  ``foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a file
	      locks, insufficient  privileges,	or  ...),  the	extraction  of
	      ``foo~''	gets  cancelled,  but  the  old backup file is already
	      lost.  A similar scenario takes place when the  sequence	number
	      range  for numbered backup files gets exhausted (99999, or 65535
	      for 16-bit systems).  In this case, the  backup  file  with  the
	      maximum  sequence	 number	 is  deleted  and  replaced by the new
	      backup version without notice.

       -C     use case-insensitive  matching  for  the	selection  of  archive
	      entries  from  the  command-line	list of extract selection pat-
	      terns.  unzip's philosophy is ``you get what you ask for'' (this
	      is  also	responsible  for  the  -L/-U  change; see the relevant
	      options below).  Because some file systems are fully case-sensi-
	      tive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and because
	      both ZIP archives and unzip itself  are  portable	 across	 plat-
	      forms,  unzip's  default	behavior is to match both wildcard and
	      literal filenames case-sensitively.  That is, specifying ``make-
	      file''  on  the command line will only match ``makefile'' in the
	      archive, not ``Makefile'' or  ``MAKEFILE''  (and	similarly  for
	      wildcard specifications).	 Since this does not correspond to the
	      behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2
	      HPFS,  which  preserves  mixed case but is not sensitive to it),
	      the -C option may be used to force all filename  matches	to  be
	      case-insensitive.	  In  the example above, all three files would
	      then match ``makefile'' (or  ``make*'',  or  similar).   The  -C
	      option  affects  file specs in both the normal file list and the
	      excluded-file list (xlist).

	      Please note that the -C option does neither  affect  the	search
	      for the zipfile(s) nor the matching of archive entries to exist-
	      ing files on the extraction path.	 On a case-sensitive file sys-
	      tem,  unzip  will	 never	try  to	 overwrite a file ``FOO'' when
	      extracting an entry ``foo''!

       -D     skip restoration of timestamps for extracted  items.   Normally,
	      unzip  tries to restore all meta-information for extracted items
	      that are supplied in the Zip archive (and do not require	privi-
	      leges  or	 impose	 a security risk).  By specifying -D, unzip is
	      told to  suppress	 restoration  of  timestamps  for  directories
	      explicitly  created  from Zip archive entries.  This option only
	      applies to ports that support setting timestamps for directories
	      (currently  ATheOS,  BeOS,  MacOS,  OS/2,	 Unix, VMS, Win32, for
	      other unzip ports, -D has no effect).  The duplicated option -DD
	      forces  suppression  of  timestamp restoration for all extracted
	      entries (files and directories).	This option results in setting
	      the timestamps for all extracted entries to the current time.

	      On  VMS,	the  default setting for this option is -D for consis-
	      tency  with  the	behaviour  of  BACKUP:	file  timestamps   are
	      restored,	 timestamps  of	 extracted directories are left at the
	      current time.  To enable restoration  of	directory  timestamps,
	      the  negated option --D should be specified.  On VMS, the option
	      -D disables timestamp restoration for all extracted Zip  archive
	      items.  (Here, a single -D on the command line combines with the
	      default -D to do what an explicit -DD does on other systems.)

       -E     [MacOS only]  display  contents  of  MacOS  extra	 field	during
	      restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn  only]  suppress  removal	of NFS filetype extension from
	      stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded  com-
	      mas,  and	 only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] trans-
	      late filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field	blocks
	      into  a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the
	      extracted files.	(When the stored filename appears  to  already
	      have  an	appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced by the
	      info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames  stored  in	 MacOS	extra  fields.
	      Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part
	      of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is not recreated;
	      all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
	      the current one).

       -J     [BeOS  only]  junk  file	attributes.   The  file's  BeOS	  file
	      attributes are not restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS  only] ignore MacOS extra fields.	All Macintosh specific
	      info is skipped. Data-fork and  resource-fork  are  restored  as
	      separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS,	 BeOS,	 Unix	only]	retain	 SUID/SGID/Tacky  file
	      attributes.  Without this flag, these attribute bits are cleared
	      for security reasons.

       -L     convert  to  lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
	      only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
	      behavior	in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
	      identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which  is  now
	      obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on
	      the archiver, files  archived  under  single-case	 file  systems
	      (VMS,  old  MS-DOS  FAT,	etc.)  may  be stored as all-uppercase
	      names; this can be ugly or inconvenient  when  extracting	 to  a
	      case-preserving  file  system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensi-
	      tive one such  as	 under	Unix.	By  default  unzip  lists  and
	      extracts	such  filenames	 exactly  as they're stored (excepting
	      truncation, conversion of unsupported  characters,  etc.);  this
	      option  causes the names of all files from certain systems to be
	      converted to lowercase.  The -LL	option	forces	conversion  of
	      every  filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating file

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager similar	 to  the  Unix
	      more(1)  command.	  At  the  end of a screenful of output, unzip
	      pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt; the  next  screenful  may  be
	      viewed  by  pressing  the	 Enter	(Return) key or the space bar.
	      unzip can be terminated by pressing the ``q'' key and,  on  some
	      systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
	      forward-searching or editing capability.	 Also,	unzip  doesn't
	      notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
	      resulting in the printing of two or more lines and  the  likeli-
	      hood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before
	      being viewed.  On some systems the number of available lines  on
	      the  screen  is  not  detected,  in which case unzip assumes the
	      height is 24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists,  skip
	      the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
	      queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
	      may  choose  to  overwrite  only the current file, overwrite all
	      files, skip extraction of the current file, skip	extraction  of
	      all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.	 File comments
	      are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or with the -N option
	      of  the  Amiga  port  of zip(1L), which stores filenotes as com-

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
	      option,  so  use	it with care.  (It is often used with -f, how-
	      ever, and is the only  way  to  overwrite	 directory  EAs	 under

       -P password
	      use  password  to	 decrypt  encrypted  zipfile entries (if any).
	      THIS IS INSECURE!	 Many  multi-user  operating  systems  provide
	      ways  for	 any user to see the current command line of any other
	      user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat  of
	      over-the-shoulder	 peeking.   Storing  the plaintext password as
	      part of a command line in an automated  script  is  even	worse.
	      Whenever	possible,  use	the non-echoing, interactive prompt to
	      enter passwords.	(And where security is	truly  important,  use
	      strong  encryption  such	as  Pretty Good Privacy instead of the
	      relatively weak encryption provided by standard  zipfile	utili-

       -q     perform  operations  quietly  (-qq  = even quieter).  Ordinarily
	      unzip prints the names of the files it's extracting or  testing,
	      the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
	      stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
	      each  archive.   The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some
	      or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames  to  underscores.
	      Since  all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip
	      by  default  extracts  filenames	with  spaces   intact	(e.g.,
	      ``EA DATA. SF'').	 This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
	      particular does not  gracefully  support	spaces	in  filenames.
	      Conversion  of  spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkward-
	      ness in some cases.

       -S     [VMS] convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF record format,
	      instead of the text-file default, variable-length record format.
	      (Stream_LF is the default record format  of  VMS	unzip.	It  is
	      applied  unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or -b, -bb) is requested
	      or a VMS-specific entry is processed.)

       -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT only] modify or disable UTF-8  handling.	  When
	      UNICODE_SUPPORT  is  available,  the  option  -U forces unzip to
	      escape all non-ASCII characters from UTF-8  coded	 filenames  as
	      ``#Uxxxx''  (for	UCS-2  characters, or ``#Lxxxxxx'' for unicode
	      codepoints needing 3 octets).  This option  is  mainly  provided
	      for  debugging purpose when the fairly new UTF-8 support is sus-
	      pected to mangle up extracted filenames.

	      The option -UU allows to entirely	 disable  the  recognition  of
	      UTF-8  encoded  filenames.   The	handling  of  filename codings
	      within unzip falls back to the behaviour of previous versions.

	      [old, obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under
	      MS-DOS, VMS, etc.	 See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
	      a version number, in the format  file.ext;##.   By  default  the
	      ``;##''  version	numbers	 are  stripped, but this option allows
	      them to be retained.  (On file systems that limit	 filenames  to
	      particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
	      or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only when WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option  enabled]	 modi-
	      fies  the pattern matching routine so that both `?' (single-char
	      wildcard) and `*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the	direc-
	      tory  separator  character  `/'.	 (The  two-character  sequence
	      ``**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory
	      separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

	   "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
	   "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
	   "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
	   "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
		   but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

	      This  modified  behaviour	 is equivalent to the pattern matching
	      style used by the shells of some of UnZip's supported target OSs
	      (one  example  is Acorn RISC OS).	 This option may not be avail-
	      able on systems where the Zip archive's internal directory sepa-
	      rator  character	`/'  is allowed as regular character in native
	      operating system filenames.  (Currently,	UnZip  uses  the  same
	      pattern  matching rules for both wildcard zipfile specifications
	      and zip entry selection patterns in  most	 ports.	  For  systems
	      allowing	`/' as regular filename character, the -W option would
	      not work as expected on a wildcard zipfile specification.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2,	 NT,  Tandem]  restore	owner/protection  info
	      (UICs  and  ACL  entries)	 under	VMS,  or  user	and group info
	      (UID/GID) under Unix, or access control lists (ACLs) under  cer-
	      tain  network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN
	      Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM Peer 1.0), or
	      security ACLs under Windows NT.  In most cases this will require
	      special system privileges, and doubling the option  (-XX)	 under
	      NT  instructs  unzip to use privileges for extraction; but under
	      Unix, for example, a user who  belongs  to  several  groups  can
	      restore  files owned by any of those groups, as long as the user
	      IDs match his or her own.	 Note that  ordinary  file  attributes
	      are always restored--this option applies only to optional, extra
	      ownership info  available	 on  some  operating  systems.	 [NT's
	      access  control  lists do not appear to be especially compatible
	      with OS/2's, so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability
	      of  access  privileges.	It  is not clear under what conditions
	      this would ever be useful anyway.]

       -Y     [VMS] treat  archived  file  name	 endings  of  ``.nnn''	(where
	      ``nnn''  is  a decimal  number) as if they were VMS version num-
	      bers (``;nnn'').	(The default is to treat them as file  types.)
		   "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

       -$     [MS-DOS,	OS/2,  NT]  restore the volume label if the extraction
	      medium is removable (e.g., a  diskette).	 Doubling  the	option
	      (-$$)  allows  fixed  media (hard disks) to be labelled as well.
	      By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
	      [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by  Unzip$Ext
	      environment  variable.  During  extraction,  filename extensions
	      that match one of the items in this extension list  are  swapped
	      in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all  but	 Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive
	      members into locations outside of the current `` extraction root
	      folder''.	 For security reasons, unzip normally removes ``parent
	      dir'' path components (``../'')  from  the  names	 of  extracted
	      file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip
	      from accidentally writing files to ``sensitive''	areas  outside
	      the  active  extraction  folder  tree  head.  The -: option lets
	      unzip switch back to its previous, more  liberal	behaviour,  to
	      allow  exact  extraction	of  (older) archives that used ``../''
	      components to create multiple directory trees at	the  level  of
	      the  current  extraction	folder.	  This	option does not enable
	      writing explicitly to the root directory	(``/'').   To  achieve
	      this,  it	 is  necessary	to set the extraction target folder to
	      root (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it
	      is  still	 possible to implicitly write to the root directory by
	      specifying enough ``../'' path components	 within	 the  zip  ar-
	      chive.  Use this option with extreme caution.

       -^     [Unix  only]  allow control characters in names of extracted ZIP
	      archive entries.	On Unix, a file name may contain  any  (8-bit)
	      character	 code with the two exception '/' (directory delimiter)
	      and NUL (0x00, the C string termination indicator),  unless  the
	      specific	file  system has more restrictive conventions.	Gener-
	      ally, this allows to embed ASCII	control	 characters  (or  even
	      sophisticated  control  sequences)  in  file  names, at least on
	      'native' Unix file systems.  However, it may  be	highly	suspi-
	      cious  to	 make  use  of	this Unix "feature".  Embedded control
	      characters in file names might have nasty side effects when dis-
	      played on screen by some listing code without sufficient filter-
	      ing.  And, for ordinary users, it may  be	 difficult  to	handle
	      such  file names (e.g. when trying to specify it for open, copy,
	      move, or delete operations).  Therefore, unzip applies a	filter
	      by default that removes potentially dangerous control characters
	      from the extracted file names. The -^ option allows to  override
	      this  filter  in	the  rare  case that embedded filename control
	      characters are to be intentionally restored.

       -2     [VMS]  force  unconditionally  conversion	 of  file   names   to
	      ODS2-compatible  names.	The default is to exploit the destina-
	      tion file system, preserving case and extended file name charac-
	      ters  on	an  ODS5  destination  file  system;  and applying the
	      ODS2-compatibility file name filtering on	 an  ODS2  destination
	      file system.

       unzip's default behavior may be modified via options placed in an envi-
       ronment variable.  This can be done with any option, but it is probably
       most  useful  with the -a, -L, -C, -q, -o, or -n modifiers:  make unzip
       auto-convert text files by default,  make  it  convert  filenames  from
       uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names case-insensitively,
       make it quieter, or make it always overwrite or never  overwrite	 files
       as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act as quietly as pos-
       sible, only reporting errors, one would use one of the  following  com-

	 Unix Bourne shell:
	      UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

	 Unix C shell:
	      setenv UNZIP -qq

	 OS/2 or MS-DOS:
	      set UNZIP=-qq

	 VMS (quotes for lowercase):
	      define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"

       Environment  options  are,  in  effect,	considered to be just like any
       other command-line options, except that they are effectively the	 first
       options	on  the	 command line.	To override an environment option, one
       may use the ``minus operator'' to remove it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

       unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The  first  hyphen  is the normal switch character, and the second is a
       minus sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to	cancel
       one  quantum  of	 quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags, two (or more)
       minuses may be used:

       unzip -t--q zipfile
       unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing,  but  it
       is  reasonably  intuitive:   just  ignore  the first hyphen and go from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As suggested by the examples above,  the	 default  variable  names  are
       UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
       UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT  are
       defined,	 however,  UNZIP  takes precedence.  unzip's diagnostic option
       (-v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of  all  four
       possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The  timezone  variable (TZ) should be set according to the local time-
       zone in order for the -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the descrip-
       tion  of	 -f above for details.	This variable may also be necessary to
       get timestamps of extracted files  to  be  set  correctly.   The	 WIN32
       (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3)	 port of unzip gets the timezone configuration
       from the registry, assuming it is correctly set in the  Control	Panel.
       The TZ variable is ignored for this port.

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be dis-
       abled  in  your compiled binary.	 However, since spring 2000, US export
       restrictions have been  liberated,  and	our  source  archives  do  now
       include	full  crypt  code.  In case you need binary distributions with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version for crypt  support,  either  attempt  to	 test  or  extract  an
       encrypted  archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see the -v
       option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of  the  special  compilation

       As  noted  above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the
       command line, but at a cost  in	security.   The	 preferred  decryption
       method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip will prompt for the  password  without  echoing  what  is	typed.
       unzip  continues	 to  use the same password as long as it appears to be
       valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.	 The correct  password
       will  always  check  out	 against  the  header, but there is a 1-in-256
       chance that an incorrect password will as well.	(This  is  a  security
       feature	of  the	 PKWARE	 zipfile  format; it helps prevent brute-force
       attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed	advantage  by  testing
       only  the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is given but
       it passes the header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC will be  gen-
       erated  for  the	 extracted  data  or  else  unzip will fail during the
       extraction because the ``decrypted'' bytes do not  constitute  a	 valid
       compressed data stream.

       If  the	first password fails the header check on some file, unzip will
       prompt for another password, and so on until all files  are  extracted.
       If  a  password is not known, entering a null password (that is, just a
       carriage return or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all  further
       prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.  (In fact, that's not quite true; older versions of  zip(1L)
       and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each encrypted
       file to see if the null password works.	This  may  result  in  ``false
       positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives	 encrypted  with  8-bit passwords (for example, passwords with
       accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or
       other  archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding
       methods for such characters, including Latin-1  (ISO  8859-1)  and  OEM
       code  page  850.	 DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but ISO coding
       (Latin-1 etc.) everywhere else; and Nico	 Mak's	WinZip	6.x  does  not
       allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to use the
       default character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the  alternate
       one  (e.g.,  OEM	 code  page) to test passwords.	 On EBCDIC systems, if
       both of these fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as  a	 last  resort.
       (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known
       archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings
       other  than Latin-1 are not supported.  The new addition of (partially)
       Unicode (resp.  UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to
       the  encryption	password handling in unzip.  On systems that use UTF-8
       as native character encoding, unzip simply tries	 decryption  with  the
       native UTF-8 encoded password; the built-in attempts to check the pass-
       word in translated encoding have not yet been adapted for UTF-8 support
       and will consequently fail.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters.zip into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirecto-
       ries as necessary:

       unzip letters

       To extract all members of letters.zip into the current directory only:

       unzip -j letters

       To test letters.zip, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

       unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only  the  sum-

       unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The  backslash	before	the  asterisk  is  only	 required if the shell
       expands wildcards, as in Unix;  double  quotes  could  have  been  used
       instead, as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard out-
       put all members of letters.zip whose names end in .tex, auto-converting
       to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1):

       unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to
       a printing program:

       unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--*.f,	*.c,  *.h,  and	 Make-
       file--into the /tmp directory:

       unzip source.zip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the  double  quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is
       turned on).  To extract all FORTRAN and C source files,	regardless  of
       case  (e.g.,  both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or

       unzip -C source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to  lowercase  and  convert the line-endings of all of the files to the
       local standard (without respect to  any	files  that  might  be	marked

       unzip -aaCL source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To  extract  only  newer	 versions  of the files already in the current
       directory, without querying (NOTE:  be  careful	of  unzipping  in  one
       timezone	 a  zipfile  created in another--ZIP archives other than those
       created by Zip 2.1 or later contain  no	timezone  information,	and  a
       ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

       unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory
       and to create any files not already  there  (same  caveat  as  previous

       unzip -uo sources

       To  display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options
       are stored in environment variables,  whether  decryption  support  was
       compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

       unzip -v

       In  the	last  five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

       unzip -l file.zip

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

       unzip -ql file.zip

       (Note that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a  standard

       unzip --ql file.zip
       unzip -l-q file.zip
       unzip -l--q file.zip
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The  current  maintainer,  being	 a  lazy sort, finds it very useful to
       define a pair of aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z''
       (or  ``zipinfo'').   One may then simply type ``tt zipfile'' to test an
       archive, something that is worth making a habit of  doing.   With  luck
       unzip  will  report  ``No  errors  detected  in compressed data of zip-
       file.zip,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment	 vari-
       able  to	 ``-aL''  and  is  tempted to add ``-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO
       variable is set to ``-z''.

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

	      0	     normal; no errors or warnings detected.

	      1	     one or more warning errors were encountered, but process-
		     ing completed successfully anyway.	  This	includes  zip-
		     files  where  one or more files was skipped due to unsup-
		     ported compression method or encryption with  an  unknown

	      2	     a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
		     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

	      3	     a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.	  Pro-
		     cessing probably failed immediately.

	      4	     unzip  was unable to allocate memory for one or more buf-
		     fers during program initialization.

	      5	     unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
		     tty to read the decryption password(s).

	      6	     unzip  was unable to allocate memory during decompression
		     to disk.

	      7	     unzip was unable  to  allocate  memory  during  in-memory

	      8	     [currently not used]

	      9	     the specified zipfiles were not found.

	      10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

	      11     no matching files were found.

	      50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

	      51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

	      80     the  user	aborted	 unzip	prematurely with control-C (or

	      81     testing or extraction of one or more files failed due  to
		     unsupported  compression  methods	or unsupported decryp-

	      82     no files were found due to	 bad  decryption  password(s).
		     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
		     exit status is 1.)

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
       looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The current mapping is as  follows:    1	 (success)  for	 normal	 exit,
       0x7fff0001    for   warning   errors,   and   (0x7fff000?   +   16*nor-
       mal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the `?' is 2 (error)
       for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the remain-
       ing ones (3-8, 50, 51).	In addition, there is a compilation option  to
       expand  upon  this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-
       readable explanation of what the error status means.

       Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in  conjunction  with
       zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then ``zip
       -F'' (for zip 2.x) or ``zip -FF'' (for zip 3.x) must  be	 performed  on
       the  concatenated  archive  in  order to ``fix'' it.  Also, zip 3.0 and
       later can combine multi-part (split) archives into a  combined  single-
       file  archive using ``zip -s- inarchive -O outarchive''.	 See the zip 3
       manual page for more information.)  This will definitely	 be  corrected
       in the next major release.

       Archives	 read  from  standard input are not yet supported, except with
       funzip  (and  then  only	 the  first  member  of	 the  archive  can  be

       Archives	 encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with accented
       European characters) may not be portable across	systems	 and/or	 other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrap-
       ping of long lines. However, the code may fail to  detect  the  correct
       wrapping	  locations.   First,  TAB  characters	(and  similar  control
       sequences) are not taken into account, they  are	 handled  as  ordinary
       printable  characters.	Second,	 depending  on	the actual system / OS
       port, unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely  on
       "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would
       require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
       the output console.

       Dates,  times  and  permissions	of stored directories are not restored
       except under Unix. (On Windows NT and successors,  timestamps  are  now

       [MS-DOS]	 When  extracting or testing files from an archive on a defec-
       tive floppy diskette, if the  ``Fail''  option  is  chosen  from	 DOS's
       ``Abort,	 Retry,	 Fail?'' message, older versions of unzip may hang the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but con-
       trol-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug  (cache  memory)  or	 an operating system bug (improper handling of
       page faults?).  Since Ultrix has been abandoned	in  favor  of  Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix]  Unix  special  files  such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block
       devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented  in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.	 Basi-
       cally the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directo-
       ries and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the -o (``overwrite all'') option is given.  This is  a	limitation  of
       the  operating  system;	because	 directories only have a creation time
       associated with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the	stored
       attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
       mean a two-pass approach is required:  first unpack  the	 archive  nor-
       mally  (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then over-
       write just the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo]  syntax  is
       accepted	 for  the  -d  option;	the simple Unix foo syntax is silently
       ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query  only
       allows  skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally be
       a choice for creating a new version of the file.	 In fact, the  ``over-
       write''	choice does create a new version; the old version is not over-
       written or deleted.

       funzip(1L),  zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),	  zip-
       note(1L), zipsplit(1L)

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
       ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ .

       The  primary  Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-
       Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code,
       Zip64,  Win32,  Unix,  Unicode);	 Christian  Spieler (UnZip maintenance
       coordination, VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general  Zip  and	 UnZip
       integration  and	 optimization);	 Onno van der Linden (Zip); Mike White
       (Win32, Windows GUI, Windows  DLLs);  Kai  Uwe  Rommel  (OS/2,  Win32);
       Steven  M.  Schweda  (VMS, Unix, support of new features); Paul Kienitz
       (Amiga, Win32, Unicode); Chris Herborth (BeOS,  QNX,  Atari);  Jonathan
       Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari,
       MVS); John Bush (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley	 (VMS,	Info-ZIP  Site
       maintenance);  Steve  Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI),
       Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The following people were former members of  the	 Info-ZIP  development
       group  and  provided  major  contributions  to key parts of the current
       code: Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression); Jean-
       loup  Gailly  (deflate compression); Mark Adler (inflate decompression,

       The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's  was	 based
       is  Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David P.
       Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in	 its  early  days  with	 Keith
       Petersen	 hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full
       list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large;  please  refer  to
       the  CONTRIBS  file  in	the UnZip source distribution for a relatively
       complete version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89	  Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989	  many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90	  Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90	  Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91	  Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v6.0   20 Apr 09	  Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP		     20 April 2009 (v6.0)		     UNZIP(1L)